Military Review

Defender of Russian Honor Yevpaty Kolovrat

60
Evpaty Kolovrat - the epic Russian bogatyr, the Ryazan boyar or voivod, the hero of folk tales from the time of the Batu invasion of Russia. The Old Russian “The Tale of the Ruin of Ryazan Batu” tells about his feat. This story is preserved in the lists, the oldest of which date from the end of the XVI century. At the same time, three types of this text were reflected in the three oldest lists according to the classification of academician Dmitry Likhachev.


Despite the remoteness of events concerning this person, Evpaty Kolowrat is a famous figure, who was widely represented in Russian literature, mainly in poems, poems and ballads. In the Soviet Union, in 1985, the cartoon “The Tale of Evpatiy Kolovrat”, directed by Roman Davydov, was shot about this Russian hero, comprising a cycle dedicated to ancient and medieval stories Russia, it also included the cartoons “The Childhood of Ratibor” (1973 year, about the formation of the Russian statehood) and “The Swans of Nepryadva” (1980 year, about the Kulikovo battle). Also, several slides were devoted to this hero in the USSR at once. 30 November 2017 of the year on the screens of the country comes out the film "The Legend of the Kolovrat". It is safe to say that this hero is still an important part of the Russian epic and an important figure for the formation of its own Russian identity, which began to be laid back at the turn of the XI-XII centuries.

The history of Evpatiy Kolovrat is connected with one of the most tragic episodes of the history of Russia - the Mongol invasion, also known as the Invasion of Batu. It was the invasion of the Mongol Empire in the territory of the Russian principalities in 1237-1240 in the framework of the Western campaign of the Mongols 1236-1242. A serious external threat came to Russia at the moment that was not the most suitable for it, the Russian state was in a state of feudal fragmentation and could not resist the forces of the invaders by combined forces. On the other hand, united tribes and states could not resist the Mongolian army of that period, as evidenced by the conquest of the large states of China, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Fragment of the diorama "Defense of the old Ryazan in 1237 year"

The Mongol invasion of Russia itself began at the end of 1237. The Ryazan principality was the first under the rink of the Invasion of Batu. Having defeated the combined army of the Ryazan Prince Yuri Igorevich and the Murom Princes Yuri Davydovich and Oleg Yuryevich on the Voronezh River, the Mongols moved into the depths of the Russian lands. The prince of Ryazan himself survived this battle and returned to Ryazan, to which the Mongol army began its siege on December 16 of the year 1237. The first attacks of Ryazan were able to repel, but the forces of the defenders were melting, and more and more new troops were approaching the Mongols, who were returning from Pronsk, Igeslavl and other cities from December to 16-17. It is worth noting that Ryazan was protected by ten-meter ramparts, on which there were high oak walls with loopholes. The fortifications in winter were poured with water, which froze, making them even more impregnable for the storming troops.

The defenders of Ryazan heroically defended the city for five days, bringing stones, arrows and boiling tar on the heads of the Mongols, fighting in hand-to-hand combat. However, on the sixth day, their forces were almost exhausted, many soldiers were killed and wounded by that time, and those who remained in the ranks practically fought on the walls, while the Mongols could give their troops rest, rotate and receive reinforcements. In addition, at the final stage of the assault, the Mongols widely used stencils. The last assault on the city began on the night of 20 on December 21, after a stubborn battle, the Mongols broke into the city, it fell on the sixth day. In this case, the invaders staged a massacre in the city, destroying the vast majority of the inhabitants of Ryazan, including children and infants, and the Prince of Ryazan, Yuri Igorevich, was killed. The fortifications were also completely destroyed, and the city itself was never rebuilt in this place. In this case, the Mongols ravaged not only Ryazan, but the whole principality, destroying a large number of cities and settlements. Some of them historians can not identify today. For example, the exact location of Belgorod Ryazansky, which was erased by Batyi’s tumens from the face of the earth and was never restored, is unknown.

By the time the Mongols invaded Russia, Evpatiy Kolovrat was about 35 years old. Apparently, he occupied a rather honorable place under the Ryazan prince, was a boyar or rather a voivod. He was also quite an experienced warrior, a talented commander, and possessed great physical strength. Even before the fall of Ryazan, Prince Yuri Igorevich sent his people with a request for help to the princes Vladimir and Chernigov. It was in Chernigov that Evpaty Kolovrat was at that time, and here he found the news of the death of Ryazan and the death of the prince.

Defender of Russian Honor Yevpaty Kolovrat

Returning to his homeland, he found the city and the principality ruined and plundered. He met only scorched earth and ashes littered with the corpses of the slain. Kolovrat was shocked by the cruelty of the conquerors. Perhaps he returned to his native land already with a small detachment of Ryazan soldiers, who were at the embassy to the Chernigov prince. On the spot, he replenished his forces with surviving people who were outside the city walls and hiding in the woods. In total, he managed to assemble a detachment with a total of up to 1700 people. With these small forces, Evpaty Kolovrat set off in pursuit of the Mongols.

It was already possible to overtake the conquerors on the territory of Suzdal lands. The Mongols did not expect attacks from the rear, confident that the Ryazan detachments had already been completely destroyed. Evpatius Kolovrat's attacks on the rearguard of the Mongolian troops turned out to be sudden for the latter. Most likely, Kolovrat also used guerrilla tactics, attacks from ambushes, from the forest. In any case, he with small forces inflicted serious losses on the enemy. The Mongols, who did not expect attacks from the devastated Ryazan principality, were horrified, believing that the dead had rebelled to avenge themselves. At the same time, how many battles the squadron Evpatiy Kolovrat spent is not known for certain, no consensus on this matter exists. It is believed that there could be several of them and they were quite successful, as they were able to sow real panic in the rear of the Mongolian troops.

What was happening in the rear agitated Batu, and he turned considerable forces against the attackers. In the end, an overwhelming advantage in troop numbers decided the outcome of the confrontation. The Mongols were able to impose the battle of Evpatiy Kolovrat on the field, in fact, in complete encirclement. At the same time, Baty sent against his brother Kolovrat his wife Hostovrul. He praised the khan that Kolovrat would bring him alive, but he himself died in battle. As noted in the chronicle “The Tale of the Ruin of Ryazan Batu”, Kolovrat cut it in half with his sword, straight to the saddle.

Shot from 1988 filmstrip of the year "The Tale of Evpatiy Kolovrat"

According to legends, Baty, who did not want to lose his people any more, sent an ambassador to the Russian soldiers with the question: “What do you want?”. “Only die!” Was the answer. In the end, seeing the stubbornness with which a handful of Russian warriors fight, the Mongols used vices against them (stone-throwing machines intended for the destruction of fortifications). It was under a hail of stones that the last Russian soldiers from the Kolovrat squad and the hero himself died. Admittedly admiring the courage of Yevpaty Kolovrat, and also as a sign of respect for his courage, Baty released the captured wounded Ryazan soldiers from his detachment with the body of a killed hero, so that they would bury him according to their customs.

Evpatiy Kolovrat's personality, as well as many characters and events of the XIII century, for obvious reasons, is shrouded in many questions and secrets. For example, questions are often discussed whether Yevpaty was a Christian or a pagan? Those who consider him a pagan indicate his name and surname. In their opinion, Kolovrat is a Slavic pagan symbol of the sun, and the name Yevpatny is not in Svyattsy. Both statements are incorrect. There is no ethnographic source that would confirm the ancient Slavic pagan origin of the word kolovrat and its relation to the sun. On the contrary, it is reliably known that a gear device for cocking machine gun self-propelled guns mounted on a special machine-frame with wheels (in Russia crossbows were called gun guns for self-rifles) was known as a gunworm. And the name Evpatiy can be directly related to this device or crossbow case.

If we talk about the name of Evpaty himself, then this is a modified form of the Greek manor Hypatius. In ancient Russia, it was quite common, as it was associated with the revered holy priest-martyr Ipatiy Gangrsky. In honor of him in Kostroma, even one of the oldest Russian monasteries was built. At the same time, small changes in the pronunciation and spelling of the name Ipatii are associated with the peculiarities of the linguistic tradition and do not constitute anything special. The same Greek name George in the Slavic tradition was modified at once into two different derivative names - Yegor and Yuri.

Monument to Evpaty Kolovrat in Ryazan

There is also a version that Evpaty is a collective image that can symbolize not even different people, but all of Russia, which perishes, but does not surrender to the invaders. The same “Tale of the Ruin of Ryazan Batu” is characterized by features of epic epic songs of the XIII-XIV centuries. This work can be regarded as more artistic than historical. Symbolism and hyperbole, which are present in the narration, may also point to this, as well as in the text of the story there were numerous inaccuracies associated with historical characters. However, even if Evpaty Kolovrat is only a beautiful legend and he is a collective image of the best Russian warriors or even of all of Russia, it is still important for our history. Whatever it was, during the Mongol invasion of Russia, it was quite possible to meet Russian people of unprecedented fortitude, capable of performing various feats. Thanks to such people, the Russian warriors were able to gain fame in the world, and the Russians themselves are perceived as a people deserving respect.

Currently in our country there are three monuments dedicated to Evpatiy Kolovrat. All three are located on the territory of the Ryazan region. The first was located in the town of Shilovo, according to some sources it was this town that was the birthplace of Kolovrat. The second monument, he is the most famous, was installed in 2007 in Ryazan itself, it is located in the center of the city on Pochtovaya Square and is relatively close to the Kremlin. The third monument was erected on the outskirts of the village of Frolovo towards the village of Ryasy (in the Shilovsky district of the region).

Information sources:
https://cyrillitsa.ru/past/44993-evpatiy-kolovrat-chem-znamenit-russki.html
http://www.aif.ru/society/history/kak_Evpatii_Kolovrat_zashchishchal_russkuiu_chest
http://slavyanskaya-kultura.ru/slavic/heros/evpatii-kolovrat.html
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 October 2017 05: 43
    +6
    Even if the image is collective, all the same - the most important brick of our history. This is not the first time we are returning to this topic at VO, but I want to re-read more and more.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 24 October 2017 06: 42
      21
      Quote: Korsar4
      Even if the image is collective, all the same - the most important brick of our history. This is not the first time we are returning to this topic at VO, but I want to re-read more and more.

      Since Russia eventually survived, then Evpatiy was!
      Like millions of other Yevpatievs who saved the country for 1000 years.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 24 October 2017 07: 22
        +4
        Yes. Also like to think so.
        1. Vend
          Vend 24 October 2017 10: 17
          +4
          Quote: Korsar4
          Yes. Also like to think so.

          And you have to think so. +
      2. Seal
        Seal 24 October 2017 17: 30
        +3
        Since Russia eventually survived, then Evpatiy was!

        Russia survived in many real wars. But our ancestors were not under any “yoke”. The version that Russia was under the Tatar yoke (which in the 18-19 centuries was transformed first into the "Tatar-Mongolian", then into the "Mongol-Tatar", and now many use the term "Mongolian" yoke ") was thrown to us by Catholics, revenge for the fact that our ancestors did not recognize the authority of the Pope. And so that we better swallow this main stuffing about the “300 year old yoke,” we wrapped it in a beautiful colorful wrapper from a number of “feats.” This includes the feat of the concrete Evpatiya Kolovrat ", and" Defense of Kozelsk. "Unfortunately, singing these feats, we thereby pr We extend and extend the life of this stupid version that the “Mongols” once allegedly conquered us and that we were allegedly under their “300-year-old yoke”.
        In our history, a huge number of real feats have been accomplished. We have something to chant in more than enough.
        And in relation to Evpathy Kolovrat, one must always make a reference that this feat is akin to the deeds of Heracles or Theseus. That is, from the field of heroic legends. Especially for young people. Otherwise, they can also take up the rotten idea that was born to us once at the Office of one of the Roman popes, that our Motherland could be captured by enemies for some time, but then we’ll surely get together and free ourselves, as if already once we succeeded in the "Mongol-Tatars". No, this liberal idea about the possible seizure of the homeland must be strangled in the bud. No enemy can capture our Motherland.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 25 October 2017 10: 08
          +2
          Quote: Seal
          This series includes the feat of a concrete “Evpathy of Kolovrat” and “Defense of Kozelsk”.

          And is this also not true?
          Our expedition conducted systematic excavations of mass graves of victims of the Mongol invasion in 1977-1979 on a hem near the Oka River and near the former Sterligovs' manor house near the southern outskirts of the village of Fatyanovka.
          The study of anthropological materials showed that of the 143 uncovered burials, the majority belong to men aged 30 to 40 years and women from 30 to 35 years old. Many children's graves, from infants to 6-10 years. These are Ryazans, whom the conquerors exterminated without exception, many after the capture of the city. Boys, girls, and young women who survived were probably divided among the warriors. Some skeletons have broken skulls, traces of saber blows on the bones, hands are chopped off. Many individual skulls. Arrowheads stuck in the bones. prisoners were slaughtered with an ax or a double-edged ax. Mass executions took place methodically and calmly: the convicts were divided among the centurions, the same ones instructed each slave to kill at least ten people. According to the chroniclers, after the fall of Ryazan (Old) - men, women and children, monks, nuns and priests were destroyed by fire and sword, crucified, hit with arrows. Prisoners were chopped off their heads: during excavations by A.V. Selivanov the Spassky Cathedral, clusters of 27 and 70 skulls were found, some with traces of blows with sharp weapons.

          In the mass graves of Old Ryazan, the dead were buried without coffins, in common pits up to 1 m deep, and the frozen ground was heated with bonfires. They were laid according to the Christian rite - their head to the west, with their hands folded on their chest. Skeletons lie in rows, close to each other, in places in two or three tiers.
          Darkevich V.P. Travel to ancient Ryazan. - Ryazan: New Time, 1993

          Ryazan after the destruction of the monopoly-Tatars-NOT restored, but she exist.
          Found evidence of heroic defense Kozelskahttp://kozelsk-eparhia.ru/index.php/990-dokazatel
          stva-oborony-kozelska
          1. Seal
            Seal 26 October 2017 17: 55
            +1
            Our expedition conducted systematic excavations of mass graves of victims of the Mongol invasion in 1977-1979 on a hem near the Oka River and near the former Sterligovs' manor house near the southern outskirts of the village of Fatyanovka.

            Well, as I said. First there was the "Tatar invasion", then the "Tatar-Mongolian", then the "Mongol-Tatar", now purely "Mongolian". Already even the Tatars are not mentioned.
            And what, there, in the mass graves, there were signs: "Here are the victims of the Mongol invasion"? An extremely naive (or provocative) position is all the burial places found near those cities that, according to the annals (compiled, incidentally, 200 years after the alleged "fact of the event") are classified as cities that were first subjected to the "Tatar invasion", then to the "Tatar-Mongolian" ", then to the" Mongol-Tatar ", now purely" Mongolian "- refer to the" victims of the Mongol invasion. "
            This is like Israeli archaeologists. They take a Bible or Torah or something like that. They read that "Such a city is located at a distance of two days on a camel ride from Jerusalem to Egypt." They stand with their backs to Jerusalem, they point the compass needle toward Egypt and drive from Jerusalem (not by camel, by car) to the distance that, in their opinion, the camel will travel in two days. How they arrive in their opinion at "that distance" - they begin to search. If you immediately stumble upon some ruins - then they immediately have a holiday, they say they found that city. If they do not find anything, then they take a wider radius, and also take more the distance of the "camel stroke". As a result, they expand the area of ​​searches until they stumble upon something. And since caravan routes passed there back in the Middle Ages, then all sorts of ruins there, at least a dime a dozen, eventually stumble upon something. Well, that means they announce that they will find exactly the same "ancient city".
            These are Ryazans, whom the conquerors exterminated without exception, many after the capture of the city.
            If all Ryazans were exterminated without exception, then who buried?
            And why are these the traces of the notorious “Mongolian” invasion, and not, for example, the Vladimir people?
            It’s oil week. On February 20, Yurievich prepared the regiments for battle, and sent a convoy to the other side of Kolakshi with a retinue of Pereyaslavlites under the command of his nephew Vladimir Glebovich. Against Vladimir Gleb detached Mstislav Rostislavich; and he and his sons Roman and Igor, with brother-in-law Yaropolk and with the rest of the army crossed the river, thinking that Vsevolod remained on that side with few people. The Ryazanians approached Pruskovaya Gora, behind which the Grand Duke's regiment stood, and were already on the same flight of arrows when Gleb saw that Mstislav Rostislavich, a permanent fugitive from the battlefield, and this time turned the rear in front of Vladimir Glebovich. The Ryazan prince hastened to retreat; but it was too late. Surrounded by the troops of Vsevolod, Ryazans entered into a cruel, but short-term slash. Their defeat was perfect. Gleb himself, his son Roman, brother-in-law Mstislav were captured with most of the squad and with many noble boyars or Duma members of the Ryazan prince; between them were: the famous governor of Bogolyubsky Boris Zhidislavich, a supporter of the Rostislavichs; then Jacob Dedenkov, Alsteen and once already met us Grandfather. The Polovtsy, bad warriors in hand-to-hand combat, paid dearly for their robberies. The Northern chronicler views this defeat as a just punishment of God for the sins of Gleb, i.e. for the evil that he did to Vladimir land; “Mhru mhrite,” he says, will contemplate you; the fate of mercy without mercy. "
            Or is it the burial place of those who fell victim to the Polovtsy, who took advantage of the defeat of the Ryazan army by the Vladimir people?
            The defeat at Kolaksha and the capture of the princes, in addition to the humiliation and subjugation of the Ryazan land to the Vladimir prince, entailed another ordinary phenomenon of that time. Steppe barbarians, learning about the misfortune of their neighbors, were not slow to take the opportunity to rob Ryazan volosts.
            And before that, Mstislav Rostislavovich, along with Gleb Ryazansky, burned Moscow. And apparently also not without casualties.
            No need to multiply entities unnecessarily (Occam's razor).
            It is not necessary to explain the Mongols from the Far East to explain things that are commonplace in the Middle Ages by the ears.
            1. Seal
              Seal 26 October 2017 18: 12
              +1
              Found evidence of the heroic defense of Kozelsk

              Ah-ah-ah, look what kind of "evidence".
              It reads:
              Almost in the center of Kozelsk, a fragment of the rampart with charred logs was found. The find was excavated by archaeologists from a joint expedition of the Kaluga Regional Museum of Local Lore and the Ugra National Park.

              So what ??? Does Brazil have Don Pedro ??? Why is it necessary to attract “Mongols” from the Far East to each fragment of the ramparts with charred logs found on the Middle Russian Upland?
            2. Olgovich
              Olgovich 27 October 2017 06: 53
              0
              Quote: Seal
              And why are these the traces of the notorious “Mongolian” invasion, and not, for example, the Vladimir people?

              Yes Yes...
              Quote: Seal
              And that, there, in fraternal graves, there were signs: "The victims are buried here
              Vladimirites?lol
              Quote: Seal
              It is not necessary to explain the Mongols from the Far East to explain things that are commonplace in the Middle Ages by the ears.

              Of course, everyone sat still and even the great migration of peoples-fiction yes
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 24 October 2017 06: 43
    20
    The man who fought with the invaders to the end
    He led an open battle and partisan action
    Confronted edged weapons and the then "artillery" - a symbol of the military courage of Great Russia.
    No wonder she then defeated the invaders - and their descendants began to serve her faithfully.
    Thank you!
  3. Monarchist
    Monarchist 24 October 2017 09: 04
    +2
    I have come across such versions that Kolovrat is a collective image, but most likely this legend had a primary foundation. It seems to me: there was such a voivode who gathered the scattered vigilantes that with "honor" to conduct Batu. Remember that this was the case in 1941 and earlier: there was a decisive person who could lead the executed
  4. ver_
    ver_ 24 October 2017 11: 18
    0
    Quote: Monarchist
    I have come across such versions that Kolovrat is a collective image, but most likely this legend had a primary foundation. It seems to me: there was such a voivode who gathered the scattered vigilantes that with "honor" to conduct Batu. Remember that this was the case in 1941 and earlier: there was a decisive person who could lead the executed

    .. It's all bullshit .. Khan Batuy - Ivan Kalita = Yaroslav Vsevolodovich .. Tsar and Holy Father in one bottle .. Try wave your sword all day - put an entire army of horns ..., fight against your people and the Church ..
    1. ALEA IACTA EST
      ALEA IACTA EST 24 October 2017 14: 52
      0
      Yaroslav (Yuraslav, Yuri, Julius) Vsevolodovich (Sevolodovich, Kesarevich, Caesar).
    2. Seal
      Seal 24 October 2017 17: 55
      +1
      For some reason, the "Mongols" who came from the Far East were rather scrupulous about the inhabitants of the cities, at first offering simply to extradite the prince, promising not to do anything else. Why?

      Albert Maximov has an interesting version. What is possible, these were small detachments of the son and grandson of the first Russian autocrat Andrei Bogolyubsky. It is believed that the son of Andrei Bogolyubsky - Yuri (we will also call him "Bogolyubsky"), pursued by his uncle - Vsevolod the Big Nest, was forced to flee to the Polovtsy, and then, having been the husband of the Georgian tsarina Tamar, disappeared somewhere. And if he did not disappear, but lived quietly, for example, in the Nicene Empire. And already his son wanted to restore power and punish the descendants of Vsevolod the Big Nest. Here he is (name unknown - nickname "Batu Khan") and his elderly father Yuri (nickname "Sudebey Bagatur", which according to the traditional version of the story was Batu as if "like a father"), accompanied by a small detachment (maximum several thousand people ) arrive in Russia and to begin with explain who they are and why they appeared here. In cities that recognize them, they simply change princes. And the opposing cities are taken by storm, most likely with the help of a certain number of citizens willing to recognize the authority of the senior branch. Therefore, cities are taken so quickly that by the way, it was surprising and bewildering for all our historians, who the devil knows what they thought up, including shelling of cities with pots of burning human fat.
      Yuri Bogolyubsky, his son (sons, bred in fairy tales about the "Mongol-Tatars" under different names) and associates work neatly. They don’t climb into their cities. Therefore, neither Smolensk, nor Chernigov, nor Novgorod, nor Polotsk, nor Pskov, and so on, which belonged to the possessions of Andrei Bogolyubsky, were affected by the “invasion”. Even the youngest sons of Vsevolod the Big Nest and their descendants, who, due to their age, could not be related to the murder of Andrei Bogolyubsky and the persecution of Yuri Bogolyubsky, are quite gently treated.
      Having established his power, the already elderly son of Andrei Bogolyubsky, accustomed to life in the south, most likely settled south, in the Kuban or on the Lower Volga. Where did the princes appointed by him with reports traveled from Russia.
      By tradition, the Bogolyubsky patronize the church - in Russia there is a tremendous growth of monasteries, new dioceses are being established.
      Then the grandchildren or great-grandchildren of Yuri Bogolyubsky, who settled in the south, accept Islam, that is, they become deserted. But this does not greatly affect the relationship of the so-called "Horde" (the stakes of the descendants of the Bogolyubsky) and Russia. He who wants to move from the Horde to Russia - he quietly moves to Russia, he who wants - on the contrary, travels from Russia to the "Horde".

      In general, here is such a beautiful version.
      1. ver_
        ver_ 25 October 2017 09: 12
        +1
        .. The Horde is this Army .. Islam * was born in the 15th century - Islam is the result of * the baptism of Russia by fire and sword ... Apostolic (disguised as paganism) Christianity and Jewish Christianity are not the same ..
      2. Quintus sertorius
        Quintus sertorius 30 October 2017 05: 00
        0
        An interesting version about Yuri - the husband of Queen Tamara. Once again, I am convinced that all these pseudoistic rewards - the assumptions that gullible echoes - the result of the activities of amateurs, who are too lazy to read, but not too lazy to fantasize.
        Tamara’s husband, Yuri, is a real character, enough is known about him, including from eastern sources. What he did in the Caucasus is well known. There is not life, but an adventure novel. So why invent fables! I will not give links out of principle.
    3. AlexKP
      AlexKP 1 November 2017 00: 32
      +1
      It was precisely Kalita and China that captured Khorezm and dispersed the Muslims throughout the peninsula, and he also killed the Ismailis. And the Mongols have never been, behold.
  5. Serge72
    Serge72 24 October 2017 11: 53
    17
    Evpatiy Kolovrat - the hero of Russia
    And heroes must be honored
    Well done that attention
    1. Alexander Abiduev
      Alexander Abiduev 24 October 2017 21: 03
      +2
      I believe that there was no yoke (the version of new historians such as Nosovsky, Levashov, etc. K0), that there was a civil war between the Vedic Russians and the Christian Russians, the only difference between the Vedic Russians was that they drank a lot, because they had faces swollen, eyes are clicks from an unbroken booze, etc., try drunk homeless person to determine nationality, eyes are clicks, his face is swollen, full, his tongue don’t understand what he’s muttering, he’s Asian Asian. , they captured China, all of Middle Asia, they decided to drunkenly attack Russia again (and the ocean was drunk knee-deep) .After drinking a year or 7-8, the Vedists decided to bring southern Russia to their knees, then Europe, but it didn’t work out, it’s harmful to drink a lot, and therefore They didn’t leave any descendants. Yes, I forgot, the Vedic Russians built the once Chinese wall and China was their colony BC, I read at Nosovsky and others like him), so that Ukrainians (ancient Ukrainians with their own history about the dug up Black Sea, so-so , flowers.), against the new history of t Nosovsky, Thomas Nko and Levashova, Ukrainians are wrong that the Etruscans are hiding, this is the Vedic Russ, which is why it was called Russian.
  6. Karen
    Karen 24 October 2017 21: 01
    0
    The Battle of Kalka in 1223, preceding Batu’s campaign, was with the scouts of Genghis Khan ... We went to scout everything to thoroughly know where and what to go then ..
    1. Alexander Abiduev
      Alexander Abiduev 24 October 2017 21: 15
      0
      Yes, there was no Kalki and the Mongols (as an advanced detachment), it was the drunken Vedic Rus fighting the Christian Rus (the history of Nosovsky, Fomenko, Levashov), you try the drunk bum to determine nationality, your eyes are drunk with slits, cheekbones, flabby face from drinking , you don’t understand what is muttering (well, Asian Asian), so it was a civil war between the Russians (Christian Rus against the Russian Vedic pagan), well, the sea is drunk knee-deep, and where should he go, so they shied away to the whole world, and what’s drunk, you’ll take it until you oversleep, you’ll understand what’s elal and when sobered up, then realized that was sotvorili.stydno and quietly they misalignment, as once-Obry EMERGENCY nowhere grafted.
      1. Karen
        Karen 24 October 2017 21: 30
        0
        It was painful for me from school, why then 20 thousand Georgian-Armenian troops lost to only 10 thousand Asians ... Only then did I find out that the Georgian king died in that battle, and the battle was interrupted ... We agreed that they would calmly leave our lands, on north...
        1. protoss
          protoss 25 October 2017 01: 48
          +1
          so you and the Georgians lost these Asians all the way, they went through you for centuries through their business (they fought with each other), as if you weren't there. Turks, Seljuks, Khorezmians, Mongols, Ottomans, Kyzylbashi ... something tells me that this list will still be replenished.
          1. Karen
            Karen 25 October 2017 02: 18
            0
            Stars about the future say otherwise ...
            The Georgians have a glorious series of victories in the 12th century ... With God's and our help ... But the Mongols suppressed.
          2. ver_
            ver_ 26 October 2017 16: 52
            +1
            ... and this is nothing that Mongolia appeared only in 1920 and no one could write about it before ..?
    2. Seal
      Seal 25 October 2017 09: 07
      +1
      preceding the campaign of Batu - this was with the scouts of Genghis Khan ...

      About the Batu and Genghis Khan. The Turks, well, take, for example, the Kazakhs, as a basis for orientation in space, the directions for sunrise and sunset are taken. In the Kazakh language, sunrise is shygys, sunset is batys. Hence the East-Shygys, and the West-Batys. The main holy direction of the Turks (Kazakhs) was and remains the "East". If you face east, then on the right (in the Kazakh language “right side” - “he”) will be Ontustik-South, and on the left (in the Kazakh language - “sol”), respectively, Soltustik-North. In this regard, everything that is located to the west of the steppe for the Kazakhs had the prefix "batu", and to the east - "shygys." From here the ruler of any Turk (Kazakhs) western from the habitat was called Batu-Khan (Batu). And the one who ruled east - well, for example, China - was Shygys Khan (in our pronunciation, Genghis Khan). That is, all of these Batu, Batu, Batys and Shagysy (Genghis) could be (and were, after all in the West is full of all kinds of “Karls”) the names of both specific people and common names for all khans-rulers of these areas and territories. By the way, Genghis Khan is simply any “Solar Khan” or “Eastern Khan” and in the language of a number of Volga non-Turkic peoples. But apparently, the Volga peoples still nevertheless adopted this term, well, for example, among the Tatars. Genghis Khan is a post. More precisely, the position is Khan. And Shagys or Chinggis is East. Just the "Eastern Khan", of which there have been thousands over the centuries. Here, another puncture is evident among professional historians. Those travelers who then brought to the European courts and court historians all the information they received when they traveled through the Turkic lands, the question “Who caused this or that destruction” from their Turkic counterparts could receive the following answers:
      1) This was done by Shagys Khan (Genghis Khan). In the understanding of the storyteller is some kind of famous Khan, whose lands were located east of those who were interviewed.
      2) This was done by Batys-Khan (Batu, Batu). This is any Khan of lands located west of those who were interviewed. Batys - Western.
      Maybe even names were called, such as Genghis Khan Roll of Wallpaper or Batuhan Kirdyk Nadoev. But since the last (proper names) components were inconstant - only the first invariably constant part was remembered - CHINGIS KHAN or BATYS KHAN. Since the East was and remains the main holy direction among the Turks (Kazakhs), it goes without saying that now every second in Asia is a descendant of a Genghis Khan (Genghisid). If the Turks would have been in the main holy direction not the East, but the West - then every second Kazakh or other Turk would now be someone like "Batyzid." Well, apparently, since the Turks were attacked by the Turks from the south (deserts and mountains) and from the north (Siberian swamps, the Arctic Ocean), not less than that, then the Turkic-speaking storytellers put all the main complaints against Genghis Khan and Batu- Khan. " But European historians, having gathered such a lot of complaints against Genghis Khan and Batu Khan and stupidly not realizing that they (well, those travelers who later brought all this information to European courts and court historians), the locals were simply talking about their local showdowns with some eastern or western neighbors for 300-400 years, and believing that “Genghis Khan” and “Batu Khan” are the names of specific people, it was decided that such great acts could be performed only by great people. And being honestly mistaken, historians began to sculpt the myth of the Great Genghis Khan and his grandson Batu Khan (whom historians sent to the very west).
      1. Karen
        Karen 25 October 2017 09: 29
        0
        I think a sidekick will help me in five years to calmly study the papers of the Vatican ... Then I will clarify a lot for myself ...
      2. Quintus sertorius
        Quintus sertorius 30 October 2017 05: 30
        0
        As for the names of the khans, I knew from school that Genghis Khan was called Temujin. This is not a discovery.
        There is so much thought process to substantiate its version that the Mongol invasion did not exist!
        Waste your time in vain. How would you not like - it was. By the way, with whom in the 13th century did the Jerusalem kings and the princes of Antioch, according to your version, form alliances against Islam?
        Here, a little higher individual characters (of course, not talking about you) give out this! About the Mongol-Vedic Rusyns! Here is Hochma - Kitbuga Noyon - Vedic Rusyns! It is good that those who write this do not know about Kitbug. They seem to know nothing at all.
      3. AlexKP
        AlexKP 1 November 2017 01: 25
        +2
        Yes, you listen to these Kazakhs more than the second Ukrainians, though the seas were not dug up but important, like Shrovetide.
        The Mongols, in their opinion, did not appear to be, and the senior zhuz from Genghis Khan is considered. And they say that they came from Altai.
  7. Domestic cat
    Domestic cat 25 October 2017 04: 18
    +2
    Evpatiy Kolovrat really existed and died in battle with the Mongol Tatars. If someone Fomenko has read this is his personal affair, but there is no need to deny the heroic deed and defender of his homeland. Then we are surprised that our youth does not want to know anything other than iPhones.
    1. Seal
      Seal 25 October 2017 08: 53
      +2
      This is how the rotten liberal ideas, which were created in the 16th and 17th centuries by the office of the Roman Popes, that once allegedly had already been conquered and nothing bad would happen if they happen again, have grown into the minds of lovers of whiskas. These lovers are ready to lie under the West. A rotten idea, wrapped in a beautiful wrapper from the feats allegedly committed by our ancestors, which, incidentally, did not affect anything and Russia was allegedly conquered. And whiskas lovers swallow these little ideas, and even ask for supplements.
      1. AlexKP
        AlexKP 1 November 2017 01: 20
        +1
        There were still some Alans who seemed to have captured Russia but then self-destructed
    2. ver_
      ver_ 26 October 2017 17: 11
      +1
      for the gifted Mongolia was founded in the year 192nd - time machines for teleporting to the 13th century have never been invented yet, do you have a brain?
      1. Domestic cat
        Domestic cat 28 October 2017 00: 35
        0
        During the existence of the Golden Horde, no Mongol state could exist. The Mongols are just a small tribe in a diverse crowd of conquerors .. This information is based on the testimonies of travelers who visited the Golden Horde. Fomenko is not the only one who is engaged in history.
        1. AlexKP
          AlexKP 1 November 2017 01: 18
          +1
          Is the Golden Horde not a state entity?
      2. AlexKP
        AlexKP 1 November 2017 00: 46
        +1
        The Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861 and Rome is 3000 years old. In 1921, Mongolia declared independence, which means that it was already before that.
  8. Seal
    Seal 25 October 2017 08: 59
    0
    Quote: Karen
    Georgians have a glorious succession of victories in the 12th century ...

    If Georgians in the 12th century had a state in general, and even triumphing over someone, then Georgians would then (well, or certainly by now) be formed into a single nation. And since even now every Georgian (the term "Georgian", mind you, the geographical term) knows who he really is - Svan, Kakh, Laz, Mengrel and so on, this means only one thing - that the state of Georgia is only just beginning to take shape . And a single nation in this state has not yet formed.
    1. Karen
      Karen 25 October 2017 09: 23
      0
      Yes, I am aware of how the Adjars and with the Soviet hardening of work in bodies today are publicly blaspheming the rest of the Georgians ... Erdogan, is he working ...

      And so, I remember, before we told a joke to our Georgian friends:
      ... Georgians draw up a questionnaire for issuing a passport.
      - Nationality?
      - Mengrel.
      - There is no such nationality ... Mengrels are Georgians.
      - Then write: Georgian, premium ... :)
  9. Prometey
    Prometey 25 October 2017 17: 41
    +1
    Retelling of Jan’s novel "Batu". Was there really such a character - we will never know. Although it is sometimes interesting to read fairy tales about how the Mongol-Tatars crushed the Kolovrat detachment only with the help of stone-throwing machines. By the way, stones, they carried with them in sufficient quantities in carts? But what about the myth of the incredible mobility of the Mongol army? Or were they collecting stones for their miracle machines before the assault on the surroundings?
    1. Karen
      Karen 25 October 2017 18: 51
      0
      They needed mobility for surprise, but why in a siege?
      I watched some Amer film, as the grandson of Genghis Khan created the Eurasian market, from Persia to Shanghai. I took it.
      1. Seal
        Seal 26 October 2017 18: 16
        +1
        the myth of the incredible mobility of the mongolian army
        Given the performance characteristics of a traditional Mongolian horse breed - this is really a myth. hi
      2. Seal
        Seal 26 October 2017 18: 22
        +1
        They needed mobility for surprise

        The Mongolian horse is wide-bodied, but small, bony, with a heavy hunchbacked head and small eyes. Her neck is short with a low output, her ears are short; withers low, often massive, turning into a long straight back. Average measurements of mares (cm): height at the withers 127, oblique length 134, chest circumference 154, metacarpus circumference 16,8. The weight of mares is 250-300 kg.
        At present, race horses in Mongolia are obtained by crossing local mares with thoroughbred stallions of other species.
        But, despite this crossbreeding, half-breeds (horses of other breeds) are not allowed at the traditional Mongolian races together with Mongolian horses. There is a very big difference between them. Since last year, there have been separate races for horses of the Arabian breed. In the opinion of Mongolian coaches, only Mongolian horses should compete in long-distance races. Why? Yes, because the Supernatural endurance of a Mongolian horse is determined by its slowness: “the Mongolian horse has a quick step, a free gallop, a lynx is not developed” (TSB). That is, a poor animal is simply not able to run fast on its short legs.
        The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (TSB) testifies:

        “Allures (from the French. Allure, literally - gait), types of horse movement. Distinguish between natural and artificial gaits. Natural gait: step (slow gait): the horse successively raises and puts all four legs one after the other; diagonal change of legs. Step length 1,4–1,8 m, speed for fast gait horses 5–7 km / h, for horses of working step breeds 3,5–4,5 km / h. Lynx is an accelerated gait in two paces: the horse rearranges simultaneously two legs diagonally. Shortened lynx (trot): stride length of about 2 m, speed 13-15 km / h. Normal (field) lynx has a phase of unsupported movement. Step length 2,2 m, speed up to 20 km / h. Sweeping lynx: the horse places its hind legs in front of the tracks of the corresponding front. Step length up to 6 m. The highest speed of trotters at short distances (1,6-3,2 km) up to 50 km / h. Amble - two-pace gait; the horse raises and lowers both left and right legs. The amble is faster than the lynx. Gallop - a three-tempo jump-like gait with an unsupported phase. The stride (swing) length with a short gallop is 1,5-2 m, with an ordinary (canter) 3 m, with a fast (quarry) 5-7 m. The speed with an ordinary gallop is about 20 km / h, with a fast one up to 60 km / h . Leap - pushing from the ground forward simultaneously by both hind limbs. The record of a horse jumping 2,47 m high, 8,3 m long. "
        The Mongolian horse does not know how to run at a trot, in extreme cases, starts a "free gallop", that is, runs off jumping haphazardly. But a gallop, especially a “free” one, is an extremely uneconomical way of running. The European cavalrymen allowed horses to gallop at the end of the attack in the final throw on the enemy. And the usual rapid movement of cavalry occurred at a trot. And just in time for a lynx the Mongolian horse is not capable. That is, the Mongolian horsemen on Mongolian horses are not able to either catch up with cavalrymen of other nations or run away from them.

        Thus, the Mongol cavalry not only could not fight with the Persian, Arab and European cavalry, for the Mongol horseman to escape from the infantry is a real problem. The normal speed of the Mongolian horse is 4-5 km / h. A briskly running man is quite capable of catching a rider on a Mongolian horse.
        1. Karen
          Karen 26 October 2017 22: 13
          0
          For some reason, all historians of the world write about Genghis Khan's sudden / unexpected attack on the Bukhara people, when they sent his messenger away with an offer to the khan to surrender in a good way ...
          Has Genghis Khan ever draped himself?
  10. ver_
    ver_ 26 October 2017 16: 57
    0
    Quote: Seal
    Quote: Karen
    Georgians have a glorious succession of victories in the 12th century ...

    If Georgians in the 12th century had a state in general, and even triumphing over someone, then Georgians would then (well, or certainly by now) be formed into a single nation. And since even now every Georgian (the term "Georgian", mind you, the geographical term) knows who he really is - Svan, Kakh, Laz, Mengrel and so on, this means only one thing - that the state of Georgia is only just beginning to take shape . And a single nation in this state has not yet formed.

    ..argonauts at Colchis the Golden Fleece (the skin of a sheep on which gold was washed) otmutali ...
  11. ver_
    ver_ 26 October 2017 17: 17
    +1
    Quote: Home Cat
    Evpatiy Kolovrat really existed and died in battle with the Mongol Tatars. If someone Fomenko has read this is his personal affair, but there is no need to deny the heroic deed and defender of his homeland. Then we are surprised that our youth does not want to know anything other than iPhones.

    ... so big, but believe in fairy tales ..
  12. Sargaras
    Sargaras 27 October 2017 09: 14
    +1
    There is a dubious episode in the description of the death of the Kolovrat detachment. They were allegedly shot from vice-siege vehicles. Vice is not a machine gun, rate of fire is low, retargeting is long, accuracy is not. Shooting fast-moving soldiers from such a device is problematic, especially considering the fact that the Russian soldiers were in direct contact with the enemy.
    1. AlexKP
      AlexKP 1 November 2017 00: 51
      +1
      The Romans used throwing machines of various types in field battles. Despite the fact that not a machine gun.
      1. AlexKP
        AlexKP 1 November 2017 01: 15
        +1
        Yes, and how the soldiers could move quickly if the battle was in the field, that is, they had to stand in line.
  13. Karen
    Karen 27 October 2017 20: 31
    0
    Our story claims that our Cilician king went to Karakorum to the Mongols for an alliance.
    And then, when the descendants of Genghis Khan were in full swing, they began to resettle their population on our lands ...
  14. Seal
    Seal 31 October 2017 12: 38
    0
    Quote: Quintus Sertorius
    Tamara’s husband, Yuri, is a real character, enough is known about him, including from eastern sources. What he did in the Caucasus is well known.

    How easy and good it is to live a certain circle of people. By which everything is always “clear”, “understandable” and “known in detail”. Not that these egg-headed pundits of whom eternal doubts gnaw "... I know that I know nothing.".
  15. Seal
    Seal 31 October 2017 12: 56
    +1
    Quote: Quintus Sertorius
    As for the names of the khans, I knew from school that Genghis Khan was called Temujin.

    I thought such “all-knowing”, to whom everything is always “clear” and “understandable” yet “from school” - have already become popular. But no .... the smoking rooms are alive. Nothing takes them. They are not sown, not .... they themselves will be born.
    For serious conversations, you need to at least sometimes look beyond the scope of school textbooks. I show with an example:


    According to the publication of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Empire, the version of the Tatar invasion was already there. But here the Mongolian peoples within the Russian Empire, according to the views of academicians of historians of 1799, first appeared in 1368, being expelled from China.
    What, here about this book ..

    they didn’t tell you at school ??
    Or maybe your teachers didn’t know anything about it?
    1. Quintus sertorius
      Quintus sertorius 1 November 2017 09: 01
      0
      Dear Seal! I am very sorry that my comments do not fit into your attitude. Do not be nervous. You can’t convince me - I’ve been doing history for many years, having received an appropriate diploma from one of the best universities in the USSR. Therefore, it just amuses me that you did not bother to find information about the husband of Queen Tamara, after their divorce - google better. And about your doubts and the search for truth, I’ll say that it’s bad when doubts are based on ignorance of the facts. You wrote here that during the invasion known to you, only the lands of Bogolyubsky suffered. Then answer - why are not touched Pereyaslavl-Zalessky? If you knew exactly who the prince was there, you might have a lot of positive thoughts. But building pseudo-historical structures is more interesting, right? And you don’t need to read much and you feel smarter than others! Others do not know what you discovered! Success in your discoveries!
  16. Seal
    Seal 31 October 2017 13: 10
    0
    Quote: Quintus Sertorius
    What he did in the Caucasus is well known.

    His further fate is unknown.
    According to the hypothesis S.T. Eremyan, he was buried in the church of Lurj-Monasteri (John the Theologian) in Tbilisi.

    Even if, according to a hypothesis, he was buried in Tbilisi, it means that at the end of his life he at least lived in Tbilisi. And he was far from an ordinary person. And how could he get to Tbilisi, from where he was expelled twice? Only one way. Namely, by subjugating the city to itself for the third (fourth, fifth ...) time.
    1. Quintus sertorius
      Quintus sertorius 2 November 2017 07: 44
      0
      Another design. He was buried in Tbilisi - so he still won it! There can only be one answer! (with). So delusional versions are born.
      How Yuri died is not established. I will offer my own version of the explanation of the location of his burial (if it is his grave at all) - I took tonsure. By the way, this is a very common way to eliminate a political rival at that time.
  17. Karen
    Karen 31 October 2017 13: 45
    0
    Sergei Petrovich, there is so much information about the Chinese and Mongol wars that leaves no room for doubt.
    If I remember correctly from history, it was the Mongols who expelled some Chinese to Elista, out of sight. You call them Kalmyks.
    A lot is also known about the Eurasian economic market that Genghis Khan’s grandson built.
    In 1555, the Mongols also visited Beijing.
    So which one of them drove?
    ____
    But the fact that the Chinese burned their ships and went into themselves - yes, it was ... that is, they had strength and troops.
  18. Seal
    Seal 29 November 2017 19: 35
    +1
    Quote: Quintus Sertorius
    You can’t convince me - I’ve been doing history for many years, having received an appropriate diploma from one of the best universities in the USSR.

    That is why you can not be persuaded. You have been taught not to think. You are one of those arrogant professional historians who think that if they took a course in history, then they can bully their nose to teach others, referring to their "professionalism."
    Your problem is that professional historians brew exclusively in their midst and therefore reproduce the next generation of historians in exactly the same way as they are today. And further. A professional in something is usually a narrow professional. For example, a chemist may not know anything in military affairs, music, or shipbuilding. A shipbuilder may not know anything in medicine and in military affairs, in painting, in music and so on. And for example, a military man from the infantry may not even know anything about naval affairs. But professional historians, without being specialists in anything and knowing nothing from the field of military affairs, metallurgy, chemistry, physics, medical science, music, sculpture, painting, shipbuilding, and so on, nevertheless they brazenly undertake to explain all this to us. Moreover, they undertake to explain not the current state of affairs in these areas (professionals will quickly put them in their place), but how they were there, 1000 years ago 1500 years ago, 2000 years ago and so on !!! What is the main problem? Suppose, a historian wrote a huge professional work on an antique theme. The military read it and, from his professional point of view, noted that in terms of describing antique military campaigns and battles or the "Tatar-Mongol invasion" (and in winter !!!!) this shtafka wrote complete nonsense. But over 50 percent of all historical works are a description of ancient military campaigns and battles. But since the military is also not a chemist, not a physicist, not a metallurgist, not a shipbuilder, (and he does not understand the land military and in naval affairs); not a doctor; not an artist .. .. he understood, thought that it was only by his, on the military side, the historian wrote nonsense. Well, I wrote and wrote that, the military has other things to do, besides this historian's face in his stupidity to poke? Of course, the military read ... ... and forgot. At the same time as the military, I read the work of a historian, let’s say, a doctor. And he also noted that from his professional point of view about ancient medicine, the historian wrote complete nonsense. But since the doctor is not a specialist in the military sphere, in painting, physics, chemistry (although he probably is a little in chemistry), shipbuilding, music, and so on, and the doctor’s affairs are full, he didn’t bother with refuting professional work historian. And just like that, the historian’s work was read: - chemist; - physicist; - sculptor; - artist; - metallurgy - shipbuilder and so on. All noted that in their area is written complete nonsense !!! But since none of them sees the big picture, and even the book is full of enthusiastic reviews from colleagues of the historian - the same historians as he (she) himself (herself) - the book is published, children learn from it, films are made from it , and after some time, the next generation of historians consider that work is already a "document". Here and before and now, a lot of historians enthusiastically describe all the possible various military campaigns and battles. Name at least one official historian who had a higher military education? We do not have such. Other historians enthusiastically describe the huge five-deck, and even ten-deck antique ships. Name at least one official historian with a university degree in shipbuilding or navigation? We do not have such. Here are how many historical dissertations and "works" on the theme of "antique military campaigns and conquests" have been submitted for review to the Academy of the General Staff? ZERO !!! Historians are well aware that it is necessary to discuss all their “works” exclusively in their midst. Since if their "works", for example, on the theme of "antique campaigns and battles" officially fall under the review of a professional military, it would be such a shame !!! So among historians all the clearings have long been divided. And all historians exclusively cultivate their clearing, without climbing into other people's glades of their historian neighbors. And from these glades they have who so far are just bread, and who is already bread and butter. Some historians even have bread with butter and red caviar. And there are those who also have black caviar. And none of the historians want to lose their piece of bread. With butter.

    By the way, let's see, and who actually created the modern chronology?
    This is the famous four: Petavius; Scaliger, then standing between Petavius ​​and Scaliger, the now almost forgotten German chronology organizer Seth Calvisius, as well as Casabon. This is the four - the pillars of all modern historical chronology. However, it is interesting to note that none of these four chronological luminaries was neither a historian nor a chronologist: Scaliger and Casabon were philologists, Calvizius was a musician, and Petavius ​​was a theologian. None of them had a historical education. And none of them, before undertaking the compilation of the chronology, published a single scientific work on history.
  19. Seal
    Seal 29 November 2017 19: 36
    +1
    Quote: Karen
    Sergei Petrovich, there is so much information about the Chinese and Mongol wars that leaves no room for doubt.

    No more than information about Atlantis.
    Well, about God (gods) and all kinds of saints and their miracles of information, there is still much more.
  20. Seal
    Seal 29 November 2017 19: 37
    0
    Quote: Quintus Sertorius
    I will offer my own version of the explanation of the location of his burial (if it is his grave at all) - I took tonsure.

    This is how delusional versions are born.
  21. Seal
    Seal 29 November 2017 19: 41
    +1
    Quote: Quintus Sertorius
    Then answer - why are not touched Pereyaslavl-Zalessky? If you knew exactly who the prince was there, you might have a lot of positive thoughts. But building pseudo-historical structures is more interesting, right?

    But you are enthusiastically repeating much more pseudo-historical constructions, only built not by you, but by your great-great-great predecessors, and from their frequent repetition, which have become like “historical facts”.
    Firstly, not the fact that Pereyaslavl-Zalessky was not affected.
    Secondly, if he was not really affected, then this is more than easily explained. The prince just ran away. Or putting on a sackcloth barefoot in the snow went to meet the more legitimate prince ... repented and .... was forgiven.
  22. Victor Prokushev
    Victor Prokushev 17 December 2020 08: 01
    0
    Everything is correct about Yevpatiy Kolovrat, but about his opponent there is an omission.