Military Review

From Pushkar izba to Cannon’s Order

31
History Russian artillery has more than six centuries. According to news chronicles during the reign of Dmitry Donskoy, Muscovites in 1382 used "cannons" and "mattresses" in repelling the next foray of the Golden Horde Khan Tokhtamysh. If the “guns” of that period were the famous historian of artillery N.E. Brandenburg was inclined to be considered throwing tools, then the "mattresses" were already, without a doubt, a gunshot [1]. They were firearms for shooting stone or metal "shot" at close range on the enemy's manpower.


The end of the XV - the beginning of the XVI centuries. marked a new period in the development of domestic artillery. During these years, on the basis of deep political and socio-economic changes characterized by the elimination of feudal fragmentation and the formation of a Russian centralized state, the rapid growth of handicrafts, trade and culture, formed a single Russian army as a military and social support of the rising central government. Artillery of specific feudal principalities became an integral part of the united Russian army, became the property of the state, underwent rapid quantitative growth and major qualitative changes in all areas of its structure - in armament, organization and methods of combat use.

During the reign of Ivan III, the development of the production of firearms weapons has become an important part of his transformations. By supporting the mining and foundry industries, the relocation of craftsmen, he sought to organize the manufacture of weapons in all significant cities. Considering that not all craftsmen are capable of raising their own business at a new place, special huts, yards, cellars were “arranged” at the expense of government orders.

The production of artillery weapons, which previously relied solely on handicrafts and handicrafts and limited mainly to the centers of individual principalities, expanded significantly in territorial terms, acquired a general Russian significance and, most importantly, gained a qualitatively new base in the form of large state workshops based on the division of labor and use mechanical force, water or horse thrust. Taking over the best world experience, Ivan III invited weapons and cannon masters from abroad.

In 1475 (1476) in Moscow, the first Cannon hut was laid, and then the Cannon Yard (1520 - 1530-ies), on which the tools [2] were cast. The beginning of the gun-and-foundry business in Russia is associated with the name of Alberti (Aristotle) ​​Fioravanti (between 1415 and 1420 - approx. 1486), an outstanding Italian architect and engineer. He was known for his bold engineering work to strengthen and move large structures in Italy. Since 1470's The Moscow government systematically invited foreign specialists to produce large works to strengthen and beautify the Kremlin and train Moscow masters. The chronicles preserved the news of foreign masters involved in cannon work, mainly Italians, written out by the Moscow government during the 1475 – 1505 period.

From Pushkar izba to Cannon’s Order

Gun yard in Moscow at the end of the XV century. Artist A.M. Vasnetsov

In 1475, two years after the marriage of Ivan III with Sophia (Zoya) Paleologue, who introduced modern Western European culture to “Muscovy”, “the ambassador of the Grand Duke Semyon Tolbuzin came from Rome, and brought with him the master of Murol, who puts churches and chambers , Aristotle name; likewise the cannon of the one that intends to liti them and beat them; and the bells and all the other things are lith sly velmy ”[3]. A. Fioravanti arrived in Moscow not alone, but with his son Andrei and “Parobk Petrusha” [4]. He laid in Moscow a solid start to the cannon-foundry business with all the requirements of modern European technology. In 1477 - 1478 A. Fioravanti participated in the expedition of Ivan III to Novgorod, and in 1485, on Tver as the commander of artillery and military engineer [5].

At the end of the XV century. several more Italian masters were invited to work in the Gun hut. In 1488, the “Peacock Fryazin Debosis [Pavel DeBoesis] great gun” [6], which later bore the name of the master “Peacock”, someone called it “Tsar-gun” also merged.

We have very little information about the device of the first cannon-foundry manufactory. There is an indication of the existence of a “cannon hut” in 1488. [7] The archive of the Cannon Order, which was in charge of the Cannon Yard, was unfortunately lost, so no any satisfactory description of the equipment of the first Russian manufactory has been preserved. She herself, who was at the "three bridges from the Frolov Gate to China Town" [8], burned down in 1498. Later, it was built on the bank of the Neglinnaya River. Nearby there was a settlement of manufactory blacksmiths, from where the name Kuznetsky Bridge originated. Melting furnaces were located in the center of the territory of the Cannon Courtyard, from which the metal entered through special channels into casting molds. According to the organization of production, the Cannon Yard was a manufactory. Masters-cannons, litz and blacksmiths worked here. All the masters and their assistants were serving people, that is, they were on the sovereign's service, received a monetary and grain salary, land for construction.


Plan of the Cannon Yard in Moscow

Almost all artisan people lived in Pushkarskaya settlement. It was located in the Earthen city behind the Sretensky Gate and occupied a vast area bounded by the Neglinnaya River, the White City, Bolshaya Street, along which the road went to Vladimir, and Streletsky Sloboda. In Pushkarskaya Sloboda there were two streets - Bolshaya (aka Sretenskaya, now Sretenka Street) and Sergievskaya (from St. Sergius Church in Pushkary) and seven lanes, of which only one was called Sergievsky (now it’s about the following lanes: on the left from the center - Pechatnikov, Kolokolnikov, Big and Small Sergievsky, Pushkarev, Big Golovin; on the right - Rybnikov, Ashcheulov, Lukov, Prosvirin, Small Golovin, Seliverstov, Daev and Pankratovsky), and the other six were numbered from “first” to “sixth” and they got their names.

The cannon-and-foundry business in Russia was widely developed from 1491, when copper ore was found on the Pechora River and mining began there. The guns were cast from an alloy of copper, tin, and zinc (bronze) with a finished channel using an iron core. Copper guns were cast without seams with a socket in the muzzle, which allowed to increase the charge of gunpowder and was the last word of the artillery equipment of that time. There were no established rules for determining the caliber.

The guns made at the Cannon Yard differed in their accuracy of calculation, the beauty of the finish, the perfect casting technique. Each of them was cast on a special wax model. Various symbolic images, sometimes extremely intricate, were engraved or cast on the plate or the muzzle, according to which the guns were named: bear, wolf, asp, nightingale, inrog, scurvy (lizard), king Achilles, fox, snakes, etc.

In the cannon-and-foundry manufactory, for sighting, piscals were cast, divided into stencil walls, of a large caliber and up to 2 fathoms long; Zatinnye or snakes, medium caliber for the defense of fortresses; Regimental or falcon, Wolfies - short, weighing 6 - 10 pounds. Significant quantities were made for mounted shooting, hafunits — more elongated howitzers and shotguns or mattresses — large-caliber howitzers for shooting stone or iron grapeshot. In the Cannon Yard began the casting of organs and batteries - prototypes of rapid-fire guns, intended for rapid shooting. Thus, the artillery outfit, which was led by A. Fioravanti during the march on Tver, included hafunits for aimed firing with stone grapeshot, small iron cannons and even organs (multi-barreled guns) capable of giving a quick fire close to salvo. At the end of the XVI century. breech-loading guns with wedge-shaped bolts were manufactured. At the beginning of the XVII century. The first rifled pishchal was made. It should be emphasized that the priority in the field of the invention of rifled tools and the wedge gate belongs to Moscow. In the XVI - XVII centuries. Bells and chandeliers were cast at the Cannon yard.


7-barrel rapid-fire battery "Forty" of the second half of the XVI century.

To manage the artillery of the Moscow state, a certain organization was required. We have traces of such an organization of the “Gun Order” since the 1570s. In the list of “boyars, okolnichy and noblemen who serve from the choice of 85 of the year” (7085, i.e. in 1577), two names of the senior officials of the order are named: “In the Cannon order Prince Semen Korkodinov, Fyodor Puchko Molvyaninov”, - both are marked: “with a sovereign” (in a campaign) 7-barrel rapid-fire battery “Soroka” of the second half of the 16th century. Since that time, the Main Missile-Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation [10] has its history. At the beginning of the XVII century. The gun order was renamed Pushkarsky and became the chief artillery and military engineering directorate whose activities we know from the remnants of documents from its burned archive, from the archives of other orders, as well as from contemporaries.

The order recruited people for service, assigned salaries, raised or lowered in ranks, sent to hikes, tried, dismissed from service, was in charge of building cities (fortresses), defensive lines, casting bells, cannons, producing handgun and cold weapons and armor ( the latter, apparently, for some time was under the jurisdiction of separate Armory and Bronny orders). In peacetime, the chiefs of the Pushkarsky Prikaz also were in charge of the mines and the zasechnye heads assigned to them, clerks and watchmen.

The order tested gunpowder (cannon, musket, and hand) and nitrate-based explosives (meat production). More in the XVII century. in the Pushkar order there were stored special boxes with pastry or saltpeter experiments of previous years (that is, with the samples of gunpowder previously tested). In the middle of the XVII century. in 100 cities and 4 monasteries, which were under the jurisdiction of the Pushkarsky Order, were 2637 guns [11].

In the XVII century. The cannon yard was significantly reconstructed. The preserved plan of the end-of-century Cannon Courtyard gives a fairly accurate outline of the borders and surrounding buildings. He already occupied a significant territory, being between Theater Way and Cannon Street, Neglinnaya and Rozhdestvenka. Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich “created a great thing for the mat, where the big weapon is business, there are guns on the hedgehog, and on it place your royal majesty a banner — the eagle is glad” [12].

Technical innovations have also appeared: the power of water was used to drive the forging hammers into motion (the first known case of using water energy in metallurgy in Moscow). Stone foundry barns were placed in the center of the courtyard, blacksmiths along the edges. At the gates were located large scales, not far from the barns - a well. Significantly expanded the composition of service people. The manufactory began to work bell and chanter masters, sawyers, carpenters, solders, etc. The staff of the Cannon yard consisted of more than 130 people.

The production volume of the Cannon Yard, as far as can be judged from the information that has been preserved, was never strictly limited, since no production plan existed and work orders were transferred as needed. Such a system of work is characteristic of the activities of the Cannon Courtyard in the future. From 1670, the Pushkarsky Order (later the Artillery Order) began to be located in the yard.

In the next Moscow fire 1699, the Cannon Yard burned down with most of its buildings. In the activities of the cannon-and-foundry manufactory, there was a forced break until January 1701, when, by Peter's decree, it was ordered to build wooden buildings at the New Cannon Yard. At the beginning of the XVIII century. the value of the Cannon Yard decreased in connection with the development of the cast-iron cannons and the construction of military factories in the St. Petersburg province, in the Urals and in Karelia. At the Cannon Yard there were production workers 51 people, among them: cannon masters, apprentices and apprentices - 36, bell masters - 2, smelting masters and apprentices - 8, panikadilny masters, apprentices and apprentices 5 people [13]. When asked about the power of the cannon-foundry manufactory in 1718, the Artillery order answered: “There were no definitions on the casting of cannons and mortars, but they always poured what was needed, written and verbal e. C. at. edicts ”[14].

As you can see, the activities of the Cannon Yard gradually faded away, and the casting of copper cannons was transferred to the Bryansk arsenal of artillery. The cannon yard became a depository of weapons, ammunition and banners. In 1802, according to the presentation of Count I.P. Saltykov Alexander I ordered weapons and ammunition stored at the Cannon Yard to be transferred to the Kremlin arsenal, and the production of gunpowder to the Field Artillery Yard. In 1802 - 1803 the buildings of the cannon yard were demolished, and the building material was used to build a bridge over the Yauza at the crossing from Solyanka to Taganka.

The successful production of guns, shells and gunpowder in the Russian state was achieved thanks to the active creative activity of ordinary Russian people - cannonmen, foundry workers and blacksmiths. The most deserved honor in the cannon yard was used by the “cunning fire-fighting men,” or cannon craftsmen. The oldest Russian cannon master, whose name has been preserved to us by history, is the master Yakov, who worked in the cannon-and-foundry manufactory in Moscow at the end of the 15th century [15] For example, in 1483 in the Gun-hut they had cast the first copper gun 2,5 arshin (1 arshin - 71,12 cm) and weighed 16 pounds (1 pounds - 16 kg). In 1667, it was used in the defense of the most important Russian fortress on the western border - Smolensk and was lost. The food is described in detail in documents 1667 - 1671. and 1681 g.: “Pishchal copper in the machine on wheels, ruska casting, the length of two arshins, half past three. It is signed in Russian letter: “at the behest of the faithful and Christ-loving Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich, ruler of all of Russia, this gun was made in the summer of six thousand, nine hundred and ninety-one, in its two tenth year; and did Jacob. " The weight of the 16 pud ”[16]. In 1485, Master Yakov had cast a second cannon with such dimensions, now stored in the Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Communication Troops in St. Petersburg.

Some of the names of cannon casters have survived to our days, the most prominent of which were Ignatius (1543), Stepan Petrov (1553), Bogdan (1554 - 1563), First Kuzmin, Semen Dubinin, Nikita Tupitsyn, Pronya Fedorov and Others. The surviving examples of tools indicate the state of the foundry art: copper hafunits 1542 g., caliber 5,1 dm (master Ignatius); copper pishchal, 1563 g., caliber 3,6 dm (master Bogdan); Inrog pishchil 1577 g., caliber 8,5 dm (master A. Chokhov); Onagr pishchal 1581 g., caliber 7 dm (master P. Kuzmin); “Scroll” 1591 g., caliber 7,1 dm (master S. Dubinin).

An outstanding representative of the Moscow school of gunsters was Andrei Chokhov (1568 - 1632). Among the many models of guns created by him, the Tsar Cannon, cast in 1568, is particularly famous. It was the largest and most technically perfect instrument of that time (caliber 890 mm, weight - 40 t). "Russian Shotgun" called the creation of a talented master, because it was intended for shooting stone "fractions". And although the gun did not make a single shot, you can imagine what havoc in the ranks of the enemy could make this weapon.


Tsar Cannon. Master Andrei Chokhov. 1586

The replenishment of personnel went initially due to the apprenticeship. To the master students were attached, who were recruited, first of all, from relatives of servicemen, and then from free people, not assigned to the burden. Later at the Cannon yard, special schools are set up to train new personnel. So, in 1701, “it was ordered to build wooden schools in the New Cannon Yard and to teach Pushkar and other extraneous officials of children verbal and written science in those schools ... and feed and water them in the above schools, and they each put money on the stern for a day to a person, and from that money, half of them are buying bread and food: on fast days, fish, and in skoromnyh meat, and cook porridge or cabbage soup, and on another money - for shoes and coats, and for shirts ... ”[17]. In 1701, 180 pupils studied in these schools, and subsequently the number of pupils grew to 250 – 300 people.

The cannon courtyard, being the main arsenal of the Moscow State and at the same time the school that trained the casting workers, always enjoyed the special attention of foreign travelers who wrote about Muscovy. This attention was quite natural, because all foreign reports about the Russian state served primarily for the purposes of espionage and, above all, paid attention to military targets. Foreigners who visited “Muscovy” spoke with great praise of the Russian artillery, pointing out its significance [18], and the mastering of the “Muscovites” in the manufacture of guns according to Western models [19].


[1] N.E. Brandenburg Historical catalog of the St. Petersburg Artillery Museum. CH 1. (XV - XVII century). SPb., 1877. C. 45.

[2] Ibid. S. 52.

[3] Nikon chronicle. PSRL T. XII. SPb., 1901. C. 157.

[4] Lviv Chronicle. PSRL T. XX. SPb., 1910. C. 302.

[5] See: S.M. Soloviev Russian history. M., 1988. Prince 3. T. 5.

[6] Nikon chronicle. C. 219.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Cit. by: Rubtsov N.N. History of foundry in the USSR. CH 1. M.-L., 1947. C. 35.

[9] Acts of the Moscow State. SPb., 1890. T. 1. No. 26. C. 39.

[10] The annual holiday of the Grau is established by order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation from 3 June 2002, No. 215.

[11] See: V. Shagayev Order system of the Military Administration // Humanitarian Gazette of the Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces. 2017. .№ 1.C. 46-56.

[12] I. Zabelin The history of the city of Moscow. CH 1. M., 1905. C. 165.

[13] Kirillov I. The blooming state of the All-Russian state, which began, led and left Peter the Great unsold by works. M., 1831. C. 23.

[14] N. N. Rubtsov History of foundry in the USSR. CH 1. C. 247.

[15] See. A. Lebedyanskaya Essays from the history of gun production in Moscow Russia. Ornamented and subscription tools of the end of the XV-first half of the XVI centuries // Collection of studies and materials of the Artillery Historical Museum of the Red Army. T. 1. ML, 1940. C. 62.

[16] M. Khmyrov Artillery and artillerymen in pre-Peter Russia. Historical and characteristic essay // Artillery magazine. 1865. No. 9. C. 487.

[17] Archive of the Military History Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Communications. F. 2. Op. 1. D. 4. L. 894.

[18] See: I. Cobenzel. Letters on Russia in the XVI century. // Journal of the Ministry of Education. 1842. CH 35. C. 150.

[19] See: R. Barberini. Travel to Muscovy in 1565, St. Petersburg., 1843. C. 34.
Author:
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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 29 October 2017 07: 13
    +4
    This is yes, and the craftsmen’s skills and advanced inventions, up to the invention of the shutter and even removable charging chambers, were all there. Historians know that almost the whole West fought * rebels * from Russia.
    In troubled times, the church pushed onto the throne of Romanov. And Romanov began to look for clerks in the West, but his son Peter managed to bring the idea with import clerks to the absolute. These are foreign masters and officers and much more. Even academicians were discharged from abroad. Yes, and much more, up to jokes with a beard or clothes. By the way, foreigners paid much more than RUSSIAN and not only in the army. It came to * Germanization * of the royal family. The ferocity in * calming * the nobles of RUSSIA with all sorts of European crooks was also purposeful and far from accidental.
    Steam engines and Cherepanova or * steamships * Crawlers did not find support from * specialists *, and then Suddenly, such machines appeared in England, right up to maintaining the layout and appearance.
    1. Cat
      Cat 29 October 2017 10: 30
      +4
      I will add that Dutch sources claim that they purchased Russian guns during the Anglo-Dutch wars.
  2. Cat
    Cat 29 October 2017 08: 12
    +4
    I liked the article, but the presence of "stamps" upsets.
    1. The statement that the “Tsar Cannon” did not shoot! Controversial, very controversial however. According to A.B.Shirokorad, in 1980, specialists from the Academy. Dzerzhinsky. They examined the canal of the gun and, according to a number of signs, including the presence of particles of burnt gunpowder, concluded that the Tsar Cannon was fired at least once. The above is confirmed in the literature for universities of the RF Ministry of Defense.
    2. The claim that the “Tsar Cannon” is a shotgun? See sources above. Judging by the bore, the gun is a classic bombardment.
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 10: 24
      +1
      I met drawings, such guns fired directly from the ground. But I can’t imagine what mechanisms these mastodons moved, aimed.
      1. Cat
        Cat 29 October 2017 10: 52
        +4
        You are right cast-iron carriages of the Kremlin guns remake of the century before last! However, like the core!
        They drove bambards with horses, harnessed up to fifty pieces in a train. But it was necessary to carry stone cores, equipment, gunpowder. So for delivery, the bear squeaked, near Narva, about 450 horses and thousands of peasants rats were involved.
        The Turks used bulls for castling artillery, but they also required at least 100 per gun. So that sometimes they cast bambards on the spot.
        They aimed quite simply, Kyle and a shovel to help you. Well, plus fifty more men. Because of this, the feature of the breech of the Tsar Cannon is flat. They did this in order to abut the guns in a log house with logs to the ground. The rate of fire was also correspondingly fired three times a day and then all right!
        The myth that the Tsar Cannon is a shotgun arose from the speculation of its location together with another squeaker - Peacock on the platform with trunks along the street. In addition, the version of the impossibility of firing from it with cast-iron cores was confirmed by simple mathematical calculations. And about that, at the time of the creation of the Tsar Cannon, there were no cast-iron cores yet - they simply forgot. So, it was the appearance of a cast-iron core and granular gunpowder that put an end to the bambards of the giants. The specific gravity of the cast-iron 36 pound core made it possible to damage any stone wall without fantastic calibers.
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 11: 14
          +1
          Now you need to work out fantasies and imagine how 100 horses are harnessed. You were the first to move such an idea.
          1. Cat
            Cat 29 October 2017 15: 54
            +2
            Not a hundred, but fifty, this is the first!
            As a train, this is the second!
            Well, by the way, are you really so predictable!

            Well, a little history, the largest number of horses harnessed simultaneously to the same carriage = 160, but this is already "lanternism"!
            1. Settlement Oparyshev
              Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 16: 05
              0
              They didn’t convince me. I, as an old commander, can advise you to moderate your imagination and bring it to your years. Not a single commander can pull 100 horsepower. Does the commander have nothing more to do? There is a barge that carries 500 tons. upload.
              1. Cat
                Cat 29 October 2017 18: 01
                +1
                Russia, of course, has a unique water system, but siege parks before Alexei Mikhailovich were put forward in the winter on a sleigh in the snow. The exception is Kazan and Astrakhan.
                If you tell me how, by water, under Ivan the Terrible, they drove on plows squealing for the siege of Polotsk, then believe it! Moreover, the military princes of the great princes did not shy away. The plows were built and the ships dragged along. The same Peter, to capture the mouth of the Neva through the swamps, dragged either two rowing frigates or two scampavae. An indicative example is the “linking” of a bell from Uglich to Tobolsk. Dragged horses on the ice of the rivers. And only at the last stage they were taken on a plane!
                Well, the last to the position anyway it was necessary to have horses and men, with such a mother!
                1. Cartalon
                  Cartalon 29 October 2017 21: 47
                  +1
                  In the winter, they took Polotsk so they didn’t take them on plows.
                  1. Cat
                    Cat 30 October 2017 04: 32
                    +1
                    I'm about the same thing!
                    Russian sovereigns "in the logistics of war" relied on rivers, but this was not a panacea. If "nalo" squeaked, howitzers and guns were moved on dry land, on river ice and snow.
  3. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 09: 07
    +2
    Thanks to the author for the article, but I would like to read where tin and saltpeter were imported from? It is known that tin was mined in England at that time. I think saltpeter was not imported from Egypt but brought from the lands of present-day Astrakhan.
    Alexander the 1st, sat in his St. Petersburg and just dreamed of managing in Muscovy. Yes, and Peter the first way for the outskirts of St. Petersburg was ordered.
    1. Cat
      Cat 29 October 2017 10: 21
      +4
      Quote: Oparyshev

      Alexander the 1st, sat in his St. Petersburg and just dreamed of managing in Muscovy. Yes, and Peter the first way for the outskirts of St. Petersburg was ordered.

      Interesting? This is when Alexander 1st was in St. Petersburg !!!
      - when taking Tokhtamysh Moscow?
      - or the siege of Tver by the troops of the Prince of Moscow Vasily?
      - Probably not when the Crimean Girey burned Moscow?
      Or were the guns faked too? For what! In order to "whitewash" himself in front of posterity! Well, well, you have Catherine the Great personally carries plague rats to Moscow after her coronation, now Sashenka is afraid of looking out of the outskirts of St. Petersburg. Like in a fairy tale about a cockerel, a cat and a fox.
      I don’t remember who, but someone in the last century said "the lively work of the masses is our heritage!"
      Another conspiracy theory. At the end of the 70s of the last century, it was established that several guns in the Kremlin were charged! Go for it!
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 11: 17
        0
        Eject the foam with bubbles from the chocolate eye, and the article says when Alexashka was in St. Petersburg. Read the article again, so as not to ask inadequate.
        1. Cat
          Cat 29 October 2017 12: 01
          +2
          Or maybe everything is much easier!
          The relevance of the "artillery park" adapted for casting copper tools in the walls of the old capital has exhausted itself. And with the filing of Arkachev, Emperor Alexander I abolished the production of guns in Moscow.
          By the way, cast-iron guns were cheaper to pour in the Urals. Trunks were poured, drilled, and along Chusova, Kama rafted on barges to artillery or field parks, where they received gun carriages and equipment. Sea corranades rafted along the White and Volga to Kazan, where they were equipped, or along Iset, Tur, Tobol, Ob to Arkhangelsk, where they were delivered to the Baltic by sea. Tulsky and Systrosetsky cannon factories had their own logistics. So, the opus “about Sasha’s fear of looking out of the outskirts of St. Petersburg” is ridiculous. It’s just right to sit down and write an article “How the Urals betrayed the legitimate sovereign of Muscovy”.
          1. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 12: 23
            0
            Fantasies. You did not read the previous articles. Arakcheev did not leave the St. Petersburg region before the War. There were a lot of preparations for the war.
            Cast-iron guns began to be introduced in the middle of the 19th century, they were abandoned for a long time.
          2. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 12: 28
            0
            I wonder how this porridge coexists in your head. And Muscovy and St. Petersburg Alexashka and a cast-iron with glimpses of adekvat. Here I saw the flow of river logistics to my liking. Only here is what kind of Ob of Arkhangelsk you write about, make it clear.
    2. igordok
      igordok 29 October 2017 14: 47
      +1
      Quote: p-k Oparyshev
      Thanks to the author for the article, but I would like to read where the tin was imported from and nitre?

      To obtain KNO3 saltpeters were used - heaps from a mixture of manure with limestone, marl, construction waste, etc., with layers of brushwood or straw. During rotting, ammonia formed, which in the process of nitrification (using bacteria) was first converted to nitrous, then to nitric acid. The latter, interacting with CaCO3, gave Ca (NO3) 2, which was leached with water. The addition of wood ash (consisting mainly of K2CO3) precipitated CaCO3 and produced a KNO3 solution. This method was used before 1854
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 14: 57
        0
        An interesting option, and in this way you can make thousands of tons of nitrate for a normal war? Napoleon fooled why he captured the Ebibet saltpeter deposits.
        1. long in stock.
          long in stock. 29 October 2017 21: 46
          +1
          and before Napoleon did they take off saltpeter? Or didn’t fire off the guns .... in general, saltpeter was also mined in Hungary. and yes, near Rome - in 1461, huge deposits of alum were discovered near Rome. The pope called the find "the greatest victory of Christianity over Muslims." The papal curia monopolized the extraction of alum and the production of “Chinese snow”) ... the same Napoleon was much closer .. and how he would have dragged this saltpeter from ebibtu under domination, was accused of the sea .. it's a weirdo.
          1. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 29 October 2017 23: 46
            0
            There is nothing complicated. Before Napoleon, for hundreds of years, saltpeter was purchased in Egypt. Nitrate was right underfoot there, saltpeter lakes. A monastic order worked under it. Sometimes it exploded. It vomited so that the products rose to a height of more than km. Napoleon, in 1807, captured the prey, so as not to bother with the purchase.
  4. vomag
    vomag 29 October 2017 09: 57
    +3
    Hmm, as usual, the retelling of the old LIES ... ashamed gentlemen ....
    1. Cat
      Cat 29 October 2017 11: 11
      +1
      Lies about what?
      1. vomag
        vomag 29 October 2017 11: 18
        +1
        Yes, much ... historians lie in black ... as artists they see ... in their own way ...
        1. Cat
          Cat 29 October 2017 11: 27
          +3
          And if the "maleho" specifics!
          And how in a joke!
          Steal! Steal!
          Who! Where? When?
          All! Everywhere! Is always! wassat
          1. vomag
            vomag 29 October 2017 19: 52
            0
            Quote: Kotischa
            And if the "maleho" specifics!

            Oh wow! and yet I did not know that you were the same from Odessa! hi Shalom ... laughing
        2. long in stock.
          long in stock. 29 October 2017 22: 27
          0
          and you, as I understand it, are not a historian or an artist. Because they’re not capable of lying and you don’t see everything in your own way .. and then by whom do you see? And who told you that the view of that unnamed is the only true one?
          1. vomag
            vomag 1 November 2017 12: 09
            0
            Quote: Long in stock.
            and then by whom do you see?

            Dear look Kuptsov Kungurov, etc. there are many .. and all sorts of questions will disappear by themselves! compare dates read the chronicles and understand there 90% lies! the story is written for children who believe in Santa Claus Do you believe the same in him?
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 1 November 2017 19: 46
              0
              dear, I saw this all. if honestly, it didn’t inspire me. too much was far-fetched. and yes, the children believe in Santa Claus. but only because we adults want them to believe in goodness ... only for this .. therefore we will stay with its own. history is still science, there is no place for faith. faith is already a religion.
    2. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 29 October 2017 12: 37
      +1
      [quote = Author: Valery Kovalev] after the marriage of Ivan III with Sophia (Zoya) Paleologue, who introduced modern Western European culture into “Muscovy” [/ Quote]
      The article was written by the author for the sake of this phrase.
      Sophia is the daughter of the brother of the last Byzantine emperor. The author is not even embarrassed that Byzantium is the very East, that, in fact, Orthodox Russia derives its origins from Byzantium. Oh yes, Orthodox Sophia lived in Rome for four years, where she was "tutored" by the Uniate Vissarion of Nicaea. This, apparently, from the point of view of the author changes the matter - then he can lie anything.
      And what would such an author be without the Jesuit term "Muscovy". Banderyugend in Ukraine is directly programmed with such terms in order to incite hatred of Russia and Russian history.

      It is not surprising that the whole “concept” of presenting material in the “article” is based on this message.
  5. Yarik
    Yarik 29 October 2017 18: 45
    0
    Quote: Kotischa
    Quote: Oparyshev

    Alexander the 1st, sat in his St. Petersburg and just dreamed of managing in Muscovy. Yes, and Peter the first way for the outskirts of St. Petersburg was ordered.

    Interesting? This is when Alexander 1st was in St. Petersburg !!!
    - when taking Tokhtamysh Moscow?
    - or the siege of Tver by the troops of the Prince of Moscow Vasily?
    - Probably not when the Crimean Girey burned Moscow?
    Or were the guns faked too? For what! In order to "whitewash" himself in front of posterity! Well, well, you have Catherine the Great personally carries plague rats to Moscow after her coronation, now Sashenka is afraid of looking out of the outskirts of St. Petersburg. Like in a fairy tale about a cockerel, a cat and a fox.
    I don’t remember who, but someone in the last century said "the lively work of the masses is our heritage!"
    Another conspiracy theory. At the end of the 70s of the last century, it was established that several guns in the Kremlin were charged! Go for it!

    Duc ... they looked towards Gireyev. But in general, there would have been laughter, the next leader from the 16th century cannon. to kill.