Military Review

How “General Moroz” defeated Hitler’s aviation near Leningrad

21
6 September 1941, Adolf Hitler gave the order to start operations on the offensive against Moscow. As part of ensuring this task, the units of the Army Group North and the troops of Allied Finland were to block Leningrad, the “second capital” of the Soviet Union. In addition to the German and Finnish troops, which constituted the main force of the blockade, even the Spanish "Blue Division", directed by Francisco Franco's caudillo to help Nazi Germany, took part in the hostilities near Leningrad.


September 8, 1941 units of the Wehrmacht occupied Shlisselburg, thereby blocking the land approaches to Leningrad. From the north, Leningrad was blocked by the Finnish army. Inside the ring created by the German and Finnish troops were the city of Leningrad with a population of 2,5 million people, its suburbs with a population of 340 thousand people, almost all of the Baltic forces fleet, the bulk of the troops of the Leningrad Front - i.e., more than 500 thousand troops of the army and navy. Thus began the blockade of the northern capital, which lasted 872 days - one of the most tragic pages in stories Great Patriotic War.

How “General Moroz” defeated Hitler’s aviation near Leningrad


Being surrounded, Leningrad almost lost communication with the rest of the world. It was possible to get into the city only along Lake Ladoga, with the coast of which Leningrad was connected by a branch of the railway. The blockade immediately struck the residents of Leningrad. Although the city was never in the hands of the Nazis, famine began in it, diseases began to spread. In turn, the Luftwaffe planes carried out daily and weekly raids on Leningrad, bombarding not only government buildings, the location of military units, industrial, transport and social infrastructure facilities, but also residential buildings.

The locals resisted heroically. The people of Leningrad, from small to large, despite the famine, illness and corresponding well-being, defended their native city. They were on duty on the roofs of houses in the calculations of the Ministry of Defense, patrolled the streets, tried to dismantle the rubble of buildings destroyed by the bombings and at the same time continued to carry out their daily activities - work, study, raise children and help parents. Since most of the young men were in the army, the burden fell on the shoulders of women and old people, adolescents and people with disabilities, as well as those in Leningrad who had a “reservation” and therefore did not go to the front.

A lot of stories are connected with the siege of Leningrad, which have long turned into folk legends, for example, about imported wagons of cats that destroyed rats that bred in the besieged city. Another wonderful story is no less famous - about the secret operation of Soviet pilots, which caused many problems to the command of the Nazi aviation.

In October, 1941, the anti-aircraft gunners managed to incite German fighter Me-109. His pilot was unable to drive the car to the location of the German troops from the villages on the outskirts of Leningrad. The destroyed fighter was immediately surrounded by Soviet soldiers and curious Leningraders. Quite by chance at that moment Alexander Dmitrievich Petrov passed by - a Soviet chemist, a professor at the Leningrad Red Banner Institute of Chemical Technology. Seeing that fuel is leaking from the punched tank of a German fighter, Alexander Dmitrievich decided to find out what the Luftwaffe was using to fill his planes. He collected a bottle of fuel and took it to work - to the chemical laboratory.



Here it is necessary to say a little about Alexander Dmitrievich Petrov himself. By the time the Great Patriotic War began, he was already 46 years old, and behind the shoulders of a famous chemist was an interesting and diverse life. After graduating from a real school in 1913, Alexander Petrov entered the Pavlovsk Junker School, and after graduating from him in 1916, he was sent to the army. Petrov served as an ensign in Orenburg in a reserve infantry regiment, then from February to October 1917 studied at the Petrograd Higher Military Chemical School. After the revolution, Petrov served as head of the gas squad. In 1922, Alexander Petrov graduated from Petrograd University, and three years later he joined the Chemical Association of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Alexander Dmitrievich studied under the legendary Soviet chemist Alexei Evgrafovich Favorsky. In 1910, Alexey Favorsky received the rank of State Councilor, which corresponded to the rank of Army Major General, and in the Soviet Union was also repeatedly awarded for his outstanding scientific achievements. So Alexander Dmitrievich Petrov had a worthy teacher. At that time, the Soviet government greatly appreciated young and promising scientists. In 1931-1932 Petrov led the Leningrad Shale Institute, in 1935, received a doctorate in chemical sciences without a thesis defense, and then received the title of professor.

Typing in a bottle of fuel German aircraft, Alexander Dmitrievich Petrov brought it to the laboratory and conducted all the necessary analyzes. He managed to find out that the fuel is significantly inferior to the Soviet - for example, it freezes much faster at low temperatures. This was enough for Petrov - not only a chemist, but also a former military man, to understand what needs to be done. He went to the reception to the Deputy Commander of the Air Force of the Leningrad Front. The meeting turned out to be fruitful - the general delved into all the arguments of the scientist and ordered several more samples of German aviation fuel to be delivered. Their analysis confirmed the results of the previous one. It became clear that with the onset of cold weather, German aircraft would not be able to act on the same scale.

Meanwhile, the weather was getting colder. Time for a raid on the bases of German aviation in the Gatchina area and Siversky airfield was the most suitable. The scouts delivered pictures of German bases to the headquarters. Soon, Soviet aircraft hit the airfields where the enemy's air forces were stationed.

Of course, the story of the fuel looks fantastic. Many appreciate it unambiguously as a “bike”, even if it is beautiful, and even plausible (due to the use of the name of the chemist Petrov). But the story of the defeat of German aviation at airfields in the vicinity of Leningrad is absolutely true. And this brilliant operation can be called one of the significant victories of Soviet aviation in the first year of the war.



The raid on German airfields, assigned to 6 on November 1941, was assigned to the 125-th High-Speed ​​Bomber Aviation Regiment, commanded by Major Vladimir Alexandrovich Sandalov. Soviet bombers from the 125 regiment operated under the cover of fighters. They were accompanied by machines 15 th Fighter Aviation Regiment named F.E. Dzerzhinsky, commanded by Major Vladimir Lukich Bobrik. Why did you choose the day of November 6? Most likely, it was not the frosts that played a role here, but the desire of the Air Force command of the Leningrad Front to prevent the city from being bombarded the next day - November 7, on the anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Formed in August 1940 in Mogilev, the 125 th aviation regiment met the start of the war in Belarus and managed to participate in fierce air battles. Of the 60 aircraft that the regiment had at the beginning of the war, only 7 aircraft remained in the ranks after the fighting in the Belarusian sky. The regiment was transferred to Kazan, and then, on September 7, 1941, was transferred to Leningrad. By this time, the regiment included 2 squadrons and 20 Pe-2 aircraft.

Vladimir Sandalov, the regiment commander and experienced pilot, was 35 years old. A native of St. Petersburg, Sandalov was left without a father early and was brought up in Gatchina at the orphan's institute, and then at the 2 10th grade labor school, from which he graduated in 1924 and got a woodworking job at the Siversky plant. An active young guy was noticed in the Komsomol and soon was entrusted with the leadership of the department in the Komsomol City Committee of the Komsomol, but soon it was time to go to military service.

In 1926, Sandalov entered the Leningrad Military Theoretical Pilot School, from which he graduated in 1927. In 1929, he graduated from the Orenburg school of air combat, after which he began his service in the 55 heavy bomber aviation squadron. In 1939, the pilot graduated from the Higher Courses of Advanced Command, then participated in the Soviet-Finnish War 1939-1940. In June, 1940 Mr. Sandalov was appointed commander of the 9 Bomber Aviation Regiment and Head of the Riga Air Navigation Division, in June 1941 was transferred to the 128 Bomber Aviation Regiment near Vitebsk, where he met the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Then Major Sandalov headed the 125 th Aviation Regiment. By this time he was the most experienced pilot of the Soviet bomber aircraft - fifteen years of experience in the Air Force, and all this time it was in the bomber squadrons and regiments.

During the first month of the fighting near Leningrad, the pilots of the 125 regiment destroyed 89 enemy aircraft. The November 6 raid was a disaster for the German air units that participated in the bombing of Leningrad. Airplanes placed on Siversky and Krasnogvardeysk airfields were subjected to mass bombing. The pilots of Sandalov burned seventy enemy aircraft. After such a powerful attack, the Nazis could not organize a massive bombing of Leningrad on the holiday of November 7 on 1941. Sandalov himself, elevated to the rank of lieutenant colonel, made 1941 47 sorties by November. Aviation Marshal Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov, in his memoirs "In the skies of Leningrad", describes those days. Novikov himself at that time, in the rank of lieutenant-general of aviation, commanded the air force of the Leningrad front and was, of course, a direct participant in the events. Novikov recalled Major Sandalov as a strong-willed person with a remarkable character who enjoyed great prestige among his subordinates, was strict but fair and ready to help in the most critical situations. There was nothing surprising in the fact that it was he who Novikov ordered the command of the raid on the German positions.

From a height of two and a half thousand meters, regiment bombers struck German planes that were at the airfield. At the same time assault planes hit the German anti-aircraft batteries, the fighters with machine guns fired at the airfields and the U-88 and Me-109 that were on them. As a result of Soviet air raids, the 1 th Luftwaffe air fleet, commanded by Colonel-General Alfred Keller, was almost deprived of the opportunity to conduct full-fledged hostilities. Only after a while did the Luftwaffe establish a supply of better fuel adapted to the harsh winters of the Russian North-West. Only by April, 1942, did Hitler’s aviation resume the regular massive bombardment of Leningrad and its environs.

Lt. Col. Sandalov's pilots heroically defended Leningrad. 6 June 1942, the commander of the 125 Aviation Regiment received the highest award - the title Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star Medal (No. 582). Then Sandalov commanded the 285-th bomber aviation division, then transformed into the 5-th bomber aviation division. After the battles for Stalingrad, the division became Guards, and by the time the war ended, Major General Sandalov had 133 combat sorties only in person. He participated in the Victory Parade on Red Square. Until 1959, Major General Vladimir Sandalov continued to serve in Soviet military aviation, and after retirement he lived in Leningrad until his death in 1980.

Alexander Novikov, who commanded during the events described by the Air Force of the Leningrad Front, became Deputy People's Commissar for Aviation of the USSR in 1942, and in 1943-1946. commanded the Soviet Air Force. In 1943, Novikov was the first in the USSR to receive the rank of Air Marshal, and in 1944, the Chief Air Marshal. As it is known, there was a tragic moment in his fate after the war. The celebrated marshal in 1946 was arrested and convicted of the so-called. "Aviation case". In conclusion, Novikov stayed until 1952 of the year, having stayed even a year above the given term of five years in prison. After rehabilitation, in 1953, Novikov was reinstated in military rank and appointed commander of long-range aviation — deputy commander-in-chief of the USSR Air Force. In 1956, the 55-year-old Chief Air Marshal went to the reserve and since August 1956 has been in charge of the Higher Aviation School of the Civil Fleet.

As for Aleksandr Dmitrievich Petrov, a brilliant scientist and chemist, to whom popular rumor attributes such a significant role in defeating German aviation near Leningrad, from 1946 until the end of his life he headed the department of petrochemical synthesis of the Moscow Institute of Chemical Technology. DI Mendeleev, and since 1947, also the laboratory of the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Alexander Dmitrievich Petrov died in 1964, at the age of 68.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 25 October 2017 06: 49 New
    10
    Thank you for the article ... Only when you read that the main winner of the Germans is “General Frost”, every time you ask yourself a question, why couldn't he defeat our grandfathers and great-grandfathers? Or does someone think that they fought in absolutely comfortable conditions? No, "General Frost" fought against everyone and refer to him as the main winner - the height of ignorance and stupidity. If you gentlemen do not know how to take into account weather conditions when conducting military operations, then what kind of professionals are you?
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 25 October 2017 07: 15 New
      +6
      Quote: svp67
      If you gentlemen do not know how to take into account weather conditions

      and who was going to wage war in the winter? They expected to get rid of the Red Army in border battles, a blitzkrieg, however. Don’t figure it out, but the weather, all the same, helped us a lot, at first autumn thaw, and then frost.
      1. svp67
        svp67 25 October 2017 07: 45 New
        10
        Quote: verner1967
        Don’t figure it out, but the weather, all the same, helped us a lot, at first autumn thaw, and then frost.

        You might think that on our side of the front there was excellent warm weather ... And slag and frost also hit us as well as the Germans. With raskutitsa, German aviation could support its troops longer, since their airfield teams used metal shields to strengthen the runway,

        and ours sat on the ground, because she could not take off from the muddy stripes. The Germans had plenty of cross-country vehicles, unlike us. Another thing is that the German General Staff was mistaken in evaluating the combat readiness of our army and did not bother to timely order its industry to produce the right amount of winter clothing,

        gun grease and fuel for winter conditions, but already in the winter of 1942 all this began to arrive in the Wehrmacht.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 25 October 2017 08: 28 New
          11
          Indeed, the weather helped us a lot (sarcasm) - my grandfather said that he was freezing dead at his BT near Moscow. Until you get warmer colder than on the street, but you can’t get into the sheepskin coat - it was mech-water. I didn’t even tell about sex dancing with the engine ( I was snotty), but just waved my hand from my ear ...
          1. Bad_santa
            Bad_santa 19 March 2018 00: 37 New
            0
            My paternal grandfather burned in BT ... You live while you are moving and maneuvering. And all this at maximum speed is necessary. There is no need to talk about targeted shooting
        2. verner1967
          verner1967 25 October 2017 13: 39 New
          +4
          Quote: svp67
          and ours sat on the ground, because she could not take off from the muddy stripes.

          In any case, our aviation did not make the weather between 41-42, so the nemchur’s difficulties were more at hand than we had for them, and then, it’s about winter, when the nonsmoke fuels and lubricants turned into jelly and marmalade, here then our Air Force and excelled, in the example article. As for the dirt, the Germans simply couldn’t step on Moscow, which was not covered up after the October rains, while our troops pulled themselves up at will. roads, in the presence of rolling stock and warehouses near by. This is a fact and you won’t get anywhere.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 25 October 2017 08: 41 New
      +3
      Quote: svp67
      No, "General Frost" fought against everyone and refer to him as the main winner - the height of ignorance and stupidity. If you gentlemen do not know how to take into account weather conditions when conducting military operations, then what kind of professionals are you?

      Here I completely agree with you. The difference is that ours had experience operating low-temperature weapons at low temperatures, the Germans had no such experience.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 25 October 2017 08: 48 New
        +3
        Well, the Finnish showed that they didn’t really have it ... but they laid the foundations and the first pancake was still there ...
    3. Vend
      Vend 25 October 2017 10: 10 New
      +3
      Quote: svp67
      Thank you for the article ... Only when you read that the main winner of the Germans is “General Frost”, every time you ask yourself a question, why couldn't he defeat our grandfathers and great-grandfathers? Or does someone think that they fought in absolutely comfortable conditions? No, "General Frost" fought against everyone and refer to him as the main winner - the height of ignorance and stupidity. If you gentlemen do not know how to take into account weather conditions when conducting military operations, then what kind of professionals are you?

      That's it. Weather conditions helped, but without the courage and courage of soldiers, militias and civilians Victory would have been impossible.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 25 October 2017 07: 58 New
    +4
    Quote: svp67
    Thank you for the article ... Only when you read that the main German winner is “General Frost”, every time you ask yourself a question, why couldn't he defeat our grandfathers and great-grandfathers?

    You, as a tankman, were taught that fuel and lubricants are summer, winter and Arctic. and verner1967 is right when he writes that the Germans assigned to the operation against the USSR no more than 3 months. And General Golikov took the criterion that before the attack on the USSR, the Germans would begin to slaughter the sheep en masse, for sewing short fur coats and the price of lamb would decrease. And they will transfer all the equipment to fuels and lubricants, more appropriate to the conditions of operation of military equipment in our climate. That is why they monitored the prices of mutton and carried lubricant samples across the border. But if you count on three months of war, then these activities are not needed. Moreover, A.S. Yakovlev wrote that by September the Germans planned to return the bomber aircraft to the west, in order to continue raids on Britain.
    1. svp67
      svp67 25 October 2017 08: 06 New
      +7
      Quote: Amurets
      You, as a tankman, were taught that fuel and lubricants can be summer, winter and Arctic

      Yeah, only this concerns DIESEL FUEL in our country and is connected with the fact that heavy fractions, ambassadors of gasoline and kerosene extraction are used for its manufacture. And the “weather” of tanning salons is connected with the degree of its purification from any paraffins there, the more of them the more the more so the summer tanning bed. Gasoline, which was used in the engines of German tanks, is somehow more resistant to freezing and everything is much simpler with the “weather”.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 25 October 2017 08: 30 New
        +6
        Quote: svp67
        Gasoline, which was used in the engines of German tanks, is somehow more resistant to freezing and everything is much simpler with the “weather”.

        Yes, not so simple. The standard provides for the production of all gasolines, except for AI-98 gasoline, of two grades - summer and winter. Winter gasoline has a high content of light fractions.
        Summer and winter gasolines are designed for use in the middle lane of the country. Winter gasoline must ensure the start of a cold engine at an air temperature of up to - 25 C and the absence of steam plugs at an air temperature of 35 C, summer gasoline - respectively, start up to - 15 C and the absence of steam plugs - up to 50 C.
        http://www.magistral116.ru/news/zimniy-benzin-kak
        oy-on-i-chem-otlichaetsya-ot-letnego /
        It was always in the USSR and it was taught to us back in 1969.
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey 25 October 2017 08: 35 New
        +5
        You, as a tankman, can still want to tell about the joy of TO at the nearest snow-covered pine or birch .... Let it penetrate how nice and funny to turn nuts into minus 30 with your bare hands on thoroughly-washed technique ... although yes, special arms and backs were issued in the Red Army (this is not sarcasm for you) ...
      3. igordok
        igordok 25 October 2017 10: 41 New
        +2
        Correct if not right. In gasoline, the lower the octane number, the easier it is to run it in cold weather. For aviation gasoline brands, I assume the octane number is large.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 25 October 2017 11: 19 New
          +1
          Quote: igordok
          Correct if not right. In gasoline, the lower the octane number, the easier it is to run it in cold weather. For aviation gasoline brands, I assume the octane number is large.

          Starting performance is higher, the higher the vapor pressure.
          Aircraft engines have an octane rating higher, here you are right. For starting properties, see the link.
          http://ustroistvo-avtomobilya.ru/e-kspluatatsionn
          ye-materialy / svojstva-benzina-vliyayushhie-na-pu
          sk-dvigatelya /
        2. jjj
          jjj 25 October 2017 11: 38 New
          +6
          Aviation gasolines provide engine starting at any temperature. Less forty is not something extreme. At altitude, the temperature in the tanks in winter this happens. In winter, another feature must be taken into account. Tanks at night should be full. Otherwise, frost will appear on the walls of the tanks. And when refueling, it gets into the fuel and can lead to failure. That is why sometimes control drains from the sludge valve had to be done before "turning blue." Sometimes, three or four buckets would run up until the fuel was clean, without lace.
          Familiar aircraft, who went through the war, said that German aircraft in winter worked better than ours. In the mornings, our planes were still warming in the cold, and the Germans were already flying. We found out that the Germans used oil dilution systems. The bottom line is that in the after-flight service the motor was chasing in the parking lot, and at that time gasoline in a certain proportion entered the oil tank through a special system. In the morning, it took much less time to warm up the engine.
          The same system was installed on the ASH-62IR engines (An-2, Li-2, Mi-1). We used it in severe frosts. In reality, it took less time to prepare the cars in the morning, but gasoline contributed to quick oil pollution A very frequent change was required. Therefore, when the appearance of powerful heaters on the ZIL-130 chassis, this operation was abandoned. Instead, the oil tanks were not refilled at night. And refueling was done in the morning.
          Now on the sensitivity of fuel to low temperatures. Kerosene suffers from this, for example TC-1. Here they added the special additive "Liquid And".
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 25 October 2017 13: 02 New
            +3
            Quote: jjj
            In the mornings, our planes were still warming in the cold, and the Germans were already flying. We found out that the Germans used oil dilution systems. The bottom line is that in the after-flight service the motor was chasing in the parking lot, and at that time gasoline in a certain proportion entered the oil tank through a special system. In the morning, it took much less time to warm up the engine.

            Here is what P.Ya. Kozlov, during the war years, an employee of the OER of the Voronezh aircraft plant, in the book "Ily fly to the front."
            It was necessary to continue the search for a more economical solution to the "oil" issue. And again it was found very quickly, and it turned out to be surprisingly simple.
            If you add 10 - 15 percent of aviation gasoline to aviation engine oil and mix it well, then this oil does not thicken much even in severe frosts, and this is just what we need!
            True, such an oil will degrade its lubricating properties. But after only the first few minutes of the engine’s operation, into the system of which gasoline had been added the day before, traces of fuel practically disappear. As the engine warms up, gasoline as a more volatile component in the mixture evaporates and pure oil remains in the engine. "
            But there was not only an oil problem, there were others, shock absorbers froze, there were problems with skis. All these are the "charms" of winter operation of attack aircraft.
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 25 October 2017 08: 44 New
    17
    I read about frozen servos of Czech Wehrmacht tanks
    I didn’t know about the jet fuel episode - for which thanks to the author
    How it works - the main thing is people, their knowledge, skill and professionalism
    Advances in Science and Technology
    1. Poppy
      Poppy 25 October 2017 20: 53 New
      +3
      Well servos, these Czech tanks generally froze to the ground quite often.
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 25 October 2017 12: 03 New
    +5
    Quote: verner1967
    Quote: svp67
    If you gentlemen do not know how to take into account weather conditions

    and who was going to wage war in the winter? They expected to get rid of the Red Army in border battles, a blitzkrieg, however. Don’t figure it out, but the weather, all the same, helped us a lot, at first autumn thaw, and then frost.

    In 1941, frost helped, but there were: 1942 and 1943, and the military equipment adapted to weather conditions: the author writes: “by April 1942 Hitler’s aviation resumed regular massive bombing.” I read somewhere: the Germans welded special “bast shoes” for dirt onto the tracks of their tanks. On the channel: "Discovery" watched d / f about the tanks of the Wehrmacht and there flashed cars specially adaptive to the Russian winter.
  5. nivander
    nivander 25 October 2017 13: 21 New
    +9
    this is not an isolated case in 1941 when the Red Army Air Force managed to neutralize the whole formation during a successful raid. On August 6, 1941, the 47th Air Division of Colonel Oleg Tolstikov, near Dukhovshchina, almost finished off the 7th Panzer Division. motorized, and in the German formation there was a gap where the Dovator’s corps slipped and only the luck, experience and composure of German officers prevented Dovator from seizing Bobruisk. And only the youth of the regiment. Tolstikova prevented him from becoming a GSS