"A Word about the Regiment of Igor"
The new Grand Prince Svyatopolk Izyaslavich went on his father’s way in Kiev and quickly with his entourage created the prerequisites for a new uprising. His entourage tried to reward themselves by abusing power. The Jewish quarter of Kiev (the center of usury) flourished even more magnificently than under Prince Izyaslav. The Jews were under the special patronage of the Grand Duke, “they took away all the crafts from the Christians and under Svyatopolk had great freedom and power, through which many merchants and artisans were ruined” (V.N. Tatishchev. History Russian M., 1962-1963).
Yes, and the Grand Duke did not hesitate to profit. Svyatopolk took away the salt monopoly at the Pechersk monastery (the monastery was given to the former princes), and handed it to the farmers. His son Mstislav brutally tortured the monks Fedor and Vasily, he was told that they allegedly found treasures and hide them. Metropolitan of Kiev Ephraim fled to Pereyaslavl. Under the arm of Monomakh (as earlier under his father Vsevolod, fled from Izyaslav) boyars, warriors and citizens. It is not surprising that after the death of Svyatopolk in Kiev, a popular uprising will take place, during which the houses of officials, boyars and usurers were crushed. To calm the common people can only Vladimir Monomah. But this was still far away.
Meanwhile, the situation on the southern border continued to deteriorate. Under the Grand Duke Vsevolod and Vladimir Monomakh, the Kiev, Chernigov and Pereyaslav principality represented a single defense system and supported each other during the breakthroughs of the border line. Now this system has collapsed. The fighting power of the team of Vladimir Monomakh was undermined. Svyatoslavich, who seized Chernigov, were allies of the Polovtsy and did not support the fiefs that were subjected to their attacks. The talented commander Vasilko Rostislavich Terebovlsky was a friend of the Polovtsy. In the 1091 year, Vasilko, along with the Polovtsian Khans Bonyak and Tugorkan, assisted Byzantium in the war with the Pechenegs, broke them. In this case, the "enlightened" Greeks staged a massacre of prisoners, cutting out not only warriors, but also women and children, which horrified the Polovtsy and the Rus. Then he made long hikes together with his Polovtsian allies against Poland, seized several cities, expanded the principality and multiplied its population by prisoners.
And Kiev and Pereyaslav lands were devastated by the Polovtsy. Svyatopolk was a relative of the Polovtsian Prince Tugorkan, who did not touch his possessions, but ruined other lands. The Polovtsi at this time established contacts with the Crimean Jewish slave traders (Khazars). For a long time, they conducted their bloody trade, selling captured Rus to the southern countries and Western Europe. Later this terrible fishery was inherited by the Crimean Tatars, and the Khazars took part in their ethnogenesis. Now the Crimean slave traders were buying up prisoners from the Polovtsy. The laws of the Byzantine Empire forbade the Gentiles to trade Christians, but local authorities turned a blind eye to it, being tied to slave traders, and doing a common "business" on blood. For the steppe, this fishery also proved to be very profitable.
In 1095, the khans of Itlari and Kitan came to Pereyaslavl with their warriors, to make peace and receive tribute. The son of Monomakh Svyatoslav left a hostage in their camp, and Prince Itlar and his entourage entered Pereyaslavl. Boyars and soldiers of Vladimir were outraged. They say it's time to teach the discoverer. Monomakh hesitated, guests can not be touched, given oaths, there was an exchange of hostages. But the Pereyaslav men insisted: the guests were uninvited, the oaths were already broken by the Polovtsy themselves, who promised peace and made raids again. Prince persuaded. At night, experienced warriors stole his son from the Polovtsian camp. And in the morning they attacked and killed two Polovtsian khans.
Monomakh immediately sent messengers to the Grand Duke - he wrote that it was necessary to immediately attack the steppe inhabitants, until they came to their senses. Themselves to attack, and not to defend. Svyatopolk, himself heavily affected by the raids, agreed. The squads of Vladimir and Svyatopolk walked through the Polovtsian camps that did not expect an attack. The success was complete. Hastily assembled Polovtsian detachments were defeated by the Russian guards, their camps devastated. Russian captured large prey, took many prisoners, freed their own. This campaign restored the authority of Monomakh. And Svyatopolk realized that together it is easier to smash the enemy, it is better to interact. Vladimir spoke of the need to unite the forces of Russia. He put forward the idea to convene a congress of princes in Kiev, so that together with the clergy and the boyar duma, to resolve all disputes, work out measures to protect the state.
New war with Oleg Svyatoslavich. Confrontation with the Polovtsy
However, unity was far away. Began a new princely quarrel. Oleg Svyatoslavich promised to perform in 1095, together with Vladimir and Svyatopolk, but he avoided the march. Davyd Svyatoslavich Novgorod expelled. Again invited to reign Mstislav Vladimirovich. Davyd Smolensky tried to beat off Novgorod. The son of Khan Itlarya began to avenge his father, made a wild massacre in Russia, and then disappeared under the protection of Chernigov Prince Oleg. In 1096, Svyatopolk and Vladimir demanded that Oleg come to Kiev: "... let us conclude an agreement on the Russian land before the bishops, and before the abbess, and before the men of our fathers, and before the urban people, we will together defend the Russian land from the unclean." Oleg also had to extradite the Polovtsian Khan or executed him himself. Oleg Itlarevich did not give out and did not go to the congress: "It was not fitting for the bishop, or hegumen, or serfs, to judge me."
Svyatopolk and Vladimir answered him: “You therefore do not go to the Polovtsy, nor to the council with us, that you are plotting against us and you are thinking of helping nasty people. So may God judge us. ” Svyatopolk and Vladimir led their rati on Chernigov. A son of Monomakh, Izyaslav, took belonged to Oleg Moore. Oleg did not defend himself in Chernihiv and fled to Starodub. Starodubtsy stubbornly fought back, repelled the assault: “... and they fought hard besieged from the city, and these walked by attack on the city, and there were many wounded from both sides. And there was a battle between them fierce, and they stood near the city thirty-three days, and the people in the city were exhausted. ” Svyatopolk and Monomakh took hail in a dense siege. Prince Oleg asked for peace. He was forgiven and demanded that he go to Smolensk for his brother Davyd and together with him came to the princely congress in Kiev. Oleg was deprived of Chernigov, decided to re-allocate the inheritance at the Kiev Council.
While the Russian princes were cutting each other, exposing the southern frontiers, the Polovtsy decided to use the favorable time for a new invasion. Bonyak and his troops attacked Kiev, he did not storm the powerful walls, burned out the neighborhood, burned down the princely court in Berestovo, plundered the monasteries. Smoking burned Mouth on the left bank of the Dnieper. Then Tugorkan with his horde 30 May besieged Pereyaslavl. Svyatopolk and Vladimir rushed to save Pereyaslavl. The Russian princes came to the right bank of the Dnieper to Zarub and crossed the Dnieper only on July 19, that is, the city was under siege for 50 days. A garrison emerged from Pereyaslavl at the same time. Polovtsi stood on the left, east bank of Trubezh. The Russian attack was sudden and was very successful: the Polovtsy ran, many of them died during the persecution, sank in the river, Tugorkan himself and his son died. It so happened that Svyatopolk ruined his father-in-law Prince Tugorkan. 20 July Bonyak again approached in Kiev and defeated the Pechersk monastery. The great and Pereyaslavl princes threw the squad to intercept, but were late. Bonyak left, took thousands of prisoners, took away huge booty.
Meanwhile, Oleg Svyatoslavich and did not think to fulfill the oath. In Kiev, neither he nor Davyd did not appear. Oleg recruited an army and repelled Moore. 6 September 1096, in the battle of Murom, was killed the son of Monomakh, Izyaslav, and his squad was defeated. Then he captured Suzdal, Rostov and the whole land of Murom and Rostov, planted the townspeople in the cities and began to collect tribute. Vladimir Monomakh and the prince of Novgorod Mstislav, despite the death of his son and brother, expressed their readiness to make peace with Oleg again, so as not to quarrel again. Let Oleg leave Rostov and Suzdal, let the prisoners go.
However, Prince Oleg became proud, decided that his time had come. Preparing a trip to Novgorod. He planned to conquer the whole north of Russia, and then it is possible to return Chernigov, perhaps, to get Kiev. Then Mstislav Vladimirovich from Novgorod moved on him, and Vyacheslav Vladimirovich was sent by his father to help him from the south. With him were allied Polovtsy Vladimir. Oleg was ousted from Rostov and Suzdal. He was not loved there and supported the army of Monomakh. In the end, Oleg was defeated at Koloksh and expelled from Ryazan. However, Oleg was spared again. Mstislav promised him not to avenge his brother, for the burned Suzdal, to return his patrimonies, if Oleg accepts the world.
Lyubech. Continued Troubles
In 1097, all the most important princes gathered in Lyubech. Came Svyatopolk Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh, Vasilko Rostislavich, Davyd and Oleg Svyatoslavich. Famous words were sounded: “Why are we destroying the Russian land, arranging feuds among themselves?” And Polovtsy our land are rozno and glad that between us there are wars. From now on, we will unite with one heart and observe the Russian land, and each will have his own patronage. ” Svyatopolk departed the patrimony of Izyaslav - Kiev and Turov land, Vladimir - Pereyaslavl, the border line to Kursk, Svyatoslavichi divided the father’s inheritance - Davydov got Chernigov, Oleg - Novgorod-Seversky, Yaroslav - Murom. Volyn land remained behind Davyd Igorevich, Przemysl and Terebovl behind Voladar and Vasilko Rostislavich.
Transitions from one heights to another were canceled. True, it was believed that this would not cause the collapse of a single power. Kiev was recognized as a senior city, the throne of the Grand Duke passed by seniority, the younger princes were to obey the great sovereign. And on that they kissed the cross: “If from now on anyone who goes to anyone, we will all be against the cross and honest. They said it all: Let the cross be fair against him, and all the land is Russian. ” Thus, the Lyubech congress secured the already emerging position. Cracks, which split the empire of Rurikovich, were legalized. The breakup continued.
Troubles and civil strife did not stop either. Before the princes had time to take an oath, they immediately violated it. All Russia shook the news of the unheard of atrocities. The Volyn prince Davyd Igorevich envied the Terebovl prince Vasilko, who made a large and rich principality with his sword. And Svyatopolk of Kiev was dissatisfied with the decision of the congress, believed that he was cheated. After all, Kiev did not become his hereditary inheritance; he could only transfer the Turovo-Pinsk principality to his sons. Davyd Igorevich on an old friendship offered him a deal. Eliminate Vasilka, transfer Terebovl to him, Davyd, and he will support the Grand Duke in the struggle for Kiev. As a result, Vasilka was called on to visit the Grand Duke. The well-wishers told the warrior prince of the plot, but he didn’t believe: “How can they grab me? After all, they just kissed the cross and said: if someone comes on anyone, then there will be a cross and we will all. ” And in Kiev, Vasilka was captured and blinded. Then they were taken to Vladimir-Volynsky.
F. A. Bruni. Blinding Vasilka Terebovlskogo
Cold-blooded and despicable violence was disgusting. The princes fought with each other, it was commonplace, a kind of “God's judgment” when the fate of the prince and his lands was decided in battle. Vladimir Monomakh expressed a common will: "It did not happen on the Russian land, either with our grandfathers or with our fathers of such evil." He sent Davyd and Oleg Svyatoslavich to his former enemies: “... yes, we will repair the evil that happened in the Russian land and among us brothers, because a knife has been thrown at us. And if we do not fix this, then the greater evil will arise among us, and the brother’s brother will begin to slaughter, and the Russian land will perish, and our Polovtsian enemies will come and take the Russian land. ” Svyatoslavich responded and led their squads to Vladimir.
The princes in the spring of 1098 gathered near Gorodets and sent ambassadors to Svyatopolk with the words: “Why did you do this evil in the Russian land and threw the knife into us? Why did he blind his brother? If you had any accusation against him, you would convict him in front of us, and, having proved his guilt, then you would have done so to him. ” Not accepting Svyatopolk’s excuse (he blamed Davyd Igorevich, supposedly, he slandered Vasilka and blinded), the next morning the brothers crossed the Dnieper and moved on to Kiev. Svyatopolk wanted to flee the city, but the Kievans did not let him do it. The bloodshed was avoided through the mediation of the mother of Vladimir Monomakh and the Metropolitan. New Kiev Metropolitan Greek Nikolai himself accused the princes, "tormenting Russia" with a new quarrel. Such pressure embarrassed the princes, and they agreed that they would believe Svyatopolk. And Svyatopolk undertook to punish Davyd before his brothers.
This resulted in a new internecine war in the west of Russia. Davyd tried to seize Terebovlya. Davyd went to war with Brother Vasilka, Volodar Peremyshlsky. He achieved the liberation of his brother, and then the two of them began to attack the enemy. Davyd also dodged, trying to shift the blame on the Grand Duke. He said that he acted on the orders of Svyatopolk. And from Kiev, the troops of Svyatopolk marched on him. Davyd fled to Poland. Svyatopolk took Vladimir-Volynsky, he set there to reign his son Mstislav. But it seemed to him not enough and he tried to take possession of the lands of the Rostislavites (Terebovl and Przemysl), but without success. Blind Vasilko defeated the army of Svyatopolk on the Hornfield.
However, Svyatopolk did not calm down on this. He sent his son Yaroslav to the Hungarian king Koloman for help. He agreed, he decided to seize the Russian Carpathian region for himself. The Hungarian army broke into Russia. Volodar and Vasilka were laid over in Przemysl. But then Davyd Igorevich returned from Poland and united with the former enemies - Rostislavich, against the common enemy - Svyatopolk and his sons. In the 1099 year, Davyd Igorevich called for help from the Polovtsian Khan Bonyak and with his support, defeated his opponents in the battle of Vagra, many Hungarians drowned in Vagra and Sana. Davyd fought off Vladimir and Lutsk. Rostislavich defended their possessions in the Carpathian region.
The struggle for Volyn continued. It killed the son of Svyatopolk Mstislav. Vladimir Monomakh trying to put an end to this slaughter, convened a new princely congress. The congress in Uvetici was held in August 1100 of the year. Svyatopolk, Vladimir Monomakh, Davyd and Oleg Svyatoslavichi made peace among themselves. For reconciliation, the dark deeds of the Grand Duke Svyatopolk were bypassed. The trial was held only on Davyd Igorevich, violating the truce, established in Lyubech. Davyd was deprived of the Vladimir-Volyn principality, receiving in return the townships Buzhsky Ostrog, Duben, Chartoryysk, and after both Dorogobuzh and 400 hryvnia of silver. Vladimir-Volynsky went to Yaroslav Svyatopolchich.
True, Svyatopolk was not enough. Volodar and Vasilko did not come to the congress, and the grand duke insisted that the blind could not rule their area. They sent ambassadors to Volodar with the words: “Take your Cornflower's brother to you, and there will be one parish for you - Przemysl. And if you like it, then sit there both, but if not, then release Cornflower here, we will feed him here. And give our lackeys and smerds. ” The brothers "did not listen to this" and did not give Terebovl. Svyatopolk wanted to fight with them, but Vladimir Monomakh refused to get into another quarrel. Svyatoslavichi also did not want to fight. Svyatopolk did not dare to start a new war alone.
S.V. Ivanov. Congress of princes in Uvetichi
Thus, the reconciliation of the princes stopped the war on the right bank of the Dnieper and allowed them in the following years to organize large-scale campaigns against the Polovtsy. As a result, Vladimir Monomakh was able to inflict a military defeat on the Polovtsy, and having become Grand Prince in 1113, he somewhat restored social justice - the “Charter of Vladimir Monomakh” (limited the claims of the usurers) and for some time managed to maintain the unity of Russia with the help of a thunderstorm (power priority) and authority. .
Thus, elite ambitions, pride and stupidity of princes, narrow corporate interests of the boyars, merchants and usurers, as well as the introduction of someone else's conceptual power and ideology (Byzantine version of Christianity), while simultaneously degrading the ancient paganism, Vedic religion of the Rus, united Russia. Social justice was destroyed, the elite clans and groups of princes, boyars and churchmen, who basically solved not national tasks, but their own, personal and narrow corporate, separated themselves from the people. Although initially the boyars and princes were singled out to protect the interests of the people. Certain princes who vigilized common interests, such as Vladimir Monomakh, who with his military strength and will for some time kept the final disintegration of the Russian state, could not reverse the general trend. A period of feudal disintegration, a weakening of the defenses of Russia, began, which ultimately led to the loss of the South and West Russian lands.
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