The Gubastov-Von Yagov Pact is not as well known as Molotov-Ribbentrop, but without the first there wouldn’t be a second.
Is in stories moments, the analogy between which suggests. Two secret protocols between Russia and Germany, signed at different times, essentially designated the spheres of influence of these powers in Eastern Europe, although the first, so-called Petersburg, seemed to be limited to the Baltic Sea. And another thing that unites both documents - they appeared on the eve of world wars.
The Petersburg Protocol, sometimes called the secret, 29 of October 1907, signed by Deputy Foreign Minister Konstantin Arkadyevich Gubastov and Gottlib von Yagov, who headed Germany’s Foreign Ministry in 1916, is now forgotten. To understand its meaning, we turn to that time. The international political conjuncture is determined by the confrontation of two alliances: on the one hand, the Entente, on the other, Germany with Austria-Hungary. In 1907, the world is divided between two blocks. However, until the beginning of the First World War, some coalition members will attempt to change the alignment. They are looking for a rapprochement with Russia, which would be an ally in the coming war, or at least neutral.
In the same 1907, 31 of August, Russia signed an agreement with England on the division of spheres of influence in Asia. In the Far East, the status quo is fixed with Japan. Germany’s attempts to embroil Russia with France do not bear fruit. And yet, despite the deterioration of relations, Berlin leaves no intention to draw Petersburg into the orbit of its policy.
In Russia and then there were sensible people who understood that the British are not going to fight on someone’s side. Formally, they are with us in the union. But their main goal is to start a war in which Germany and Russia must destroy each other. Alas, Nicholas II, fascinated by the British, did not listen to this opinion. But if Russia came out on the side of Germany or at least stay neutral, world history would have gone a different way ...
Under the Petersburg Protocol, the parties agreed to maintain the status quo on the Baltic Sea and mutually guarantee the inviolability of their possessions in this region. The document addressed the issue of the demilitarization of the Aland Islands and the neutrality of Sweden and Denmark, their territorial integrity. Yes, these are just some of the problems of the region that are not the most important for their time. “The Baltic Protocol was the most tangible result of all attempts of the Russian-German rapprochement after the end of the Russian-Japanese war (and up to 1910). The fruit is meager because the practical significance of the protocol turned out to be small, ”says“ History of Diplomacy ”(volume 2, p. 618). As for Russia, one can agree with the conclusion: it apparently did not have a desire to go into this question. But for Germany, the protocol was important at least in that it provided a calm preparation for war in order to expand the living space for the German nation.
Analyzing past treaties and agreements, you come to the conclusion that Russian diplomacy never deeply delved into the essence of such documents and often did not bring the matter to its logical end. What is our trouble.