Military Review

Fail Five Years

30
Fail Five Years65 years ago, 5 – 14 in October 1952, after the 13-year interruption, which is connected with the Great Patriotic War and the period of restoration, the XIX Congress of the CPSU (b) took place. It was the last congress, in the work of which I.V. Stalin. One of the outcomes of this party forum was the renaming of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) into the CPSU. But most importantly, the fundamental directives for the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1951 – 1955) were adopted, which provided for a higher rate of economic development of the country compared to the previous five-year plan (1946 - 1950), whose main goal was to revive the country. The peculiarity of the new five-year plan was the fact that for the first time it was coordinated with the corresponding plans for the development of the economy of Eastern European socialist countries (except Yugoslavia), as well as the PRC.


The directives on the new five-year plan, along with the decision to convene a congress, were published in Pravda on August 20 1952. The head of the USSR State Planning Committee (in 1949 – 1955) Maxim Saburov was appointed Rapporteur. Stalin, being the head of the Union Council of Ministers, was not among the speakers, he spoke only at the last meeting of the congress, October 14, with an 15-minute speech. And he did not say anything about the speeches of the delegates of the congress, including on the reports of G. Malenkov (report of the Central Committee) and M. Saburov.

In his last speech, Stalin spoke exclusively of the main tasks of the international communist and national liberation movement, the need to rally all the anti-imperialist forces in the world.

In this regard, foreign media, in particular, the British, noted that the most likely were two reasons for this behavior of Stalin, and interconnected with each other: either he is seriously ill, or the policy to remove him from his leadership role is increasing.
This version was confirmed, for example, by the fact that Stalin was only at some meetings of the congress, moreover in the stands for members of the Central Committee, and not in the presidium of the forum.

October 12 1952 The XIX Congress approved the Fifth Five-Year Directive. Already by 1955, the total level of total industrial production should have increased by 1950% compared to 70 year, the average annual growth rate of all gross output was determined in 12%. It envisaged the construction (and today the largest in Eurasia) of the Kuibyshev (now Zhigulevskaya), Stalingrad (now Volzhskaya), Kakhovskaya hydro plants, as well as the Kama, Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), Mingechaur, Ust-Kamenogorsk and several other hydroelectric stations. (About 80% of these capacities were commissioned to the beginning - middle of 1956). For example, the development of the Volga-Don water transport route (commissioned from June 1952) from the Volga-Ural navigable canal (Stalingrad region - Western Kazakhstan) was planned. By 1956, it was planned to commission the Amu Darya (eastern Turkmenistan) - Caspian Sea (Krasnovodsk port) water route, but in 1955 these and a number of other industrial projects were suspended.

By 1956, it was planned to commission the Polar Transsib: the northern Trans-Siberian railway (over 1300 km) from Salekhard to Norilsk with its subsequent extension (to 1963) to Yakutsk and further to the ports of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. This road to Norilsk was built to the beginning of 1953-th by almost 70%, but in March of the same year the project was mothballed. However, the economic and geopolitical demand for this artery did not disappear anywhere, and in 2014-m its construction was resumed, although it is carried out with a significant delay from the schedule (mainly due to insufficient funding).

The capacity of the sea and river ports of the country should have more than doubled; in the Siberian-Far Eastern region of the RSFSR, in the Danube region of Ukraine, Azerbaijan, in the Baltic republics and the Kaliningrad region, the creation of new seaports was planned. But it was in the RSFSR that such projects were stopped in 1953 – 1954.

The gross crop of grain crops was planned to increase over the five-year period by 40 – 50%, other crops - at least by 35%. Gross production of meat and fat should have increased by almost half, milk - as much wool and hides in 2 - 2,5 times. Moreover, more than half of all this increase was planned for the RSFSR.

The well-known American economist Vasily Leontyev noted in this connection that “in the Soviet economic plans 1951 – 1955. The emphasis is on making the RSFSR a “locomotive” of economic development for the entire USSR. The Soviet leadership is striving, including for understandable political reasons, to prevent Russia from lagging behind other regions of the country in terms of economic construction. ”

But, as is known, in the subsequent period, the socio-economic development of the RSFSR was, to put it mildly, in the background in comparison with other Union republics ...
It is also characteristic that in 1952 – 1955. It was planned to build up to 2,3 million hectares of soil-protective forest plantations on collective and state farms and almost as many in traditional forest regions of the country in accordance with the state program (1948 – 1964) “Frontier plantings, introduction of grassland crop rotations, construction of ponds and reservoirs to ensure high and sustainable crops in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of the European part of the USSR ". At the same time, up to 70% of the volume of all these activities was planned in the RSFSR. Already in 1948 – 1952. their implementation has led to a significant increase in crop yields, livestock productivity, an increase in the fertility of agricultural soils and a reduction in the area of ​​degraded (sick) agricultural land. But in July-September 1953 and this program was stopped. The development of virgin lands became a priority, on the eve of and during which even experienced plantations and ponds of agro / forest research facilities were cut down in virgin and adjacent regions.

Improvement of living conditions was envisaged at the expense of state and cooperative (housing cooperatives) construction of 105 million square meters. m housing. This is almost twice the total index of the third and fourth five-year plans, since the direst consequences of the war to the beginning of the 1950's led to overcrowding in large cities and industrial centers in most regions of the country. Moreover, all kinds of barracks, decommissioned passenger and post-luggage cars, and dugouts of the war years were forced to use as housing.

But the pace of housing construction in 1946 – 1951. each year they lagged behind 20 – 25% from the real needs, and for 1951 – 1955, it was planned to reduce this disparity to 10%. However, after 1953, the country's leadership decided to reach records not only on virgin soil. In 1954 – 1955 decisions were made to speed up and simplify housing construction by eliminating the so-called architectural excesses (the so-called Stalin Empire), the use of cheap building materials and minimizing the finishing works in new buildings.

As a result, by the beginning of 1957, the corresponding figure of the fifth five-year plan was exceeded by more than a third. But these were mostly standard houses of average height from materials harmful to health: such houses were not only their tenants, but also experts, who reasonably called asbestos-phenolic ones. This housing is still a significant part of the housing stock of many cities and industrial centers not only in Russia, although the regulatory life of such houses does not exceed 25 years. But perhaps more characteristic is the fact that this kind of housing was built mainly in the RSFSR, Belarus and Eastern Ukraine.

In the directives for the fifth five-year plan it was planned to continue to hold in the spring an annual decline in retail prices. But 1 April 1955, it did not take place and, as they say, has sunk into oblivion.
Recall that the annual decline in retail prices for goods and services was initiated by Stalin at the end of November 1947 of the year (by the decision of the Presidium of the Union Council of Ministers). Decline in prices occurred, in particular, 16 December 1947 th, 10 April 1948 th, 1 March 1949 th, 1 March 1950 th, 1 March 1951 th, 1 April 1952 th, 1 April 1953 th April 1 th - the last time. As some Western media noted, the termination of this process was due to the fact that the economic situation in the country was worsening due to huge virgin costs, increased military spending and increasing USSR financial assistance to postcolonial countries.

The latter is illustrated by the fact that the mentioned help is only for 1954 – 1957. more than tripled, and these were mainly foreign currency interest-free loans / loans. But the postcolonial countries paid to the USSR (in goods and in currency) no more than 40% of the credit and borrowed funds provided to them in 1954 – 1964.

However, after Stalin’s death in March 1953, the planned targets for most sectors of the economy, unlike agriculture, were sharply reduced due to N. Khrushchev’s notorious campaign to develop virgin and fallow lands launched in the spring of 1954. The Union Council of Ministers has prescribed grain production to almost double by 1956 in comparison with the level of the 1951 of the year. Rapidly rising virgin spending required the conservation or cancellation of at least half of the industrial, energy and infrastructure projects of the five-year plan.

This decision was made at the end of March 1953 and, naturally, disrupted the coordination of plans for the economic development of the USSR and the socialist countries (it resumed — with the participation of most Eastern European CMEA countries — only from the middle of 1960's). As for the most virgin campaign, carried out mainly in Kazakhstan, its technologically and ecologically detrimental methods could not but lead to a chronic crisis, which is still felt today, in most segments of agriculture and animal husbandry in the Russian Non-Black Earth region and in a number of other regions of the country. At that time, personnel, agricultural equipment, seed stocks and even some narrow-gauge railways were urgently transferred to virgin lands. And in investments in agriculture, the virgin share in 1954 – 1958. exceeded 65%.

In the first virgin years - 1954 – 1956. grain yields in the USSR were almost twice as high as 1951, up to 75% of this growth was provided by virgin lands. However, already with 1958, the USSR became incrementally - right up to the collapse of the country! - first import livestock products, and then grain products ...

So, many of the tasks of the fifth five-year plan were revised two years after the start of their implementation. The second stage of the large-scale industrialization of the country was delayed for many years in favor of the notorious Khrushchev "innovations", especially in agriculture.
After a short time, they turned, above all, for the RSFSR, with irreparable consequences — sectoral and, in general, socio-economic.

Meanwhile, in the autumn, in the West, the upcoming changes in the country's leadership were caught in time. And when, after the congress at the next Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Stalin was not officially released from the post of general secretary (which he himself proposed), but was not elected to this post, the Anti-Bolshevik Coordination Center was established in Munich under the auspices of the United States CIA and Intelligence Agency (BND). He became the governing structure of the American Committee for the Liberation of Russia, created in January of 1951 ... The USSR and the West entered a new era of relations.
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http://www.stoletie.ru/territoriya_istorii/nesostojavshajasa_patiletka_207.htm
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 21 October 2017 15: 51
    +4
    It is also characteristic that in 1952–1955. it was planned to lay 2,3 million hectares of soil-afforested forest stands on collective farms and state farms, and almost as much in the traditional forest regions of the country in accordance with the state program (1948–1964) of protective shelter plantations, the introduction of grass crop rotation, the construction of ponds and ponds to ensure high and sustainable crops in the steppe and forest-steppe regions of the European part of the USSR. ”
    ... Cartoon is on this subject .. Geese return home from wintering and can’t find their backwater .. Find it and don’t recognize it, everything has changed .... Mom, recalls, they had such a station on the farm, they planted oaks .. A good forest belt turned out .. I remember they came to my grandmother, went there for nuts, berries ..
  2. Boris55
    Boris55 21 October 2017 17: 10
    +7
    Her. Ukrainians can not be allowed to power. No wonder the proverbs say that when a crest was born, a Jew burst into tears ... They ruined such a country. Today they are killing themselves - let’s not bother them.
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 19: 24
      0
      Quote: Boris55
      Her. Ukrainians should not be allowed to power

      Russian then all the more impossible laughing Gorbachev-Ryzhkov-Yeltsin-Yakovlev like all the Russians were.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 21 October 2017 19: 49
        +1
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        Gorbachev-Ryzhkov-Yeltsin-Yakovlev like all the Russians were.

        That’s exactly what seems to be - wives of those who are not Russians today, but women always rule a man.
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 20: 07
          0
          Quote: Boris55
          peasant women always rule

          So then you would have written right away - you shouldn’t allow married people to power! Bo woman is an unclean vessel of the devil, created only for the sake of order, to command shtob men, and other business sinful! Amen!
          And then let the fog here you know - Ukrainians say they are to blame laughing
          By the way, but Wikipedia says that Khrushchev is Kursk? Are you lying?
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 20: 21
            +3
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            By the way, but Wikipedia says that Khrushchev is Kursk? Are you lying?

            So she’s still that Klava ... By birth Khrushchev, maybe Russian, but he is a crest.
            1. rkkasa xnumx
              rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 21: 00
              +2
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              By birth Khrushchev, maybe Russian, but he is a crest

              Is it like a bad man cannot be Russian? Immediately crest-Jew-or someone else laughing
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 21: 04
                +3
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                It’s like a bad Russian man

                Can. Only Russian they did not consider him, but called him names for everyone. Primak - how do you like it?
                1. rkkasa xnumx
                  rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 21: 32
                  0
                  Quote: Mordvin 3
                  Only Russian did not consider him, and called names for everyone

                  Who counted? Why did you count? Why did you count? What are the scandals of the investigation? REN TV told?laughing
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 21: 55
                    +4
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    REN TV told?

                    Horseradish TV has nothing to do with it ... He is a corn mailer, a tyrant and a tramp. The UN sowed a boot ... crying And spread rot artists .. crying .
                    1. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 22: 06
                      0
                      Quote: Mordvin 3
                      Corncob he, tyrant, and tramp

                      So this is the exact description of the Russian! Your ideological brothers, Svidomo there, fascists German, etc., confirm this good
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 22: 12
                        +3
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        German fascists, etc., this will be confirmed

                        The picture number four will suit them. am
                        Quote: Golovan Jack
                        And he sowed corn near Arkhangelsk ... also - did not sprout ...

                        Well .... probably badly planted ... crying
                    2. Golovan Jack
                      Golovan Jack 21 October 2017 22: 07
                      +6
                      Quote: Mordvin 3
                      He is a corncracker, a tyrant, and a tramp. The UN sowed a boot ...

                      ... but he never sprouted ...
                      And he sowed corn near Arkhangelsk ... also - did not sprout ...
                      However, the trend (c) request
          2. IS-80_RVGK2
            IS-80_RVGK2 21 October 2017 20: 32
            0
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            By the way, but Wikipedia says that Khrushchev is Kursk? Are you lying?

            Do you read Wikipedia as a spy, pest and enemy of the people? Despicable worshiper of the West. Shoot!
          3. Boris55
            Boris55 22 October 2017 09: 46
            0
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            So then you would have written right away - you shouldn’t allow married people to power!

            There are not a few articles on the Internet about the institution of Jewish wives - read. And by the way. Stalin pursued an independent policy - a widower. Putin pursues an independent policy - divorced. laughing
    2. MrK
      MrK 22 October 2017 12: 48
      +1
      In 1959, on the anniversary of W. Churchill, toasts were made in his honor. One of the guests offered a toast to Churchill as the person who made the biggest contribution to the cause of the struggle against communism and the USSR. Churchill interrupted him and declared: "There is a man on Earth who has done more in this direction than I am." The hall held its breath. Churchill continued: “This is Khrushchev” [A. Kurlyandchik "CURSED" SOVIET AUTHORITY ..., on Proza.ru].
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 21 October 2017 18: 05
    +4
    In the Stalinist plan, it was planned to invest in non-black soil, when there was still a population there. After Khrushchev’s experiments with virgin soil, in the 70’s they again tried to invest in non-black soil, but by that time the number of able-bodied people there had greatly decreased, but now I don’t want to talk about it.
  4. Roman 11
    Roman 11 21 October 2017 18: 29
    0
    Planning to deploy rivers?
    1. Igor V
      Igor V 21 October 2017 19: 52
      0
      I already wrote once: the first stage of the river’s turn, the Irtysh-Karaganda canal, is still operating. Does this somehow prevent you from living?
  5. polpot
    polpot 21 October 2017 19: 57
    +3
    The time of the godfathers has passed; the time has come for corn clowns and marshals of the villagers
  6. Igor V
    Igor V 21 October 2017 20: 16
    +3
    Often recall the import of grain. Cereal streams from tsarist times passed through our city. In Soviet times, there was Canadian feed grain, that is, low-quality grain intended for the production of animal feed. I do not think that this grain significantly influenced the country's economy.
  7. Olgovich
    Olgovich 22 October 2017 07: 09
    +3
    Phenolic houses are the beginning 70x years.
    Khrushchev’s panels, still standing, first realized the dream of Soviet citizens to live in tolerable conditions ...
    1. IS-80_RVGK2
      IS-80_RVGK2 22 October 2017 11: 58
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      Khrushchev’s panels, still standing, first realized the dream of Soviet citizens to live in tolerable conditions ...

      Well, yes, with the king, then each has its own mansion in two floors with all amenities. These bloody communes drove everyone into the slums.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 22 October 2017 13: 17
        +4
        Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
        Well, yes, with the king, then each has its own mansion in two floors with all amenities. This bloody commies drove everyone into the slums

        the size of the living space in cities in 1913 per person was reached only by 1960 m.
        Damned tsarist 1913! How many decades had to "fight" to just catch up!
        1. IS-80_RVGK2
          IS-80_RVGK2 22 October 2017 14: 27
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          the size of the living space in cities in 1913 per person was reached in the future only by 1960 m.

          Don’t feed the monarchist with bread, just let me lie. How many people lived in cities in 1913 and how much later during the Soviet era. Industrialization caused a large flow of people from village to city, the urban population increased sharply. Naturally, the size of housing fell. Then there was war and devastation. But again, why should the monarchist remember this? Otherwise, the lies will immediately become apparent.
          And yes, give statistics disaggregated by social groups. And it may suddenly turn out that the worker had a corner in the hut, and the official had a house with twenty rooms. But on average, yes, the size of the area per person was higher.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 23 October 2017 08: 42
            +3
            Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
            Industrialization caused a large flow of people from village to city, the urban population increased sharply. Naturally, the size of housing fell.

            This is unnatural. In RI, housing construction was ahead of urban population growth, which was also growing because there was rapid industrialization
            Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
            the worker had a corner in the hut,

            Often there was no corner — they lived in dugouts, common huts, basements, attics — in the 30s and beyond.
            1. IS-80_RVGK2
              IS-80_RVGK2 23 October 2017 12: 16
              +1
              Quote: Olgovich
              This is unnatural. In RI, housing construction was ahead of urban population growth, which was also growing because there was rapid industrialization

              Your fast industrialization is nothing compared to the Soviet one. What is unnatural? It was necessary to wait another half a century until we reach the level of Western Europe at the beginning of the century? Would they even give us this? We would go that route and now Russia would not even be within the borders of the 15th century. Now we have capitalism and the Communists have not been in power for 26 years, but as soon as we began to rise after the disease, they again try to drive us into a hospital bed. So why then would it be different?
              Quote: Olgovich
              Often there was no corner — they lived in dugouts, common huts, basements, attics

              Nothing at all. Everyone lived in the barracks of the Gulag and around the tower and barbed wire. Moldavian hang noodles on the ears of someone else. Few of us who are not so stupid, Moldovans, too, clung to their stupidity.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 24 October 2017 09: 07
                +4
                Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
                Your fast industrialization is nothing compared to the Soviet one. What is unnatural? It was necessary to wait another half a century until we reach the level of Western Europe at the beginning of the century? Would they even give us this? We would go that route and now Russia would not even be within the borders of the 15th century. Now we have capitalism and the Communists have not been in power for 26 years, but as soon as we began to rise after the disease, they again try to drive us into a hospital bed. T

                Would, would, would, would ... What are your countless would be? Less than nothing. And there is a FACT: the pace of Russia's development before (and during) the WWII. Which, in the absence of de-militaryization of 1917-1922, led to the same results. But without the many millions of victims of hunger, the robbery of tens of millions of peasants and millions of demographic losses.
                Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
                Nothing at all. Everyone lived in the barracks of the Gulag and around the tower and barbed wire. Moldavian hang noodles on the ears of someone else. Few of us who are not so stupid, Moldovans, too, clung to their stupidity.
                Reply

                1. “Moldavan” I am by your grace, my friend, who turned Russian Bessarabia into Moldova and Ukraine in 1940 WITHOUT the wishes of the inhabitants.
                2. You do not know the history of our country: before 1938, less housing was built than in 1918. . Do you say
                Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
                Moldavian puffed himself up with his stupidity.
                ? lol laughing
    2. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 22 October 2017 12: 23
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      Khrushchev’s panels, still standing, first realized the dream of Soviet citizens to live in tolerable conditions ...

      That, yes. "Spring on Zarechnaya street." There, the joy of introducing not into a separate apartment, into a room is well shown.
      But perhaps more characteristic is the fact that such housing was built mainly in the RSFSR, Belarus and Eastern Ukraine.

      Not surprising. One has only to remember where the war went with the rink.
      The growth rates and capabilities of the USSR are impressive.
      Now we will be impressed with the successes of the Chinese.
      "... for 2020-2035 it is planned to" mainly carry out socialist modernization ", China should" rise to the level of the leading countries of the innovative type "; and over the next 15 years, that is, until the middle of this century, it is planned to turn China" into a rich and powerful, democratic and civilized, harmonious and beautiful modernized socialist power, "China should be among the leading countries in terms of combined national power and international influence, in the country" generally prosperity will be achieved. "
      They already have salaries and pensions higher than Russian at times.
  8. Looking for
    Looking for 21 December 2017 18: 45
    -1
    Dear scribblers, what right do you have to discuss questions of history, if YOU ARE ALL. PERFECTLY !!!!!!. Write a “not” particle separately with a word. Cut a “not” particle on your nose, written separately with the word ONLY IN THE CASE of further contrasting .Example-not smart, but stupid, not high .a low. In all other cases, the particle "not" is written with the word SIGNIFICANT !!!! when you, LEARNING. free it into your DIGITAL.