Military Review

TVD Second Patriotic. 1914 year. Part of 1

42
As you know, a strategy is a combination of ways to achieve a military victory by defining war goals, implementing military planning and systematically implementing countermeasures to the enemy. It covers the practical activities of the highest military command in the preparation and implementation of hostilities. Operational art determines the ways of preparing and conducting combat operations - for the realization of strategic goals.


Of particular importance for the implementation of strategy and operational art is the theater of military operations (theater of operations) - a part of the geographical space within which the groups of opposing forces are deployed and military operations are conducted.

The study of operational and strategic aspects of the activities of the Eastern (Russian) Front of the First World War began in the war period.

During the war and immediately after its completion, interesting works appeared that explored the strategy on the Russian front. [1. Note - at the end of the article]. But even chronologically, military events were not fully covered. For example, the “Short Strategic Essay” covered the period from July 19 to November 11, 1914.

We see attempts to investigate the first operations of the 1914 campaign. During this period, works by N. L. Klado, K. Ivanov, A. D. Shemansky, FK Shumsky, and others appeared. [2]. Although these works were often of a general nature, they contained unique factual material. The first works that appeared during the war, devoted to the analysis of operations (with the exception of secret publications issued by the headquarters of the fronts and armies), were of an overview character.

The practical needs of generalizing combat experience and military construction in the young Soviet state led to the emergence of the Militaryhistorical and the Naval commissions for the study and use of the experience of war. Having arisen in August 1918 (it changed its name several times, lasting until 1924), the commission published valuable materials printed in its non-periodical publication, Military History Collection [3]. In the works of military specialists (N. A. Valentinov, L. N. Belkovich, A. M. Zayonchkovsky, G. K. Korolkov, V. N. Klembovsky, A. A. Neznamov, L. A. Radus-Zenkovich, A. A. Svechin, Ya. K. Tsikhovich, and others) touched on including operational-strategic aspects of combat operations.

In 20-30 fundamental works in the field of operational art and strategy also appeared. The most important place among them is taken by the Strategic Essay, written by military experts who participated in the war, with a wide use of all available sources and other materials. In the 8 units (X. 1 - 7 and the Romanian Front), the entire course of military operations has been chronologically decomposed. Very important is the work of E. V. Maslovsky. These 9 works actually form a unified operational and strategic review dedicated to hostilities on the Eastern Front. [4].

Among the researchers of the strategy at the present stage of development of historical science should be called the names of V. A. Zolotarev and S. N. Mikhalev [5]. The military events on the Russian front are analyzed by V. V. Mikhailov, S. G. Nelipovich, M. V. Oskin, and others. [6].

In Western modern historiography, the strategy on the Eastern Front (albeit in passing) is also given attention [7].

Actually theaters of war (theaters) in the operational and strategic context of the Eastern Front by the above-mentioned experts were not analyzed - and this despite the fact that the First World War was characterized by a plurality of theater theaters.


Supreme Commander of the Russian army in the field cavalry general Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. The great war in the images and paintings. B. 2. M., 1914

The strategic deployment of the Army in the 1914 campaign on the Austro-German front was determined primarily by the specifics of the coalition war. As we noted earlier - https://topwar.ru/114488-a-ili-g-.html - in the strategic deployment plan adopted in 1912, the Russian command attempted to link Russian interests directly with military-political obligations to allied France.

In this regard, the attention of the Russian military leadership riveted two theaters of war — the East Prussian and the Galician. The current army formed at the beginning of the war 2 front - North-West (against Germany) and South-West (against Austria-Hungary).


Chief of Staff of the Headquarters General Lieutenant N. N. Yanushkevich. Great War. Issue Xnumx

Accordingly, by the beginning of the 1914 campaign, the attention of the High Command of the Russian Army split.

TVD Second Patriotic. 1914 year. Part of 1
Quartermaster General Stakes General-Lieutenant Yu. N. Danilov

The task most effectively realize the allied debt answered as quickly as possible the invasion of East Prussia. Maximum speed meant problems in the mobilization and concentration of troops - but the Russian command did it to save the ally of France. In August, 1914 was the only German territory directly influenced by the Russian army - this is East Prussia. It was actions in this theater that could have led to an operational-strategic reaction from the highest German command and cause an outflow of troops from France. But East Prussia, this natural fortress of Europe, was very unpleasant in the sense of maneuvering theaters, and did not forgive the tactical and operational mistakes of the troops operating on it. The description of East Prussia as the most difficult theater of operations in Europe seems completely justified. Even “they will consider this region as a solid huge fortress” to be correct, the barriers of this theater of operations are so strong - both natural and those created by the enemy [8].

The task of realizing Russian interests was facilitated by the operations in Galicia. This theater could bring much greater operational and strategic results. He was more favorable for maneuvering large military groups. Finally, the main mass of the Austrian army was concentrated here, and it seemed tempting to inflict a decisive defeat at the very beginning of the war.

The plan of a simultaneous offensive against Austria-Hungary and Germany, adopted by the Russian General Staff, seemed to theoretically allow 2 to solve important operational-strategic tasks — to inflict a decisive defeat on the Austro-Hungarian armies and fulfill the allied duty to France, carrying out an offensive in East Prussia. In addition, it was also very important to promptly guarantee the so-called. The advanced theater (“Polish balcony”) was possible only by securing its northern and southern flanks. Only active actions in East Prussia and Galicia could also accomplish this task. But the plan ran into insurmountable difficulties at that moment, the main one of which was the insufficiency of the forces of the Army in the first phase of the war. The huge front, the gradual concentration of troops - left a significant imprint on the first combat operations of the Russian army.

By the end of the 1914 campaign, four theaters had already formed.


East Prussia


East Prussian campaigns of the North-Western Front - East Prussian operation (incl. The first battle at the Masurian Lakes) [9] and Second Campaign to East Prussia (incl. First August operation 12 - 30. 09. 1914) [10] - had the most important operational and strategic importance. The main objective of these operations is to help the French and seize a springboard for subsequent actions against Germany, as well as to cover the right flank of the Russian armies in Poland.


The commander of 1 army (A) of the North-Western Front (NWF) cavalry general P.-G. K. Rennenkampf. Great War. Issue Xnumx


Commander 2 A NWF cavalry general A.V. Samsonov. Chronicle of War № 2


Commander 10 A NWF General of Infantry VE Flug. Chronicle of War № 7

The East Prussian theater of operations chained the troops of the heaviest enemy — the Germans — and initially no less than the army. The strategic importance of the theater of operations for the Russian front was that the battles in East Prussia, with their varying success, ensured the right flank of the main Russian group in Poland. The Germans were not able to assist the Austrian (in the period of the Galician Battle of 05. 08. - 13. 09. 1914) [11] and Austro-Germanic (in the period of the Warsaw-Ivangorod 15. 09. - 26. 10. and Lodz 19. 10. - 06. 12. 1914 operations) [12] troops strike Sedlec or otherwise in the most crucial period of the campaign. While Russian troops occupied at least half of East Prussia, the enemy was limited in maneuverability and in Polish theater of military operations. The attacks on East Prussia were the most painful for the Germans and could in the shortest possible time, triggering a reaction from the high command of the enemy, affect the situation on the German-French front.


East Prussian theater of operations. Evseev N. The August battle of the 2 of the Russian army in East Prussia in 1914 M., 1936

It was operations in East Prussia that helped the French army during the Marne battle and the Anglo-French army on Ypres and Ysera. These operations greatly affected not only the winnings of the 1914 campaign by the Entente, but also (in the long run) the war. The battle of Gumbinnen and the first victories of the 2 Army marked the beginning of the German war on two fronts. Now she had to split her efforts, and not smash the enemy in parts. The German Empire, due to various circumstances (primarily due to limited resources), could not fight for a time on the 2 front.

In August, the enemy was forced to transfer 4 infantry and cavalry divisions (from France) to East Prussia, and 2 infantry divisions (the only prepared reserve at the time) from Germany in late September - early October. This was of paramount importance for the allies of Russia - Germany lost the battle of Marne, did not solve the problem in the battle of Ypres. German-French front stabilized.

The East Prussian TVD also influenced the victory of the South-Western Front in the Battle of Galicia (see https://topwar.ru/123944-reshayuschaya-bitva-pervoy-mirovoy-vostochno-prusskaya-operaciya-1914-goda-edinstvennaya-pobeda- gumbinnen-ch-2.html)

A. Svechin, asking the question - what made the Austrian troops leave comfortable Galician positions and rush to Lublin-Kholm, putting the flank and rear under attack, answered: the invasion of East Prussia [13].

Operationally during the 1914 campaign in this theater, the Russian army lost one operation (East Prussian) and one won (First August). TVD was marked by heavy losses of the parties - but among the Russian losses a significant percentage are prisoners (see https://topwar.ru/123948-reshayuschaya-bitva-pervoy-mirovoy-vostochno-prusskaya-operaciya-1914-goda-o-poteryah- ch-1-severo-zapadnyy-front.html), whereas for the Germans (see https://topwar.ru/124400-reshayuschaya-bitva-pervoy-mirovoy-vostochno-prusskaya-operaciya-1914-go-goda- o-poteryah-chast-2-8-ya-armiya.html) the loss figure includes mainly the casualties of the dead and wounded. Losses in the First August operation were equivalent (about her - in the bud. Art. VO). The fact that the graves of World War I, located in East Prussia in 2200, rested over 1939 soldiers and officers, including Germans 60000 and Germans 32540, speaks about the comparability of the irretrievable losses of enemies. [14].

Accordingly, the hostilities in the East Prussian theater of operations were characterized by an increased allied effect, with positional failure and comparable irretrievable losses of the parties.


Notes

1. A brief strategic outline of the 1914 war — 1918. Russian front. M., 1918 - 1919.
2. Great War. Part 1-2. M., 1915; Shumsky K. Essays on World War on Land and at Sea. Overview of hostilities in major theaters. Pg., 1915. Shemansky A. D., Knyazev M.V. et al. History of the Great War. TT. 1-3. M., 1915 — 1916. and etc.
3. Proceedings of the commission for the study and use of the experience of war 1914 — 1918. B. 1-4. M., 1919-1920.
4. Strategic sketch of the 1914-1918 war.
CH 1. M., 1922; CH 2. M., 1923; CH 3. M., 1922; CH 4. M. 1922; CH 5. M., 1920; CH 6. M., 1923; CH 7. M., 1923; Romanian front. M., 1922; Maslovsky, E. V. The World War on the Caucasian Front 1914-1917, Paris, 1933.
5. Mikhalev, S. N. Strategic leadership. Russia / USSR in two world wars 20 century. Krasnoyarsk, 2000; The history of Russia's military strategy. M., 2000.
6. Nelipovich S. G. Warsaw battle. October 1914. M., 2006; Mikhailov V. The defeat of the Turkish army and the mastery of a first-class fortress // Military History Journal. 2006. No. 8; Oskin M. V. The Galician Battle. August 1914. M., 2006, etc.
7. Jukes. G. The First World War. The Eastern front 1914 — 1918. L., 2003; Simkins P., Jukes G., Hickey M. The First World War. L., 2003. and etc.
8. On two fronts // Niva. 1914. No. 52. C. 1012.
9. East Prussian operation - between 1 A (gen. From Kaval. P.-G.K. Rennenkampf; 6,5 pd and 5,5 cd, 402 op., To 100000 people) and 2 A (gen. From Kaval. A. Samsonov; 11 pd and 3 cd - 702 op., 150000 people) SZF (gen. from Kaval. Ya. G. илиilinski) and German 8 A (gen.-pol. M. von Pritvits, then gen. infantry P. von Hindenburg; 16 PD and 1 cd; 200000 people with 1100 op.).
The first battle of the Mazury Lakes - between 1 A SZF (gen. from Kaval. P.-G.C. Rennenkampf; in the beginning - 12 PD; to 150000 people, 724 Op.) and the German 8 A (gen. - reg. P. von Hindenburg; at the beginning - 18 pd; up to 215000 people, 1146 op.). See collection of documents. East Prussian operation; N. Golovin. From the history of the 1914 campaign. The beginning of the war and operations in East Prussia; Vatsetis I.I. Fighting in East Prussia; he is Operations on the eastern border of Germany in 1914. East Prussian operation; Evseev N. The August battle; F.A. Khramov. East Prussian operation.
10. First August operation between 10 A SZF (gen. from infants. V.E. Flug; in the beginning - 8 PD; to 120000 people, to 400 op.) and the German 8 A (gene. artil. R. von Schubert; in the beginning - 7 PD; to 100000 people, 500 op.). See Brief Strategic Essay. H. 2; Strategic essay. H. 2; Flug V.Ye. X Army in September 1914. // Military collection. 1924. K. 5.
11. The Galician Battle - between 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 (after concentrating) the armies of the UZF (gen. from artil. N.I. Ivanov; over 50 of infantry and cavalier. div. to 1000000 people, more than 2000 op.) and Austro-Hungarian 1, 2 (after moving from the Balkans) 3 and 4 armies supported by Army groups of Kevess von Kevessgaz, I. Ferdinand, R. G. von Kummer and Silesian Landwehr Corps R. von Voirsch (general infantry Count F. Conrad von Gettsendorf; around 60 infantry and caval. div. - up to 950000 people., 1800 op.). See Strategic Sketch. H. 1; N. N. Golovin. From the history of the 1914 campaign. Battle of Galicia; White A. Galicia battle.
12. Warsaw-Ivangorod operation - between 2, 4, 5 and 9 armies of the NWF and SWF (gen. From the infants. N.V. Ruzsky and gen. From the artillery. N.I. Ivanov; 33 infantry and Kaval. div. - to 520000 people, 2400 op.) and the German 9 (Gen. -P.P. Hindenburg) and the Austro-Hungarian 1 (Gen. Kaval. V. Dunkl) armies (30 Infant and Kaval Div. - 310000 people, 1600 op.). See collection of documents. Warsaw-Ivangorod operation; Korolkov G. K. The Warsaw-Ivangorod operation; Strategic essay. CH 2.
Lodz operation - between the 1, 2 and 5 armies of the NWF (gen. From Infant. N.V. Ruzsky; 12 Armenian Corp. and 9 cd - 360000 people, 1300 op.) gen.-regimental (in the course of operas. became gen.-feldm.) P. Hindenburg), Austro-Hungarian 9 (gen. Kaval. E. von Bem - Ermolli)) armies supported by Silesian Landwer Corps (2 Corp. and 12,5 cd - 7 p., 380000 op.). See Strategic Sketch. H. 1700; H. 2; Collection of documents. Lodz operation; D. N. Rybin. Lodz operation; Korolkov GK Lodz operation.
13. Warfare. 1918. No. 25. C. 12.
14. http://ruskline.ru/analitika/2011/07/13/memorialy_gumbinenskogo_polya/



Russian infantry. Great struggle of nations. B. 4. M., 1915

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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 23 October 2017 07: 29
    18
    theaters of operations (theater of operations) in the operational-strategic context of the Eastern Front were not analyzed

    There is such a thing
    Success to the author in an interesting study
    Thank you
  2. Barcid
    Barcid 23 October 2017 07: 39
    19
    Soviet power actively studied military theory. Razin's work appeared at this time.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 23 October 2017 07: 46
    14
    Great A review-in detail, objectively and conclusively, about the need for the East Prussian operation for a common Allied victory. As a result, millions of Russian lives were saved.

    And it is very bitter that having such a striking example, the leadership of the USSR in May 1940 looked blankly at the defeat of France, instead of repeating August 1914 ...
    1. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 08: 42
      15
      Hello, dear Olgovich! Unfortunately, the leadership of the USSR, knowing about the experience of WWI, was in no hurry to use it, due to its ideological reticence and the almost total lack of quality higher education. Thinking "brilliant" leaders and people's commissars, thinking in terms of Marxist theory, they naively believed that they could "make imperialist predators grapple with each other," in order to "free" the peoples of Europe from them. The reality, alas, turned out to be different and the people had to pay dearly for the myopia and ideological fetters of the leadership of the USSR.
    2. 27091965
      27091965 23 October 2017 08: 55
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      And it is very bitter that having such a striking example, the leadership of the USSR in May 1940 looked blankly at the defeat of France, instead of repeating August 1914 ...


      What did France do for Russia and the USSR to rush to defend it in 1940?
      1. venaya
        venaya 23 October 2017 09: 03
        +2
        Quote: 27091965i
        What did France do for Russia and the USSR to rush to defend it in 1940?

        The reason is only debt bondage to French banks!
        1. 27091965
          27091965 23 October 2017 09: 49
          +3
          Quote: venaya
          The reason is only debt bondage to French banks!


          +. I’ll add a little to your comment. Russia should have felt special “gratitude” to France for the fact that when it entered into a loan agreement in 1906, it (Russia) was obliged to use only French technology in production. This is to what state should the country be brought in order to sign such agreements?
        2. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 11: 00
          16
          I wonder how much more the Russophobian myth of "French loans" will be replicated? The war began with a dispute between Austria-Hungary and Russia over the sovereignty of Serbia. This France was drawn into the war because of an alliance with Russia, and not vice versa. And the alliance with France was due to German policy, which sought to suppress the economic development of Russia.
          https://regnum.ru/news/1693588.html
          1. 27091965
            27091965 23 October 2017 11: 49
            +2
            Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
            This France was drawn into the war because of an alliance with Russia, and not vice versa.


            Likely from a large "peacefulness" in 1912, France transferred two corps from the cover group of the Franco-Italian border to the Franco-German border, and also in 1913 increased its military service to 3 years. Let me explain, without conducting mobilization increased the number of armed forces. You can recall what France did so that Russia would not take an active part in the 1912 war, and where Turkey would then be. Well, to remember what France did in order to annul the agreement between Serbia and Bulgaria, according to which Bulgaria pledged to act on the side of Serbia in the event of an attack by Austria-Hungary on Serbia. Do you think all this is worth remembering?
            It is impossible to be distracted from the main goal, for France it was Germany.


            Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
            I wonder how much more the Russophobian myth of "French loans" will be replicated.


            Russian Finance and the European Exchange in 1904-1906, ed. Tsentrarchiva, documents from archives, if disproved I read with pleasure.
            1. Lieutenant Teterin
              Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 12: 55
              15
              Quote: 27091965i
              Probably France transferred two corps from the cover group of the Franco-Italian border in 1912 to the Franco-German border, and also in 1913 increased its military service to 3 years.

              Of course. Indeed, out of the same peacefulness during the Agadir crisis, Germany began to rattle with arms, threaten France, and anti-French hysteria rose in the press. And the same peacefulness dictated the re-equipment program of the Kaiser army in 1913.
              Quote: 27091965i
              You can recall what France did so that Russia would not take an active part in the 1912 war

              You can remember. Because the French clearly did not want the Balkan conflict to develop into a pan-European one.
              Quote: 27091965i
              France it was Germany.

              Who is arguing? And for Germany - France and England. And in addition - Russia, namely the rejection of the Baltic states and Ukraine.
              Quote: 27091965i
              annul agreement between Serbia and Bulgaria

              The agreement was annulled by the Bulgarians themselves, who started the Second Balkan War because of their ambitions and plans to create "Greater Bulgaria".
              Quote: 27091965i
              Russian Finance and the European Exchange in 1904-1906, ed. Center Archive

              The key dates here are: 1904-1906. Loans were taken long before the start of World War I and were repaid until 1914, so that they could not serve as the reason for Russia's entry into the war.
              1. 27091965
                27091965 23 October 2017 13: 44
                +1
                Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
                Indeed, out of the same peacefulness during the Agadir crisis, Germany began to rattle with arms, threaten France, and anti-French hysteria rose in the press.


                Do you think that Germany sent troops to Morocco or was it offering a fee for part of the territory?

                The agreement was annulled by the Bulgarians themselves, who started the Second Balkan War


                I think this union was not beneficial to the powerful of this world, it was necessary to break it down. Well, and here, as they say, all means are good. To exalt the success of some, reduce others and express to them their sympathy and support.

                The key dates here are: 1904-1906.


                The key is the date of 1906. The French warned Russia that until 1909 they would not provide loans, but Russia could well receive them in England.

                Well, as the saying goes, “sweet”, if Russia was considered a full-fledged ally and partner, why, as Poincare put it, “tactfully expelled”, moderators will not let my expression slip out of the Chinese Railways Consortium. It included England, France, Germany and the USA. Is this an allied relationship?
                1. Lieutenant Teterin
                  Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 15: 22
                  14
                  The question is, why did Germany even bother with the Franco-Spanish question of partitioning Morocco? Except as an attempt to provoke the French to aggression with subsequent accusations, this cannot be called otherwise. However, the French are not stupid people, they learned the lesson of 1870.
                  Quote: 27091965i
                  I think this union was not beneficial to the powerful of this world, it was necessary to break it down,

                  You know, this is already conspiracy thesis. Your assumptions are still not a historical fact, but only not a grounded theory. There is no evidence of foreign interference, and Bulgarian ambitions appeared long before 1912.
                  As for the railway ... the military alliance does not imply an economic alliance. Look for information on how the US broke into British colonial markets during WWII. They bombed the Germans together, but in terms of the economy, there was no talk of any joint actions.
                  1. 27091965
                    27091965 23 October 2017 16: 35
                    0
                    Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
                    You know, this is already conspiracy thesis. Your assumptions are still not a historical fact, but only not a grounded theory. There is no evidence of foreign interference


                    " it was undoubtedly established that before rushing to the Serbs, his yesterday’s allies, Ferdinand Koburgsky received from Austria-Hungary, then an ally of Romania, the assurance that the Romanian king Charles I of Hohenzollern would help him for the promise of the Danube quadrangle ......

                    in May, the Vienna cabinet authorized its envoy, Prince Fürstenberg, to inform the government of King Charles that, in the event of a conflict between Bulgaria and Serbia, Austria-Hungary would openly side with Bulgaria against Serbia and would defend it in case of need with an armed hand ......"R. Poincare Prime Minister, President of France.


                    " If Austria opposes Serbia, this will mean that casus foederis (odds pact) no longer exists. In this speech, she should rely only on her own strength. There can be no question of protection, since no one wants to attack it. It is necessary that this is declared to Austria in the most decisive form, and it is hoped that a corresponding statement by Germany will keep Austria from this dangerous adventure "D. Giolitti, Prime Minister of Italy.

                    So there was no foreign intervention? I now think it is worth believing these politicians mentioned above, or not?
                    1. Lieutenant Teterin
                      Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 20: 58
                      14
                      Sorry, but foreign intervention usually refers to a policy: a) pressure associated with threats of a military or economic nature, aimed at implementing the decision required by the state-organizer of this policy;
                      b) introducing influence agents in the ruling and / or intellectual circles of the state seeking to pursue a policy beneficial to the organizing state.
                      Assurances, promises of support, statements by foreign intervention can hardly be called. An adventurous, provocative policy - yes, but interference - no.
                      1. 27091965
                        27091965 23 October 2017 21: 16
                        0
                        Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
                        Assurances, promises of support, statements by foreign intervention can hardly be called. An adventurous, provocative policy - yes, but interference - no.


                        " Political actions that suppress, stop something, taken to change the course of an event. Synonym: mediation; Antique: incitement, provocation. Intervention by mediating countries in the course of hostilities."
              2. Maksim
                Maksim 23 October 2017 20: 36
                +1
                . The agreement was annulled by the Bulgarians themselves, who started the Second Balkan War because of their ambitions and plans to create "Greater Bulgaria".

                You have bad facts. Before Bulgaria began the Second Balkan, Serbia and Greece did everything in their power not to give up the fact that under the agreement of 1911 was assigned to Bulgaria with the consent of the Republic of Ingushetia.
                1. Lieutenant Teterin
                  Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 21: 00
                  14
                  Sorry, no one is taking the blame from Serbia and Greece for provocative acts, but Bulgaria also violated Art. 4 of the aforementioned agreement, which stated that
                  Any dispute that might arise regarding the interpretation and enforcement of any article of this treaty, the secret annex and the military convention is presented to the final decision of Russia.
                  http://doc20vek.ru/node/1454
                  As far as I remember, the Bulgarians did not turn to Russian diplomats, preferring to get by with the force of arms.
                  1. Maksim
                    Maksim 24 October 2017 18: 28
                    0
                    To Russian diplomats

                    Why, if in that very agreement the arbiter appeared Nikolai 2. And it was his refusal to fulfill his role that led to the VVB. The sins of the Bulgarian leadership are also considerable, since the war with the Allies (the result was completely irrelevant) led to the fact that they would not be smeared from the world mess.
        3. Koshnitsa
          Koshnitsa 25 October 2017 12: 45
          0
          So it was more profitable to kill the creditor then, no?
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 October 2017 09: 35
        13
        Quote: 27091965i
        What did France do for Russia and the USSR to rush to defend it in 1940?

        The Soviet Union needed this much more than France itself. As in 1938, the USSR rushed to defend Czechoslovakia not out of love and gratitude to it .....
        In the Great War, without Russia, the French would also surrender to the Germans, as in 1940, as in 1871. They would calmly drink coffee and wait for release.
        With its offensive, Russia forced them to defend themselves and take a hit on themselves. By this she saved the lives of her soldiers.
        1. 27091965
          27091965 23 October 2017 10: 32
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          With its offensive, Russia forced them to defend themselves and take a hit on themselves. By this she saved the lives of her soldiers.


          When visiting the delegation of the Entente, if I am not mistaken in 1909, at a gala dinner on a tsar’s yacht, Russian representatives tried in a conversation to talk about plans for building the Navy. But they received a firm answer, I do not remember literally, but I will present the general meaning.

          " Loans to Russia are issued for the development of the army; you do not need a strong fleet."

          The role of Russia in the upcoming war was determined, and unfortunately, in the definition of this role, the opinion of Russia did not matter much.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 23 October 2017 11: 51
            12
            Quote: 27091965i
            "Loans to Russia are issued for the development of the army; you do not need a strong fleet."

            Tell us about loans to the Russian army in 1909.
            A fleet with modern battleships of Russia built.
            Quote: 27091965i
            The role of Russia in the upcoming war was determined, and unfortunately, in the definition of this role, the opinion of Russia did not matter much.

            Role France in the upcoming war was defined, and in determining this role, her opinion did not matter much. Like the role of England, too, she had no other way ..
            1. 27091965
              27091965 23 October 2017 12: 41
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich
              Tell us about loans to the Russian army in 1909.


              " and then add to this a really reserved, but only for the last one 1908th year loan of about 200 million of the limit budget of the War Ministry, coming from the next year in a free discussion of the legislative chambers ... .... "Kokovtsev V.N. Minister of Finances of the Republic of Ingushetia, presentation of the budget in the Duma.

              A fleet with modern battleships of Russia built.


              If we consider the linear cruisers with the speed of the battleship modern, then yes.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 24 October 2017 08: 29
                12
                Quote: 27091965i
                "and then add to this really booked, but only for the last one 1908th year, a loan of about 200 million of the limit budget of the Ministry of War, coming next year in a free discussion of the legislative chambers ........" Kokovtsev VN Minister of Finances of the Republic of Ingushetia, presentation of the budget in the Duma.


                budget loan - funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system of the country. Where is the Entente and its conditions?
                Quote: 27091965i
                If we consider the linear cruisers with the speed of the battleship modern, then yes.

                belay
                Battleships considered modern, battleships of Russia. Which the next system could not build a single one.
                1. 27091965
                  27091965 24 October 2017 09: 26
                  0
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  budget loan - funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system of the country.


                  "Distribution of budgetary funds and foreign loans", you can also find out how much money had to be spent on maintaining the exchange rate of securities and creating favorable reviews in the press, abroad, about the Russian economic situation at that time.

                  Battleships considered modern


                  I really wanted it to be so. But comparing the performance characteristics, even without a detailed review of the project, does not allow one to agree with this.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 24 October 2017 10: 00
                    12
                    Quote: 27091965i
                    "Distribution of budget funds and foreign loans"

                    And no words about the Entente and its conditions.
                    Quote: 27091965i
                    I really wanted it to be so. But comparing the performance characteristics, even without a detailed review of the project, does not allow one to agree with this.

                    There were, and very detailed, studies of the respected Andrei from Chelyabinsk "Sevastopol" in comparison with the German battleships on the VO-in three parts.
                    Ours were very good.
                    1. 27091965
                      27091965 24 October 2017 10: 49
                      0
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      And no words about the Entente and its conditions.


                      According to the Council of Ministers, the government debt of the government grew over six years from 1904 to 1909 by 3 billion rubles. Only fears that the conclusion of new loans " to cover the costs of the military and maritime departments, raises doubts about the strength of the financial situation of Russia, can greatly shake our state credit and lead to an inevitable financial breakdown ", forced the government to refuse loans in 1910-1913. A special journal of the Council of Ministers of February 24, 1910

                      If this topic is so interesting to you, find the magazines of the Ministry of Finance. There you will find out who, at what interest and conditions issued these loans.
                2. 27091965
                  27091965 24 October 2017 09: 58
                  0
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Where is the Entente and its conditions?


                  Russia stopped borrowing in foreign financial markets in 1910. Thanks for the interesting discussion.
      3. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 10: 55
        16
        France pulled back the German corps and armies, saving the lives of Russian soldiers.
  4. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 08: 38
    16
    Wonderful article. Russian historiography has not previously performed an analysis of the First World War theater, so a new and extremely interesting topic has been raised. I will wait for new articles. The author - my sincere gratitude for the work done! hi
  5. Ostrovsky
    Ostrovsky 23 October 2017 09: 23
    17
    The author briefly examined the historiography of this issue, which is a big plus. And it examines the Eastern Front of the First World War through the prism of the theater of war that has developed on it, which is very interesting.
  6. Cartalon
    Cartalon 23 October 2017 12: 48
    0
    Of course, the assertion that East Prussia was a fortress, of course there were some fortifications, but not to say that they would play a great role in operations, the interaction of the Russian armies was by no means established due to the strengthened positions on the lakes.
    1. soldier
      soldier 23 October 2017 15: 33
      17
      Of course, the assertion that East Prussia was a fortress, of course there were some fortifications, but not to say that they would play a great role in operations, the interaction of the Russian armies was by no means established due to the strengthened positions on the lakes.

      It should not be cut here - with a closer acquaintance with the theater. The East Prussian theater of military operations was not limited to only VPO (this was the Second campaign in the VP, the First August Operation, and positional battles in November-December).
      You rightly noted one of the natural obstacles - the inter-lake defile (it left a significant imprint on the course of malware). Enough and fortifications - even in July-August.
      But the fact is that the assessment of the military journalist of the Shumsky East Prussian Theater of Theater was given in Niva No. 52 (this is the last, that is, the December issue of the year). During the fall, the Germans erected such a powerful defense (along the Angerape river) that 10 A during the Lasdenden operation in January 1915 had to overcome them almost using the method of siege warfare.
      The text says
      By the end of the 1914 campaign, a

      And their assessment is given AT THE END of the year - so everything is for sure
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 23 October 2017 16: 00
        +1
        In fact, in the years 15-17, any defense was overcome by methods of siege warfare, especially by the Russian army with its almost complete absence of heavy artillery.
        1. soldier
          soldier 23 October 2017 16: 03
          17
          I just explained to you - why, in December 1914, Shumsky called the East Prussian Theater of Theater "Fortress".
          Because of its reinforced engineering equipment - which was not on other theater.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. IS-80_RVGK2
    IS-80_RVGK2 23 October 2017 13: 06
    +4
    Second Patriotic War.

    Monarchists with stubbornness worthy of better use continue to pull the owl on the globe.
    1. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 15: 06
      15
      Hm. Actually, the Second World War is quite a real official name for the WWII in those years.



      Maybe it's time to stop denying the facts and admit that the First World War really became the Second World War for Russia?
      1. IS-80_RVGK2
        IS-80_RVGK2 24 October 2017 10: 42
        +1
        Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
        Maybe it's time to stop denying the facts and admit that the First World War really became the Second World War for Russia?

        It's time for the monarchists to leave the owl and the globe alone. There was no World War I. No Patriotic War. And your pieces of paper that you showed here do not mean anything. This is how to bring an opinion about something in the same Novaya Gazeta that was not mentioned at night, like the opinion of the official authorities, well, or there from Echo of Moscow. And in essence it was not Patriotic. What further events have shown. Yes, at the initial stage there was enthusiasm, but he passed very quickly. And it is unclear why people didn’t want to die, for as long as your family is poor and starving in the rear. From this point of view, the Russo-Polish war of 1609-1618 was just the Patriotic War, and under what number do we write it down? Zero Patriotic? And we can also recall the struggle of Alexander Nevsky with the Germans and Russia in general with the Mongol-Tatar invasion. Is it then minus the first Patriotic and minus the second? You still write Russian-Japanese 1904-1905 in the Patriotic War.
  9. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 23 October 2017 14: 19
    20
    Theater of the Second World War

    Yes, that was the name of the war in those years
    And no wonder
    Most went on Russian soil - the then empire
    I read about small volunteers - the sons of regiments, then fighting in the army
    And indeed there were many volunteers
    Maybe they will write about them?
    I hope
    It would be interesting to read
    Interesting approach and content hi
    1. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 23 October 2017 15: 11
      14
      Yes, the stories of volunteers of that time are interesting autumn. In 1914, a 16-year-old Odessa youth named Rodion escaped with an echelon of the Elisavetgrad Infantry Regiment; upon arrival at the front, he was enlisted in the regiment's machine gun team. After 30 years, the world will know this young man as Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky ...
  10. goblin xnumx
    goblin xnumx 23 October 2017 21: 53
    +2
    another shaving brush over a picture of the Soviet past- the second domestic ...- so bit by bit they quietly pull an owl on a globe- and Malinovsky became a marshal thanks to the emperor ...
    1. Koshnitsa
      Koshnitsa 25 October 2017 12: 49
      0
      Well, and how you wanted the goblin, the communists are losers and losers after 1991, they can be kicked and covered up by anyone and anytime.
      Woe to the vanquished, let alone surrendered without exception.