Military Review

"Kalashnikov" for the Navy


Two small Soviet-built missile boats (Project 183P) Egyptian fleet sank the Israeli destroyer Eilat near Port Said, which conducted radio intelligence. Of the four P-15s launched by the KR, three fell into the destroyer, and the last flopped directly onto the heads of his crew sailors who were in the water: their broken ship was already sinking. In principle, the destruction of the Eilat would have more than enough the first two missiles, because three or four could have sunk a light cruiser like, say, the American Brooklyn.

The loud naval victory of Egypt took place primarily thanks to Soviet military advisers who helped to master, and then apply the new weapon. For Western countries, the death of "Eilat", even if the old ship (the former English destroyer Zealous - "Zealous" 1944, built), was a shock. Of course, the enemy was aware that by the beginning of the 60's, the Soviet Navy had acquired the world's first missile boats and soon began delivering them to friendly regimes. However, in the West, these boats of projects 183Р (according to NATO classification Komar) and 205 (Osa), armed respectively with two and four missiles of П-15 (SSN-2 Styx) type, were contemptuously called the weapon of the poor. Maybe not unreasonably, but their “sting” turned out to be very sharp.

The P-15 rocket, born in Dubna near Moscow in the design team of Alexander Bereznyak (now the Raduga GosMKB), has become the world's equivalent of Kalash in terms of its worldwide popularity. The boats with the P-15 received from the USSR, except Egypt, the allies of the Warsaw Pact, Algeria, Angola, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Iraq, China, Cuba, Libya, North Korea, North and South Yemen, Syria, Somalia, Finland, Ethiopia (then went to Eritrea) and Yugoslavia. In addition, the production of P-15 (and the construction of boats on the model of the Soviet projects 183Р and 205) mastered the PRC and the DPRK. This guided projectile with an active radar or thermal homing head in the first modifications could hit targets at a distance of 40 kilometers. A powerful high-explosive warhead allowed the Stix to punch 180-mm steel and tear apart the stuffing of an enemy ship within 10 radius. To assess these indicators, we can say that the thickness of the armor belt of American heavy cruisers of the Baltimore type, which also served in the 70, was 152 millimeters.

In December, 1971, the victim of the P-15, in this case released by the Indian missile boat of the 205 project, was another destroyer of British origin - the Pakistani Khaibar. The Indians also sank three vehicles in the port of Karachi. According to some reports, in the 1974, the PLA fleet successfully applied its “Styxes” against the South Vietnamese Navy when China seized the Paracel Islands.

The first of the countries of the “American orbit” were learned by the Israelis from a collision with Soviet-made missile boats, hurrying to equip their Navy with similar ships (type Saar of French design) with the Gabriel RCC. The combat unit "Gabriel" was less powerful than the P-15. However, it was enough to sink Arab boats, given the superiority of the “Saar” in the number of missiles on board (up to eight) and the advantages in artillery weapons (76- and 40-mm AU against 30- and 25-mm). Skillfully using the "Saary" in cooperation with helicopters, as well as electronic warfare, the Israeli sailors in 1973, were able to destroy several missile boats of the Navy of Egypt and Syria, without losing any of their own, and this with a smaller range "Gabriel."

Impressed by the debut of the Styx, many naval forces of the world began to be equipped with missile boats, including such non-poor countries like Germany, Italy, Sweden (which, by the way, was the first in the West to adopt the rather awkward type) Robot 60 for destroyers), Norway, Denmark, Japan. The main RCCs abroad were the French Exoset, the American Harpoon, the Swedish RBS-08, the Norwegian Penguin and the Chinese variations on the P-15 theme.

It is obvious that rocket boats with the P-15 in the Soviet philosophy of naval combat were originally intended to fight primarily with large warships and enemy transports, and not with "classmates." Following this, our developers proposed to re-equip the large-scale “classic” destroyers of the 30bis project, which no longer met the requirements of the time, with three three-container launchers with П-15 (instead of torpedo tubes and aft 130-mm turret). Sound rocket ships would have turned out, but the Main Command of the Navy "hacked down" the idea at the root, finding the P-15 unpromising for the sea and ocean zone. In truth, those destroyers themselves looked such, while maintaining the design composition of artillery and torpedo weapons. Meanwhile, it was in this way that the Chinese began building up the strike potential of their fleet, equipping the Hayin-2 (Chinese P-15) missiles of the 7 project built by the USSR, built in 1941 – 1942, and also sentinel ships of the project 50. In our fleet, these veteran patrols (“fifty dollars”), the last of which were written off by the 90 years, remained almost with the original weapon set. Moreover, China put into operation a rather large series of rocket destroyers (type “Lyuda”) based on the Soviet “classic” project 56. Initially, unlike the prototype, instead of torpedo tubes, they had three-container launchers for Hayin-2.

In the 70-ies after a serious improvement of the P-15, the result of which was the emergence of the Termite SCRK (the P-15М with a range of 80 km), they began to equip large ships in our Navy. This complex was obtained during the modernization of the BOD project 61М and large rocket ships of the project 56У. For "Termit" was provided and a nuclear warhead.

P-15 in the "termite" incarnation is still in service with our and a number of foreign fleets (including NATO’s Black Sea neophytes). She equipped the rocket boats of the type "Lightning" and coastal mobile SCRC "Rubezh". Even in the archaic Navy of the DPRK, carriers of the P-15 operating in the coastal, especially the island zone, pose a real threat to modern ships of a potential enemy, including the destroyer and missile cruiser. Therefore, the fight against the "Styx" command of the US Navy and South Korea is considered one of the important tasks.
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  1. San Sanych
    San Sanych 21 October 2017 07: 24
    Cheap and cheerful. You can also mention the project 61ME BOD built for the Indian Navy, armed with P-20 missiles (modification of the P-15 Termite).
    1. iouris
      iouris 22 October 2017 13: 11
      Only the first unexpected combat use was effective. Israel immediately created a strike reconnaissance complex, which reduced to nothing the possibility of the Egyptian boats of the Soviet project.
      1. San Sanych
        San Sanych 22 October 2017 14: 17
        Nevertheless, the Israelis also decided to acquire similar missile boats, and not only them. And be that as it may, cruise missiles and in our time are pretty effective weapons, unless of course they are in skilled hands yes And the ancestor of this new type of weapon was the USSR.
      2. Oqtagooi
        Oqtagooi 23 October 2017 04: 39
        Yah. But what about the raid on the fort "Budapest" (Israeli stronghold) of Egyptian boats, which were freely shot by everything they could and dumped unnoticed by the three Israeli boats that guarded this section of the coast. Do not repeat someone else's nonsense, but rather read materials on the Arab-Jewish war. Forwards there, on either side, did not suffer losses.
  2. tchoni
    tchoni 21 October 2017 08: 48
    P-15, or rather its ghs, has no noise immunity. This explains the high survivability of the SAAR boats of the Israeli Navy. Most Arabs fired first ... and the rocket went into traps. After them, who shot the ammunition, they took it warm. So that
    . Even in the DPRK's archaic navy, P-15 carriers operating in the coastal, especially island zone, pose a real threat to modern ships of a potential enemy up to the destroyer and missile cruiser, inclusive.
    sounds BIG exaggeration. Maximum p15 threat to transport and no more.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 21 October 2017 09: 21
      Quote: tchoni
      sounds BIG exaggeration.

      Both they and the Chinese are actively "finishing up" the armament samples received from the USSR.
      So it’s not a fact that North Korean anti-ship missiles have the same low noise immunity as the Soviet “parents”
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 October 2017 11: 06
        Quote: Spade
        So it’s not a fact that North Korean anti-ship missiles have the same low noise immunity,

        Fact. Do you really think that the DPRK is able to finish what has been done in the USSR? :)))) Of course, I’m exaggerating, maybe they have some successes in the missile part, but certainly not in the part of interference-protected GOS
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 21 October 2017 11: 21
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          Do you really think that the DPRK is able to finish what was done in the USSR? :))))

          Of course I think. A country capable of creating nuclear weapons is quite capable of this. Moreover, solutions in the field of improving noise immunity lie in the field of dual-use technologies, and therefore are quite accessible for copying.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 October 2017 13: 15
            Quote: Spade
            Of course I think. A country capable of creating nuclear weapons is quite capable of this.

            Very unlikely. In fact, the DPRK has certain successes only in the development and production of ballistic missiles that do not use AGSN and IK GOS, But this electronics is a completely “different diocese” which has nothing to do with nuclear weapons or BR. At the same time, I would like to note that simple BRs, flights into space and nuclear weapons were available in the 60s of the last century, interference-protected GOS - these are much later technologies
            1. IL-18
              IL-18 21 October 2017 18: 32
              Only DPRK makes smartphones at home. Leave them alone, they will begin to live prosperously
            2. The comment was deleted.
        2. 27091965
          27091965 21 October 2017 12: 01
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          Do you really think that the DPRK is able to finish what was done in the USSR?

          They themselves may not, but there is China. Which did not sign an agreement, at the beginning of 2000, on a missile technology control regime. Most likely, advanced technologies were not provided, but in the partial modernization of the anti-ship missiles they could have provided assistance.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 October 2017 13: 16
            Quote: 27091965i
            They themselves may not, but there is China.

            China certainly can, but I can’t imagine that it would begin to share this with the DPRK
            1. 27091965
              27091965 21 October 2017 14: 27
              Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
              China certainly can, but I can’t imagine that it would begin to share this with the DPRK

              " North Korea exports not only its own missiles, but also Chinese-made ones. North Korea imported Chinese missiles by rail, and then exported them to Iran and Syria, thanks to these manipulations, earning a huge commission. Kim Jong Il is known to be satisfied with this trade.."

              I think you can imagine that they shared.

              "North Korea bought French Exoset anti-ship missiles to improve production.
              North Korea also completed development in early 1990, and began production of new anti-ship missiles for its fleet.

              China was not the only country where the DPRK made attempts to obtain technology.

              Data taken from the report "North Korean missile proliferation problem." OCTOBER 21, 1997. US SENATE.

              I was interested in this report on what the DPRK bases its development of the RCC.
    2. andrewkor
      andrewkor 21 October 2017 09: 25
      The weight of the warhead of the P-15 rocket = 480 kg. Which cruiser do you think will withstand the hit of at least one such missile at the beginning of the 60s?
    3. avt
      avt 21 October 2017 10: 51
      Quote: tchoni
      sounds BIG exaggeration.

      To put it mildly, especially in the light of real battles in the same Egypt. This was the first and LAST successful attack. Jews quickly figured out what was happening and clearly developed battle tactics with the joint use of turntables by the way. All launches immediately went to the limit and into milk.
      1. vlad575nso
        vlad575nso 21 October 2017 14: 27
        IMHO: For the use of turntables, the Syrian sailors accepted electronic warfare used against them, on boats like Saar 4 (which took part in the battle) there is nowhere to place helicopters.
    4. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 21 October 2017 16: 34
      It should be noted that P-15 went for export with a simplified GOS (without additional frequencies and an IR channel)
  3. Old26
    Old26 21 October 2017 11: 36
    I don’t even know whether to put a plus article or not. The beginning of the boats of the project 183-P (according to NATO classification - "Komar"), in the photo a missile boat of the project 205 "Tsunami" (according to NATO classification - "Wasp"). It has been written about the use of missile weapons in small wars, and that they were used by the same Wasp boats - NOT A WORD.

    Editors Change the photo, since the beginning was about “Mosquitoes” to the photo “Mosquito” or the photo “Komar” add to the beginning, and “Wasp” inside the text. Photo "Mosquito" - below
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 21 October 2017 15: 07
      This is the second time that it’s a mistake when, instead of the 183 project, 205 photos are popped. The editor does not catch mice at all.
  4. padded jacket
    padded jacket 21 October 2017 13: 55
    North Korea makes copies of the X-35 anti-ship missile called the Kumsong-3 with a range of 200 kilometers, or just very similar to the original missiles.
  5. g1961.61
    g1961.61 21 October 2017 15: 45
    They will write a lot about equipment without me, but what it was like to serve as a katernik. Trained as a student at 206 with Termite missiles in Baltiysk in 84. I got on a speedboat and went to sea several times, including a gathering trip (5 days). There are a lot of impressions - everyone was confused, including officers and midshipmen. It was possible to lie on the shaft only with arms and legs resting. - only lying (as the crew joked). In the car, a watch was carried only lying on a mattress. I was like a trainee at the radar operator (in my opinion, Harpoon was called). The foreman immediately put a sawn-off shotgun under his feet to go there. When they reached the “transom" (this was called the hydrofoil), he became very ill. She puts it, I can’t take it anymore, now I’ll fall. His midshipman came to replace him.
    Then, already in the base, they talked with the officer - but everyone knows how much they could serve as a katernik. Then they get board rations for exits; they practically didn’t eat at sea. At supastat, all katerniks are exclusively contract soldiers (we didn’t even know such a word then.
    But the technique certainly made an impression. For example, on a boat of 200 tons with a displacement of 2 diesel engines for economical travel and 2 turbines for maximum.
    1. g1961.61
      g1961.61 21 October 2017 15: 49
      I realized that the admin removed some words, which and where, I think you’ll guess.
  6. Oqtagooi
    Oqtagooi 21 October 2017 17: 00
    Quote: avt
    Jews quickly figured out what was happening and clearly developed battle tactics with the joint use of turntables by the way. All launches immediately went to the limit and into milk.

    Before writing any nonsense, take a look at the history of the issue. ;) The Jews themselves, claim that they had no helicopters at all. And the Egyptian baboons were not able to shoot from the maximum distance, because for this it was necessary to calculate the position of their ship and the attacked, and enter this data into the autopilot of the rocket, i.e. set a route to the target search area. A visual guidance system was used, which already worked in the zone of defeat of the Gabriels.
  7. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 8 May 2018 07: 56
    In the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, P-15 missiles were used by both sides. Iran has deployed coastal rocket batteries (equipped with rocket versions purchased in China and North Korea) to control the Persian Gulf. Presumably, missiles of this type were used by the Iranian fleet during the so-called. “Tanker war” - attacks on tankers following through the gulf that exported oil from the warring countries.

    Iraq also deployed a significant number of P-15 missiles, but with less success. During Operation Morvarid (an attack by the Iranian fleet on the Iraqi coast), Iranian ships and planes, using the more modern Harpoon anti-ship missiles, destroyed 80% of all Iraqi naval forces, at the cost of losing only 1 corvette [8]. This operation demonstrated the previously noted sensitivity of the P-15 to interference, a relatively high flight altitude and a range insufficient by modern standards (less than 100 km).

    To ensure the protection of surface ships from the defeat of the Termit RCC, the US Navy has developed a layered missile defense system, which includes aviation and marine components. The early detection of missiles in flight was carried out by means of airborne radar stations for detecting carrier-based fighter-interceptors on duty in the air at a distance from the surface forces of the fleet. The spatial coordinates of the detected missiles obtained from them were automatically transmitted through the secure data channel to the NTDS combat information and control system, naval radars escorted the detected enemy missiles to the strike zone of the ship’s anti-aircraft missile systems, after which active defense measures and attempts to shoot down the missile began first long-range missiles of the Standard-ER type (first echelon of missile defense, up to 74 km), [9] and then medium-range missiles of the Standard-MR type (second echelon, 2,77–46,3 km), [10 ] - in t In the event that an approaching missile managed to overcome both advanced echelons of a naval missile defense system, the Falanks anti-aircraft artillery complex (third echelon, up to 1,47 km) entered into action. Along with measures of active protection, along the entire length of the flight route of the rocket, after it entered the reach of ship stations for radar jamming, passive protection measures were taken to disable the radio altimeter of the rocket. Exercises and combat training exercises for the crews of carrier-based aircraft and calculations of naval air defense systems were regularly conducted to work out coherence in the event of rocket fire. During the exercises, the Fireby-2 multiple-use reactive UAVs (BQM-34E) were used as simulators of Soviet missiles, and the Jeyhok (AQM-37A) disposable reactive UAVs for the preparation of combat missiles for the preparation of air defense targeting operators, and turbojet Chukar (MQM-74A) for training anti-aircraft gunners-gunners [11].