Military Review

Russian troops defeated the King of Neapolitan

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Russian troops defeated the King of Neapolitan



In the battle on the Chernishna River, held on 18 on October 1812, the avant-garde of the Great Army, which was under the command of Marshal Murat, was defeated

The difficult decision that was made at the council in Fili to leave Moscow, and the subsequent Tarutinsky maneuver, allowed the Russian army to gain strength and prepare for further struggle against the European invaders.

By the middle of October 1812, the balance of forces changed in favor of Russia, in the main location of the Russian soldiers and officers in the village of Tarutino there were already about 100 thousands (97 thousands according to Tarle, 110 thousands according to Clausewitz), the militia groups were also large in number, formed in the central Russian provinces.

Time worked for the Russians, “the longer Napoleon left in Moscow,” said Kutuzov, “the more faithfully our victory”. The collected forces allowed to go to the counterattack, Leontiy Bennigsen, the chief of staff of Kutuzov and a number of other generals insisted on it, although the commander-in-chief was still cautious and waited.

Not far from the main forces of the Russian army on the Chernishna River (the modern name Chernichka) is the vanguard of the Great Army. In addition to the French, there were Poles and Germans in it. Avant-garde, which numbered about 26 thousands of people, was commanded by Marshal Murat, who received the Neapolitan crown from Napoleon’s hands, therefore he is often called the Neapolitan king. To Moscow, where the main forces of the French were located, was 90 kilometers, the vanguard of the King of Naples could not get support quickly, so Kutuzov accepted the offer of Bennigsen and Miloradovich to attack Murat.


V. Doronin “Col. VV Orlov-Denisov and the Cossacks of the Life Guards in the battle of Tarutino. Cossack lava "

The plan, developed by Quartermaster General Karl Tol, was kept in great secret how the French would be attacked, knew a limited circle of Russian military leaders, but despite precautions, a leak of information nevertheless occurred, and Murat was aware of all Russian movements.

Another interesting point preceding the battle on Chernihiv was the postponement of the date of the performance from 17 to 18 of October (new style) due to the fact that General Yermolov did not receive the order to speak on time, as he was at a dinner party organized by the duty officer 1. Western Army Peter Kikin. Kutuzov, as eyewitnesses said, this circumstance is very angry.

To the French camp, the 36-thousand-strong Russian army made four columns in the evening of October 17. The night transition led to the fact that part of the troops were late for the start of the operation, only the column of Vasily Orlov-Denisov arrived on time.

Since it was already light, he decided to attack without waiting for the other columns to come. The French, who did not expect such a sudden attack, abandoned artillery and carts, left the position. The left flank of the French shuddered, but survived, courageous Cossacks, instead of consolidating their success, scattered around the camp in search of trophies.

The poorly coordinated command of this operation and the speed with which Murat acted protected his corps from complete defeat. With the rest of the army he went to the village of Spas-Kuplya, where he deployed artillery, which stopped the Russian pursuers.

The Russian side in this battle lost 300 people killed and 904 wounded, the French 4 thousands, of which 1 500 prisoners.

Murat was not completely crushed, the goal was not fully achieved, as military historian Dmitry Buturlin notes, “from the Russian side, the disposition to attack was well considered, but mistakes in execution did not allow to reap all the fruits expected from it.”

Nevertheless, the Battle of Chernishna was the first offensive victory of the Russian army. Throughout the night, “the resurrection of the Russian glory that fell silent for a time was celebrated,” the spirit of the Russian army once again resurrected, the initiative after this battle went to the Russians.

For the proud Napoleon, the news of his son-in-law's defeat (Murat was married to Bonaparte's sister) was a serious blow. That day he was preparing for the distribution of awards in Moscow and was still considering the possibility of going to St. Petersburg, "but the news of the defeat of the King of Naples dispersed all his dreams, because this bold blow from the Russians clearly showed that they intended to continue the war."

The next day he left Moscow, so the exodus of Napoleon from Russia began, ending with the defeat of the Great Army.
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  1. polpot
    polpot 22 October 2017 15: 08
    +1
    The Russian irregular cavalry was great in the company of 1812, especially when expelling the adversary rabble
    1. Cat
      Cat 22 October 2017 16: 04
      +2
      She until 1812 and after herself perfectly showed! As for the excesses, they were irregular. By the way, after 1815, Europe whispered in horror for a long time about "wild Kalmyks and Bashkirs on shaggy horses and with bows." Well, our Cossacks even noted in gostronomy. The "Fast Food Restaurant Chain" is precisely their merit.
      1. Gransasso
        Gransasso 22 October 2017 16: 09
        +1
        Quote: Kotischa
        Well, our Cossacks even noted in gostronomy. "Food Restaurant Chain - Fast" is precisely their merit



        Do not write illiterate ignorance .....
      2. Lebedev Sergey
        Lebedev Sergey 22 October 2017 21: 38
        +1
        By the way, after 1815, Europe has long whispered in horror about "wild Kalmyks and Bashkirs on shaggy horses and with bows."


        Calling them "Northern Cupids".
  2. Hurricane70
    Hurricane70 22 October 2017 17: 06
    0
    Quote: Gransasso
    Quote: Kotischa
    Well, our Cossacks even noted in gostronomy. "Food Restaurant Chain - Fast" is precisely their merit



    Do not write illiterate ignorance .....

    Well, then what did not continue? What is illiteracy and ignorance? Start, continue to the end!
    1. Gransasso
      Gransasso 22 October 2017 19: 45
      +2
      Quote: Hurricane70
      Quote: Gransasso
      Quote: Kotischa
      Well, our Cossacks even noted in gostronomy. "Food Restaurant Chain - Fast" is precisely their merit



      Do not write illiterate ignorance .....

      Well, then what did not continue? What is illiteracy and ignorance? Start, continue to the end!



      It is enough to at least read Wikipedia once ... if there is not enough knowledge for more specialized sources in the form of dictionaries ...


      A popular etymological version connects the French word bistro with Russian quickly. Allegedly, during the occupation of Paris in 1814, the Russian Cossacks demanded that the French waiters to serve them quickly. So, according to this version, the name for the institution appeared, where dishes are prepared and served shortly after ordering. It is this version that is immortalized on the memorial plaque of the À la Mère Catherine restaurant (pictured).

      This version cannot be regarded as reliable, since the first mention of the use of the word “bistro” in French refers only to the 1880s, when there was no noticeable Russian presence in Paris.

      On the other hand, there are similar dialectic and vernacular words meaning alcoholic drinks, wine merchants or zucchini owners, for example, bist (r) ouille, bistringue or bistroquet.

      Robert’s French etymological dictionary associates the distribution of this group of words with the dialectic (northern France) bistouille (swipes, bad alcohol), noted since 1845, and this French dictionary qualifies the “Russian” version of the word’s origin as “pure fantasy”
  3. Roman 11
    Roman 11 22 October 2017 17: 50
    0
    It is also called the battle of Tarutino.

    Murat, despite being related to the emperor, then betrayed him, if he had not gone over, perhaps a lot would have been different, for example, the company 1814 is definitely more difficult for the allies. In general, after the retreat from Moscow, Napoleon begins a series of betrayals and dashes ..... few remained faithful. Well, as far back as 1809, the emperor was tired of continuous wars, his military art lost his incentive, the same company of 1813 was "depressed", no lightning-fast maneuvers, stupid movement of huge masses. Although it was precisely here that the corps jumped into one of the armies, something similar to Ulm, but he clung to his rear communications, being afraid to take risks ..... however, in 1814 he with a tiny army left behind the allied armies, then there was nowhere to go.
  4. ukoft
    ukoft 22 October 2017 18: 29
    +1
    The talent of the strategist Kutuzov. This is to whom Russia and Europe owe their liberation from the Corsican monster. The remaining names such as Wellington or Blucher participated only in the killing of reservists inexperienced and young men
  5. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 22 October 2017 18: 34
    0
    The war was for the river routes "From the Varangians to the Greeks." From the Neva to the Volga. Moscow, Napoleon was interested in so far.
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 22 October 2017 19: 16
    0
    Kolenkur had an interesting comparison of Cossacks with a swarm of bees. He praised the regular army and the Cossacks. Kolenkur correctly noticed that the Cossacks were good at chasing and hitting the flanks
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 22 October 2017 22: 42
    +1
    Cossacks in their role: attack, cut the fleeing (if they run) and rob the wagons (if possible). But they don’t give a damn about the general plan of the battle. See at least the book "Quiet Flows the Don", how they retreated to the civilian, with what belongings.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 23 October 2017 12: 04
      0
      What the Cossacks didn’t understand was that they were the only ones to take the position according to the plan, and were not lost in the thoroughly studied area
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 23 October 2017 23: 36
        0
        They were not lost only because they rushed to share the trophy goods. And about the "not lost" - so according to the plan the attack should be made by joint forces, but then the good would have to be shared with others.
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 24 October 2017 12: 57
          0
          According to the plan, it was necessary to take positions according to the plan and not to stray, do not be attacked by the Cossacks, in the best case, the French simply retreated.