Military Review

"They worshiped the bull!" The most developed Mediterranean civilization of the Bronze Age (part five)

65
We have been considering the ancient Cretan civilization for quite a long time, and we only have to skim (and it’s impossible to do it in detail, it is necessary to translate this monograph by Arthur Evans!) From the point of view of everyday life. That is, what they ate, how they slept, what they wore, what social position they held. And with this we will begin ...


"They worshiped the bull!" The most developed Mediterranean civilization of the Bronze Age (part five)

As is known, the Cretans preferred to fight not on land, but on the sea. Nevertheless, frescoes have survived, depicting Cretan warriors very accurately. And according to their weapons, it is clear that they fought with the phalanx formation. Otherwise, why did they need long spears and such rectangular shields? But they also knew the eight-shaped shields, the drawings of which were found even in the Palace of Knossos. Characteristic weapons Minoans were also double-sided laborers axes. Figure J. Rava.


Tombstones of Cretan Warriors of the Achaean Conquest Period.

For example, the total amount of archaeological evidence suggests that women in ancient Crete occupied a very important, if not dominant position, primarily in the practical religion of the Minoans. Their main goddess was Potnia ("lady" or "mistress"). It is possible that she was only the female form of the male god Potidas or Potidan, after whose name the god Poseidon was later named (the Greek god closely associated with Crete in later times). The female form of Poseidon is also found in the name Posidaia. Another goddess was apparently named Diktinna ("Sweet Maiden").


They are found on Crete and such helmets and cuirass boots with an embryo. On the left are figures of horsemen. But this equipment is typical already for a relatively late stories Crete. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)


A beautiful helmet, isn't it?

Largely based on what may be considered cult shrines and shrines, it was found that there were other goddesses - the goddess of caves, the goddess of trees, the goddess of pigeons, the goddess of serpents, but it remains unclear whether the Minoans worshiped them as individual, specialized deities or These were the hypostasis of one Great Goddess.


As soon as the piercing "rapiers" replaced the chopping swords, so the ancient Minoan culture faded. The squads of professionals replaced the army of peasants, who were easier to chop than to prick. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)


Umbon Shield. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

The predominance of goddesses (or Great Goddesses) is confirmed by the dominant role of the priestesses in religious ceremonies and the presence of women in ritual contexts. Women are far superior in their number of male priests and male servants, for example, in paintings on four sides of the sarcophagus of Agia Triadha.


Since women played a very important role in Minoan society, a lot of women's jewelry is found on the island. Pin. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

Moreover, men are rarely found depicted in command positions, despite attempts to identify them on such frescoes. Even the male figure in Knossos, which Evans called the “king-priest”, is now considered to be composed of fragments of several different figures, that is, it is a reconstruction. The only thing that seems relatively proven is that one or more of the figures, of which he “molded” her, were men.

Images of women are more common than images of men in Minoan archaeological sites, both in Crete and in later excavations on the island of Thera (Santorini). Everywhere women on the frescoes are depicted either as separate figures or shown in groups.


Golden plaques. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

One of the most vivid images of the status of women in Minoan society is the famous "Toreador Fresco", in which young women, shown with white skin and dark-skinned men, engage in a dangerous sport, simply saying somersaults on the back of a bull.


Golden heads of bulls. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

Although it is difficult to understand exactly what these figures do: the context and their proximity to the bull clearly signify a game or ritual that demonstrates courage, dexterity and skill - qualities that in any other modern Eastern Mediterranean culture would be considered as being exclusively in the sphere of prerogatives of men. The fact that they are displayed on the frescoes by young women also indicates that on the ancient island of Crete women occupied a significant place in society.


Curled cats. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

As for farming, the Minoans raised sheep (which the Cretans are now doing, by the way!), Pigs, goats, sowing wheat, barley, peas and chickpeas. They cultivated such crops as grapes, figs, olives and poppy seeds (for the sake of seeds for baking, perhaps, but perhaps for the sake of opium production, who knows?). The Minoans managed to domesticate the bees, while today's Cretans successfully continue the ancient tradition of honey harvest and do not add sugar to honey! But lettuce, celery, asparagus and carrots still remained wild crops. Pear, quince and olive trees on the island also grew, and their fruits were very popular. The Minoans brought a date palm from Egypt and ... cats (most likely for hunting). That is why today Abyssinian cats are common in Crete. They are tall, with long legs, narrow-faced and with large ears. Very unusual color - longitudinal and not transverse, as we have stripes that resemble the pattern on the moire ribbon. They also took pomegranates from the Middle East, not lemons and oranges, as is often believed.


Rings. Some smooth. Others are richly decorated in the technique of grain and filigree. That is, the Minoans have already owned this technique. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

The Minoans very skillfully used the practice of simultaneously growing several crops at once. Theoretically, this method of agronomy allowed the soil fertility to be preserved and to protect any crop from low yields. The decoded linear letter B speaks directly to the importance for the Minoans of orchards (i.e., the cultivation of figs, olives and grapes), the products of which were processed.

Peasants used for plowing wooden plows connected by leather straps with wooden arms, which were harnessed to pairs of donkeys or oxen.


A jug with an octopus. This is not Crete, but Cyprus. But culture is one. Left anchor stones. (Larnaca Archaeological Museum)

Marine resources for the Cretans also had a certain value. So, among the seafood eaten mollusks and, of course, fish were eaten. But scientists believe that these natural resources, compared with grains, olives and animal products, were still not so popular. They varied the Cretan table, but no more. However, as now. That is, the sea was near, but the Cretans preferred to eat the gifts of land, not water. This is indicated by the construction of agricultural terraces and dams on the island of Psira in the Late Caribbean era. Labor they demanded a lot, but they were built. So - they saw in them a benefit to society.

Cretan table also included game. Cretans hunted wild deer and wild boar and ate their meat along with domestic cattle meat. They also made helmets from boar tusks. But today there is no such game in Crete.


The head of some beast. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

Minoans also traded saffron, as evidenced by the insignificant remains of a well-known fresco depicting saffron collectors on the island of Santorini. Alas, archaeologists are lucky to find much more durable objects of antiquity: these are characteristic ceramics, copper, tin, and impressive findings of gold and silver jewelry that are impressive with their luxury. But from the reserves of the ancient saffron, however large they were, absolutely nothing was left.


Fish tank. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

Products of the Minoan production diverged through established trade relations with mainland Greece, as well as with Cyprus, Syria, Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and lands to the west as far as the coast of Spain.

Since Crete is warm all year round, the clothing of the Minoan men (even warriors!) Had loincloths and short skirts. Women - dresses, with short sleeves and layered skirts with ruffles. Dresses of this type, like those of the Cretans, have never been found anywhere else. They were open to the navel, and left their breasts naked. Women also wore a strapless bodice. In the patterns on clothes, the emphasis was on symmetrical geometric patterns. Given the fragility of such an organic material as cloth, it can be assumed that there were other forms of women's dresses, but this still has no archaeological evidence.


Altar stone for the house. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

The first palaces in Crete appeared at the end of the Early Minoan period in the third millennium BC (Malia). Although it was previously believed that the construction of the first palaces took place at the same time and they all dated to the Middle Minoan period - that is, around 2000 BC (the date of the construction of the first such palace in Knossos), it is now generally accepted that they were built over a much longer period and in different places at different times. The main palaces are located in Knossos, Malia and Fest. Some elements of their architecture characteristic of the Middle Minor period (Knossos, Festus, and Mallia, for example) also occurred in the structures of the early Renaissance time. These include the multi-level western courtyard and the special decoration of the western facades. We see an example in the “House on the Hill” in Vasiliki.

The palaces simultaneously performed several functions at once: they served as administrative centers, served as temples, workshops and even warehouses in which stocks of olive oil and grain were stored.


Ceramic chests. Original, isn't it? (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

The architecture of the palace was characterized by such architectural features as: laying with white stone, columns extending upwards, open courtyards, “light wells” instead of windows, stairs and the presence of various reservoirs. The Minoans had running water and sewage systems in the palaces, as well as using bathrooms and swimming pools, that is, their physical cleanliness and waste disposal were at their best.

The later palaces were multi-storey buildings. For some reason, the western facades were built from white sandstone and the Palace of Knossos presents a vivid example. The palace architecture of the first palace period is defined by the square-squared style, while the structures of the second palace period are characterized by a much larger number of different interior spaces and many corridors.


Stunning jug size, right? And imagine that it is all filled with olive oil! Height of the girl standing next to the scale - 176, see. (Larnaca Archeological Museum, Cyprus)

Experts note that the overall architectural appearance of the palaces of the Middle Minor’s period depended very heavily on the surrounding area. In fact, the Minoans inscribed their buildings in the relief. Thus, the buildings of the Festus of this time were built in accordance with the relief of Mount Ida, and Knossa - of Mount Yukta.


Cretan civilization also gave us boxing. Young "boxers", Acroliti, 1600 - 1500 BC er (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)

Among the most significant contributions of the Minoans to the art of construction were a unique type of column, which at the top was wider than at the bottom. They are called “inverted” because most of the Greek columns are just wider below, which was done to create the illusion of their greater height. The columns were wooden, and, as a rule, were painted in red. But there were also black columns. They were placed on a round stone base and crowned with a round, “cushion-shaped” detail as a capital.

On Crete, also found a lot of buildings, called "villas". In fact, these were many times smaller copies of large palaces. These villas were often richly decorated (as evidenced by the frescoes of the villa in Agia Triad).


I had an interest in the Cretan ships for a very long time. Here is a page from the book For those who like to make crafts, published by Enlightenment, 1990, on which projections of a Minoan ship reconstructed from the frescoes found on the island are given.

There are several versions of the death of the Minoan civilization. So, between 1935 and 1939 for years, the Greek archaeologist Spiridon Marinatos hypothesized a Minoan eruption. This eruption that occurred on the island of Tire (or Santorini) was one of the largest among similar cataclysms in the history of Earth civilizations. There was an emission of about 60 km³ of volcanic activity products. Under the pumice layer were whole islands. Therefore, the eruption is believed to have seriously affected the Minoan culture of Crete, although the extent of this disaster is still arguing. A careful examination of the territory gave reason to believe that no more than 5 mm (0,20 inches) of ash fell throughout Crete. That is, it seems a little. But the tsunami caused by the eruption of Tire, destroyed a large number of Minoan settlements on the north coast of the island. Nevertheless, the Minoans civilization, although it suffered a heavy blow, but did not die. In the Late Caribbean period, the wealth of the burials did not decrease, although the influence of Knossos on the island declined.

But then came the Mycenaean conquest. Mycenaeans were a military civilization. In the burials found in Crete, Mycenaean armor and weapons were found, which shows the influence of the Mycenaean military culture after the eruption.

Some authors hold the view that the Minoan civilization exceeded the threshold of the assimilative potential of the environment. Deforestation for firewood for ceramic and metallurgical furnaces led to a shortage of water, and then also volcanic ash. The result was famine, mass death of the population and the invasion of militant newcomers from the mainland.
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 30 October 2017 07: 15 New
    22
    Continuation of the richly illustrated series of articles
    It is gratifying that the author is considering new items introduced by civilization into the treasury of culture, including household
    As always - clear and interesting
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 30 October 2017 07: 59 New
    11
    One of the most vivid images of the status of women in Minoan society is the famous "Toreador Fresco", in which young women, shown with white skin and dark-skinned men, engage in a dangerous sport, simply saying somersaults on the back of a bull.

    Thanks for the series of articles about Crete, it is very interesting and informative.
    Here is a quote from the author of Marie Renault's book, Theseus. "FROM THE AUTHOR
    I will give here a brief myth of Theseus in the form in which it came to the Greeks of the classical period. But first it seems to me appropriate to explain how this book came about.
    Recent discoveries in Greece and Crete suggest that the legendary hero Theseus is not a fairy-tale character, but the real king of Athens, a dynamic leader who can be compared with Alexander the Great by his influence on the forgotten history of those times.
    By the classical period, the legend of Theseus had already grown in such incredible detail that many took it simply for a fairy tale, and others - after Fraser - for a religious myth. Researchers who drew attention to the remarkable stability of Greek traditions did not share this opinion. And when Sir Arthur Evans discovered the Knossos Palace with its labyrinth complexity, with its sacred axes giving the palace its name, with numerous images of young men and women performing the Bull Dance, with seals on which the bull-headed Minotaur was carved - when this happened, then the rationalists received the first confirmation of their guesses. The part of the story that seemed the most fantastic was linked to obvious facts; and it became tempting to try to guess where else under the fabulous speculation lies the historical reality of bygone days. "
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 30 October 2017 11: 35 New
      +4
      "where else under the fabulous speculation lies the historical reality of bygone days" ////

      I agree. I generally share the view that people have a low ability for pure fantasy, but
      high - to interpretation, decoration, distortion, demonization of the seen.
      (this is useful, by the way, in human evolution - the brain develops).
      For example, Chinese fairy dragons are an outstanding art. But then they found
      bones of exactly the same dinosaurs. With "horns", cones, crests ... That is, somewhere once the dinosaurs
      underexposed, primitive people (maybe?) saw, sketched and off it went.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 30 October 2017 12: 09 New
        +4
        Quote: voyaka uh
        For example, Chinese fairy dragons are an outstanding art. But then they found
        bones of exactly the same dinosaurs. With "horns", cones, crests ... That is, somewhere once the dinosaurs
        underexposed, primitive people (maybe?) saw, sketched and off it went.

        Everything is possible. Moreover, on Chinese holidays, from the Amur embankment in Blagoveshchensk, everything that happens in Heiha is visible. And if you translate the name of the Chinese province of Heilundjiang, then this name sounds like "The Black Dragon River". But similar dragons can be seen on the Chinese New Year.

        I want to add that the cemeteries of the Amur Dinosaurs Blagoveshchensk and Arkharinsk are located near China.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 30 October 2017 08: 04 New
    +7
    Hmm, an environmental, natural disaster and the subsequent conquest destroyed a developed civilization .. But people have not learned how to draw conclusions from the past ..
  4. IGOR GORDEEV
    IGOR GORDEEV 30 October 2017 09: 54 New
    +9
    How then men walked past women with bare breasts - I don’t understand! You walk like this on the street and on you!
    1. soldier
      soldier 30 October 2017 10: 12 New
      18
      Also asking the same question laughing
      Maybe they were already so spoiled ...
      Or how could the Egyptian pharaohs play chess with naked beauties? Difficult to focus on chess winked
    2. alebor
      alebor 30 October 2017 10: 32 New
      +6
      Well, in fact, the forbidden fruit is sweet, and if it is not forbidden, then it is not so sweet. It is known, for example, that among many tribes of Africa and South America women went and now go “topless” and nothing, nobody really pays any attention to this.
      As for the Minoan images, who knows, maybe it's not casual, but some ritual clothes of priestesses?
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 30 October 2017 11: 02 New
        +8
        I once walked the City of Johannerburg (I worked there).
        There is a group of blacks - among them are young women with nudity
        breasts. I opened my mouth, stared. Suddenly drew attention: black men
        they look gloomy, and behind their belts they have Fighting axes. Zulus!
        They have an ax - a national weapon, like a dagger in the Caucasus. Allowed to wear.
        I immediately looked down, depicted complete indifference ... laughing
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 30 October 2017 11: 16 New
          +5
          laughed heartily! good thank God, nothing happened. Yes, each nation has its own traditions. laughing
          As far as I understand, helmets from boar fangs then migrated to Mycenaean culture?
          1. kalibr
            30 October 2017 11: 35 New
            +7
            Yes exactly!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 30 October 2017 11: 41 New
              +8
              and piercing rapier swords, it seems, too ...
              we have in Staraya Ladoga a small but rich museum of archeology. Kirpichnikov must have gotten the first exhibits (by the way, according to rumors, he comes there every year to various events, and God grant him many years of life). Of course, such jewelry is not there, but there are others - Old Russian, Scandinavian, a lot of various coins, including Arab. That is, the "way from the Varangians to the Greeks" worked just like that! hi
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 30 October 2017 11: 32 New
        +4
        Quote: alebor
        Well, in fact, the forbidden fruit is sweet, and if it is not forbidden, then it is not so sweet. It is known, for example, that among many tribes of Africa and South America women went and now go “topless” and nothing, nobody really pays any attention to this.

        I read somewhere that in modern times, if women constantly walk with bare breasts, they only arouse interest in a hungry child.
      3. kalibr
        30 October 2017 11: 36 New
        +4
        alebor
        No, it’s everyday. A lot of household frescoes, and not ritual ones, and the same thing there.
      4. Eight
        Eight 30 October 2017 11: 56 New
        +5
        "It is known, for example, that in many tribes of Africa and South America women went and now go" topless "and nothing, nobody really pays attention to it."
        You would see topless African women near those tribal women and realize that it would be better if they dressed.
        True, this does not apply to Ethiopians.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 30 October 2017 12: 02 New
          +1
          well, "to whom the bride mare" (I'm talking about blacks). Judge by yourself laughing and to them, Negroes - just right. good Although we really don’t understand them, there are too different ideas about beauty. request I think women in India didn’t seduce you either. Yes, and I would be a different culture. hi
          1. Eight
            Eight 30 October 2017 15: 02 New
            +3
            "I think women in India didn’t seduce you either. And I would have been a different culture."

            Do you think this Indian woman is not worthy of attention?
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 30 October 2017 15: 08 New
              +2
              You understand, for a photo shoot they’ll still lick it with gel and smear it with cream. request And it is unlikely that in India everyone constantly dances and sings, including special forces during the hostage release. laughing
              1. Eight
                Eight 30 October 2017 16: 04 New
                +5
                Of course I’m not dancing. But there are hundreds of nationalities living in India. And just on the street you always meet a lot of really beautiful women. But in the Netherlands - no. It’s just a disaster. There is even a joke - if you see that cows are more beautiful than women - you are in Holland.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 30 October 2017 16: 12 New
                  +4
                  oh, damn it, I also realized after the Dominican Republic that our women are the most beautiful. love because there were a lot of Europeans and American women, and they, to put it mildly, do not differ in beauty, as well as sometimes in behavior. no We (at least the segment that was in the Dominican Republic) are angels in comparison with them. Of all the Russian-speaking inhabitants of the hotel, only I behaved badly, and only once, when at eight o’clock in the evening (and the nights were dark there) I went out to my balcony in my underpants and tightened: "Late evening in Soreyento !... " fellow in general, for the rubber band from my underpants, they dragged me into the room with a bang: "Hold on, dude, you don’t have any hearing!" .. laughing request Well, well, it happens .. hi
                  1. Eight
                    Eight 30 October 2017 16: 42 New
                    +3
                    His, of course, the most dear and beautiful. But beautiful women are everywhere. It's just that in every country they are beautiful in their own way. In the Dominican Republic, it was necessary not to look at European ones, but at local ones.
                    There are also very noteworthy ones there.

                    You can meet such people in the forest.

                    And such, as you say, at the photo shoot.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 30 October 2017 16: 46 New
                      +1
                      I do not argue, but I was not alone there .. hi besides, I don’t speak languages request
                      1. Eight
                        Eight 30 October 2017 16: 49 New
                        +4
                        But watch is not prohibited !!! How can a normal peasant be forbidden to look at beautiful women. This is moral sadism.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 October 2017 21: 36 New
                +2
                This is not even a photo shoot. This is a woman from the highest caste. She is from the Indian part of the Golden Billion. In India, the gap between rich and poor is such that Russia has never even dreamed of. Moreover, all this is reinforced by federal laws.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 30 October 2017 22: 11 New
                  +2
                  my former landlord (75 years old, but looks 65) loved to travel. Here he has, if not a vacation, just traveling, and not scratching the abdomen on the beach. And he was in the fjords of Norway, both in the USA and in Latin America. Fun, in short. A couple of years ago I went to India, invited everything, they say, "Kolya, there is such beauty! Nature, the Taj Mahal, monuments and all that!" I culturally refused. Arrives. I told him: "Well then, Stanislav Dmitrich, the Taj Mahal?" He spits. Say, "I could not imagine that there is such dirt. Dirt, poor sanitation, urinate and crap in the middle of the street, in front of each monument - crowds of beggars, people consciously disfigure themselves to beg The only thing I liked was the monkeys. "Well, and about the monkeys, Anton, some will tell me the best. wink
                2. Eight
                  Eight 30 October 2017 22: 29 New
                  +2
                  You are very wrong about a girl from India. This girl from Dehradun is just a dancer. In 2001, she was allowed to appear in the video of a local singer. Now she is an Indian actress, dancer and model Sri Saran.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 31 October 2017 21: 43 New
                    +1
                    Sorry, I'm not mistaken, but you are somewhat incorrect. Publish a photo - indicate the source or indicate the image, this is a rule of good tone. Everything else is for adepts of secret knowledge, of which there are enough. As for India, the “social elevator” is practically absent there and in the example you cited there is surely some condition that allowed this person to take an appropriate position.
                    1. Eight
                      Eight 31 October 2017 22: 42 New
                      +2
                      You know, I’m even at a loss about your reproaches. Photography is an example of the appearance of an Indian woman. It was in that capacity that I brought her. If you want to know the source, left-click on the photo, in the drop-down menu select the line “Find picture (Googl) and right-click. Watch Wikipedia Russian, Wikipedia English, Wikipedia in Hindi, personal website of the actress. The truth about the family in Russian is nothing , but in English there is even a place of work for her parents, they are intelligentsia, but by no means aristocrats.
                      In addition, we did not discuss the possibilities of social mobility in India, but the appearance of women from different countries. And if you think that among the Dalits in India there are no beautiful women - you are mistaken.
                      And finally, social mobility in modern India is just a separate issue, complex, as well as the influence of caste on this same mobility.
                      Suffice it to say that the author of the Indian constitution (which prohibits caste-based discrimination) is an untouchable person who received a law degree in England - Bhim Rao Ambedkar. Recently, it’s not just delit, but a hijra, elected mayor.
                      Therefore, what is my fault - I did not understand, honestly.
      5. Mikado
        Mikado 30 October 2017 14: 29 New
        +2
        It is known, for example, that among many tribes of Africa and South America women went and now go “topless” and nothing, nobody really pays any attention to this.

        now telling. I was in the 13th year in the Dominican Republic. One morning, sunbathing by the pool and reading a book by Igor Mozheyko, climbed for cigarettes, looked at a nearby sun lounger, and froze. fellow Next to me (a meter and a half or two meter distance) was a German .. grandmother for about 70 years. Topless.. By this very topless up, with tattoos and a piercing, on the general, and especially mine, as a nearby, "military review". belay My numb and prudish brain was not designed for such a sight, I could not stand it, and ran to the bar for a double portion of rum. laughing drinks
        but the point, my friends, is that for some nations walking naked all year round is the norm. But in some countries, a woman, on the contrary, should go in a burqa with slits for the eyes. request This is part of their culture, and a centuries-old culture. hi but in my case we have a vivid example of how false values ​​bring a person’s actions to absurdity. Yes, there is freedom of action. But if we bring this freedom of behavior to idiocy, we get such a sight! hi drinks
        1. kalibr
          30 October 2017 21: 49 New
          +1
          In Spain, the 20-year-olds, who have something to show, also lie topless on the beach and nothing ...
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 30 October 2017 22: 21 New
            +1
            I won’t argue with you, but I think each age has its own. You can feel at any age, but sticking it out for review, especially such intimate moments, is optional. By the way, the husband of that grandmother killed even more - a streaked young man with a massive ring in his nipple. If this is attractive, it means they have strange notions of attractiveness. Americans, for example, are all the same in tattoos, but they do not look much at their appearance. That is, they are ... inspired through the media, profit from tattoo parlors! request although decent, smart and nice people among them also met hi
    3. kalibr
      30 October 2017 11: 35 New
      +4
      Very easy, what you see constantly does not excite! Petrarch was very agitated by LAURA'S WRIST, as the ladies wore gloves and sleeves with a lap. In Polynesia, women were seduced by men ... with the neck that HAIR COVERED !!!
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 30 October 2017 10: 54 New
    +5
    In general, a great civilization - you can live.
    Women are emancipated, art, sport, architecture, technology.
    I would move to the Minoans. good
    1. Eight
      Eight 30 October 2017 12: 00 New
      +4
      What do you miss at home, Warrior?

      Estin Elias is an Ethiopian Jewess. Why do you need those Minoans.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 30 October 2017 12: 04 New
        +4
        Yes, and the girls from the IDF sometimes put such photos on public display - very much so. wink good
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 30 October 2017 12: 05 New
        +5
        Yes ... Ethiopians are very common. Slender.
        But it was not possible to enter into intimacy with them. I can’t tell you anything.
  6. Eight
    Eight 30 October 2017 11: 31 New
    +4
    Regarding the versions of the death of the Minoan civilization. Just a year ago, there was an article in the journal Nature Communications "Post-eruptive flooding of Santorini caldera and implications for tsunami generation".
    The article summarizes the research of a group of French (not English, maybe English, but working in France) scientists led by Timothy Druitt from the University of Clermont regarding the eruption of Santorini and its impact on Minoan civilization.
    They also believe that the eruption of the supervolcano became the root cause, a kind of impetus for the disappearance of the Minoan civilization from the face of the Earth. As a result of the eruption, a huge amount of magma fell into the Aegean Sea, and this, in turn, provoked a catastrophic tsunami. It was they who led to the destruction of civilization.
    The height of the waves was about 35 meters at the time of appearance and about 9 when they reached the island of Crete. So the Marinatos hypothesis is confirmed.
    And yet, in my opinion, in the cycle there is little attention to the “marine”, let’s say, history of Crete. Yet civilization is insular.
    Moreover, in the city of Chania, in the old Venetian dock, the Maritime Museum of Crete is located with a rather interesting exposure.
    It is here that the Minoan ship - the unireme - a rowing, deckless ship with one row of oars and a direct sail for 22 rowers, was recreated.
    1. kalibr
      30 October 2017 11: 44 New
      +5
      Just now I am writing material about the Bronze Age catastrophe. I have already drawn a map!
      1. Avenich
        Avenich 30 October 2017 12: 38 New
        +2
        Then these two photos are for you. Clear signs of volcanic activity. North Crete, a beach near Malia.
        1. Avenich
          Avenich 30 October 2017 12: 39 New
          +2
          And one more photo.
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon 30 October 2017 12: 02 New
      +3
      Now it’s fashionable to explain everything in the world as natural disasters, in fact, a strong society will easily go away from any cataclysm, I can’t recall in written history that some kind of civilization would die due to natural phenomena
      1. Eight
        Eight 30 October 2017 14: 09 New
        +6
        Sorry, of course, but your comment shows that you are not familiar with the question. How do you imagine the description of the death of civilization in written sources? After all, this is not an instantaneous process, like the last day of Pompeii. The same Minoan civilization has faded for more than a hundred years.
        Check out the Climatic Change magazine for research on the "end of the world," the darkening of the Sun and the ensuing plague of Justinian, which were described in Byzantine chronicles. See articles in Nature Communications on the ancient Egyptian civilization of the Hellenistic period.
        Even now, nature shows that it can at any moment throw "civilization" into modern civilization, which is working hard to destroy it. I saw the effects of the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004. The number of victims exceeded 300.
        So do not flatter yourself about the ability of society to withstand disasters.
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 30 October 2017 14: 14 New
          +1
          Wonderfully the plague of Justinian described phenomenon and the Eastern Empire lasted another thousand years, Indonesia seems to be also in place.
          1. Eight
            Eight 30 October 2017 14: 41 New
            +4
            You, for a start, read materials, but do not snatch phrases out of context. Then try to compare the level of influence of factors and the compensatory resources of the Bronze Age island society, continental Byzantium and modern Indonesia, which has been helped by the whole world and which has been dismantling the consequences so far.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon 30 October 2017 14: 50 New
              0
              I can’t compare there is no data and you also do not have them, you cannot give a historical example of the death of the state due to a natural phenomenon. In the 14th century, the plague allegedly destroyed 50% of the population of Europe and nothing particularly extraordinary in politics because of it did not happen.
              1. Eight
                Eight 30 October 2017 14: 55 New
                +3
                You demonstrate persistent haste in a case that does not apply to any of the three in which it is necessary (haste). Hurry on.
                1. Cartalon
                  Cartalon 30 October 2017 15: 08 New
                  0
                  I will assume that you were joking, not to say that it was successful.
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 31 October 2017 17: 22 New
        0
        "so that some kind of civilization perishes due to natural phenomena" ////

        All civilized humanity arose thanks to only one
        natural phenomenon: global warming that happened
        about 20 thousand years ago. The glacier retreated to the north and about 12 thousand.
        years ago the first great civilizations began to emerge.
  7. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 30 October 2017 11: 50 New
    17
    Great series of articles
    God help the author with new
    Thank God that such masterpieces of culture have been preserved
    Last but not least, probably - because the territory of Greece
  8. Avenich
    Avenich 30 October 2017 11: 57 New
    +1
    Fish tank. (Heraklion Archaeological Museum)

    Vyacheslav Olegovich! Zadok, in my opinion, it is something netted and small. In the photo: a cylindrical pit, by the way, was filmed at the excavations of the Knossos palace. Please provide clarification.
    1. kalibr
      30 October 2017 12: 22 New
      +2
      They made pools with sea water, where they allowed fish. And they swam there! Both beautiful and the food!
  9. Avenich
    Avenich 30 October 2017 12: 19 New
    +3
    Quote: Cartalon
    Now it’s fashionable to explain everything in the world as natural disasters, in fact, a strong society will easily go from any cataclysm

    Moreover, on the island of Santarini, during excavations from under a layer of ash, one of the ancient cities did not find the remains of those who died during the eruption, in contrast to Poipeya. People left the city before the eruption, everyone, including the elderly and children.
  10. brn521
    brn521 30 October 2017 12: 32 New
    +2
    As soon as the piercing "rapiers" replaced the chopping swords, so the ancient Minoan culture faded. Teams of professionals replaced the army of peasants, who were easier to chop than stab

    The Vikings are not peasants, but they appreciated precisely the chopping melee weapons. For extensive, profusely bleeding wounds, incapacitating the enemy from the first blow.
  11. Head Physician
    Head Physician 30 October 2017 14: 26 New
    18
    I was not interested in ancient history
    But the name of this author obliges
    Found his live articles - which is incredibly glad
    I won’t write about excitement and bare breasts
    I will say that I am pleased with the quality series
    I will continue to read
    Bow with
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 30 October 2017 14: 39 New
      +4
      Vladimir Mikhailovich, and the Good Doctor Avva2012 you, an hour, not a subordinate? wink drinks If so, then punish him morally, otherwise the phyllite does not come, does not discuss ... request and come yourself often!
      1. Head Physician
        Head Physician 30 October 2017 14: 59 New
        19
        I did not know such a doctor. Maybe from a young shoot? winked
        If I see, I’ll definitely cheer up morally wink
        Thanks for the tag. hi
        Now, "pure epaulettes - a clear conscience" can no longer be said lol
        And thanks for the invitation
        Certainly drinks
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 30 October 2017 15: 22 New
          +3
          I did not know such a doctor. Maybe from a young shoot?

          no, he is not from a young shoot, but from the Baikal region (pun intended) laughing a regular participant in our discussion, only for two weeks now does not appear. drinks
          and I hope to be back! this will be a thing - we will have two Doctors! fellow Good Doctor - Bad Doctor! wink it would be great! drinks
          1. Head Physician
            Head Physician 30 October 2017 15: 37 New
            17
            Clear
            May God forbid I get sick
            The pressure is now spitting up among people - even the climate has changed.
            There is
            Have agreed drinks
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 30 October 2017 17: 54 New
              +3
              note, at first they tried to talk about the subject of ancient Crete, but then the female "Siseido" outweighed drinks that's how we live!
            2. kalibr
              30 October 2017 23: 26 New
              +1
              No, he is a fan of the holy USSR. Here comes my article under the November 7 — he will immediately appear to convict me of venality to American imperialism for preferences in publications “beyond the hill”.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 30 October 2017 23: 52 New
                0
                I wanted to say this myself, but did not. Yes, it would be interesting. good Can you imagine two different Doctors? (like a good and bad cop, like Jekyll and Hyde). wink That would be a thing on the forum, Vyacheslav Olegovich! good fellow ah, already dreaming! winked
  12. Mikado
    Mikado 30 October 2017 16: 50 New
    +2
    Eight,
    But watch is not prohibited !!! How can a normal peasant be forbidden to look at beautiful women. This is moral sadism.

    I looked .. in the middle of an eye .. wink The warrior, there, also looked, and then by accident - he didn’t get a little hatchet lol
  13. Operator
    Operator 30 October 2017 20: 23 New
    +2
    A mixture of Hamites with the Northern Semites, before this assimilated by the Aryans - a terrible thing laughing

    Palestinian Christian Arabs Preserve the Cultural Traditions of the Mitannian Aryans Four Thousand Years After

  14. kalibr
    30 October 2017 23: 28 New
    +1
    Quote: BRONEVIK
    Great series of articles

    And this is not the end !!! There will be something else about 5-6 articles about Crete and Cyprus ...
  15. Barcid
    Barcid 2 November 2017 22: 48 New
    16
    Images of eight-shaped shields in the Knossos palace were painted by Sir Arthur Evans himself.