Military Review

From Tsarist rubles to Soviet chervonets

34



In 1914, the ruble of the Russian Empire was considered one of the most solid and reliable national currencies in the world. Where did the national financial disaster begin?

The war has finished the golden ruble

1 August 1914, the Russian Empire entered the war, later called the First World War. Hopes for its speedy end were not justified, the war lasted more than four years. In addition to the disasters of the military, it also led to immeasurably more serious political and economic upheavals, the end result of which was the October Revolution 1917 of the year and the subsequent Civil War. After all, inflation is a companion of any protracted military action. To wage war is a very expensive pleasure, and even rich countries have to turn on the printing press (and at the same time make loans, both internal and external). And the inevitable consequence of a civil war (or a defeat in a war is normal) is hyperinflation - the number of zeros on unsecured banknotes is growing rapidly. The dubious honor of setting records in the field of hyperinflation, fortunately, does not belong to our country - we did not have bills with denominations of sextillion (billion trillion, 10 to 21 degrees, Hungary, 1946) or 100 thousand billions (Germany, 1924), during Civic denominations of banknotes of the State Bank of Russia have reached us only to millions.

In the First World War, Russia entered, possessing a solid and reliable national currency. After the monetary reform of 1898, the royal ruble had a gold supply, and by 1914, the gold reserves exceeded the amount of paper money in circulation, so that if necessary the government could replicate more than 300 million rubles.

But already 27 July 1914 was in the Russian Empire, a law was passed, suspending the exchange of paper money for gold (so did most of the countries that participated in the war). The same law gave the State Bank the right to print money that was not provided with gold in the amount of up to 1 500 million rubles. In fact, by the year 1917 6 500 million had already been printed. Moreover, the real provision of paper money with gold reserves at this point was only 16%.

Naturally, the result of the depreciation of money was a huge inflation. In 1915, it was still only 30%, but in 1916, it already jumped to 100%. Public servants already with 1915, compulsory indexed salary adjusted for inflation, but this did not save from rising prices. It got to the point that at the end of 1916, the government made an attempt to conduct a sort of surplus - that is, seize part of the crop at fixed prices, but ran into outright sabotage by the peasants, because prices on the market were several times higher, and the provision of no one guaranteed industrial goods at fixed prices for rural residents.

Keren rolls

In March, the Provisional Government, headed by Prince Lvov (later replaced by A.Ferensky Kerensky), came to power in Russia, which succeeded in a fantastic thing - in a short time to turn a stable state into a disorderly collapsing colossus . Suffice it to say that during the 1917 months of its existence, in addition to the collapse of the army, the amnesty of criminals and the destruction of the police, it released as much money as the royal for two and a half years of war - the total amount of the issue was 8 million rubles (not counting the change marks on 6412,4 million and exchange treasury marks on 95,8 million).

Before 1917, the largest Russian banknote was 500 rubles. Before the First World War, it was a very large amount. But by 1917, the money was so depreciated that it was the monthly salary of a skilled worker. By the time the Provisional Government began to issue money, the situation became so disastrous that the bills in denominations of 250 and 1000 rubles (the so-called “Duma money”) immediately began to print. But this was not enough - prices were already rising to dizzying heights. So much so that in some regions, in-order, there was a barter in the absence or total uselessness of money.
A desperate attempt by the Provisional Government to prolong the agony of the traditionally established commodity-money relations was the release of the famous “queens” - paper money in denominations of 20 and 40 rubles. More useless money in stories Russia was not yet. They were not even faked - because they were printed on plain paper (even label paper was suitable), this could be done in any printing house. Given their low dignity, the “Kerenki” were released in whole sheets, not even cut into bills. However, there was no need to cut them - at the prices of those times it was much easier to pay in whole rolls. But very soon such a need disappeared - the Provisional Government was overthrown and the “Kerenki” were practically out of circulation. Most often, the happy owners of such rolls used them for pasting walls. This is how I spoke about the situation that had arisen at the beginning of 1918, S., E.E. Khitun, who later turned out to be in exile in China: “I had money issued by the Kerensky Government, but peasants were more willing to exchange edible products for clothes than for quickly losing value money of the already defunct Government.”

War communism

In October, 1917, an epoch-making event in Russian history occurred - the power in the country was seized by the Bolsheviks, who created the new government - the Council of People's Commissars (Council of People's Commissars). They got a heavy legacy - the state was on the verge of collapse. But besides the accumulated political experience, there were no management practitioners among them. Nevertheless, they instinctively groped for the only surest way among the economic chaos that reigned during the Civil War by the end of 1918. This was the introduction of the economic policy of war communism. Not to mention the fact that this was in many ways the embodiment of the ideas followed by the Bolsheviks, military communism was the most reasonable way out of this situation.

The nationalization of everything that can be nationalized, the prohibition of private trade and the state monopoly on trade in the main types of agricultural products and foreign trade, the surplus, which was carried out by the detachments, an attempt to create labor armies (by the way, something like our labor armies of the times of war communism created in the early thirties Roosevelt’s in Democratic America). Attempts were made if not to get rid of money at all, then at least to reduce their circulation to a minimum. The money that was in circulation, civil servants and workers of industrial enterprises were given only part of their salaries, the rest was given in kind - food rations (plus free working clothes and utilities). But it was impossible to abolish money on the move by one strong-willed decision.

The State Bank, the Expedition of Harvesting Government Papers (the future Goznak), the Mint and part of the country's gold reserves (in 1915, during the Great Retreat, the gold reserves were evacuated to Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod just in case. In 1918 about half of the gold reserves, exported to Kazan, turned out to be white). One of the first decrees of the new government was the decree of December 14 (27) “On the nationalization of banks”. There is only one bank left in the country - the former State, now the People's. Cash reserves ("Romanov", "Duma", "Kerensky") at this bank quickly ended. After all, now the new government was required to pay salaries, allowances, pensions, to buy food.

And on January 21 (February 3), the Central Executive Committee issued a decree of 1918, according to which 5-percent short-term liabilities of the state treasury issued shortly before October were put into circulation along with credit cards. And it was the first of the decrees and circulars of this kind. The number of securities inherited from the tsarist and Provisional governments, replacing money, grew steadily. This number included not only bonds of the recent Freedom Loan, but also, for example, exotic coupons of the 5-interest home loan ... 1864 of the year. In total, there were three categories of securities and four dozen varieties of coupons in circulation - apparently, everything that was found.

On the 1918 year, the Bolsheviks planned a monetary reform, about which Lenin wrote: “We will appoint the shortest period during which everyone will have to make a declaration about the amount of money he has and receive new ones in return; if the amount is small, he will receive a ruble per ruble; if it exceeds the norm, he will receive only a part. This measure will undoubtedly meet with the strongest opposition not only from the side of the bourgeoisie, but also from the side of the village kulaks, who have grown rich in the war and who have buried bottles filled with thousands of paper money. We will meet breasts with class enemies. ” Alas, the Civil War began in the country, and instead of monetary reform it was necessary to introduce military communism.

Money supply has increased 119 times

In 1918, the Soviet government continued to print rapidly depreciating "Kerenki". Clichés from the Provisional Government were used. On these notes, the date “1918” was combined with the coat of arms of a no longer existing state — a double-headed eagle devoid of royal regalia. The purchasing power of the “Kerenok” of the Soviet issue has become even more scanty, and the popular name of this “currency” has changed - in honor of the Governor of the RSFSR State Bank L.G. Pyatakov "Kerenki" were nicknamed "pyatakovkami."
From November 1917 to the first half of 1921, the Soviet government introduced into circulation 2328,3 billion rubles. (as a result, the money supply has increased 119 times). And even this astronomical money supply was not enough to cover the budget deficit - in 1921, it amounted to 21 936 916 billion rubles.

Before the war, industrial products were produced for a total amount of 66,5 billion gold rubles (before the war); by 1921, this figure was reduced to 700 – 800 thousand gold rubles. Over the same period, agricultural production fell from pre-war 5 billion to 1,6 – 1,8 billion.

People lost their jobs

By March, 1921, prices in comparison with pre-war increased 30 thousands (!) Times. Comments to this sad statistic are superfluous.
As General Krasnov, one of the leaders of the White movement, wrote (his statements were, of course, extremely biased towards the Bolsheviks, but not without a grain of truth): “People lost the habit of working and did not want to work, people did not consider themselves obliged to obey the laws, pay taxes, execute orders. Unusually developed speculation, the occupation of buying and selling, which has become a kind of craft for a number of people and even intelligent people. Bolshevik commissars instigated bribery, which became an ordinary and, as it were, legal phenomenon.

In a country littered with bread, meat, fats and milk, hunger began. There were no goods, and the villagers did not want to carry their products to the cities. In the cities there were no banknotes, and they were replaced by substitutes, Freedom Loan coupons and others, which made trade extremely difficult ... ”Of course, first of all Krasnov had in mind the situation created by the Bolsheviks on the eve of the arrival of whites in the south of the country, but this The statement is applicable to the whole of Russia.

The civil war did not prevent economists from arguing about how to bring the monetary system to order. The most obvious way out of this situation was the release of a new monetary unit, secured with either gold or foreign currency, which can be exchanged for gold (gold exchange standard). In fact, it was a return to the pre-war royal ruble. But, for example, economist and statistician S.G. Strumilin (the future academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences) proposed an alternative option - not to embed the Soviet currency in the global financial system, but to provide only the domestic market - the money supply should fully correspond to the mass of goods.

Soviet chervonets

Monetary reform was inevitable. The civil war ended in a convincing victory for the Reds, and keeping the system of war communism intact would be suicide for the Soviet economy.

15 March 1921, at the X Congress of the RCP (B), a new economic policy was announced. The economy should have been adjacent to the public and private sectors. It was also planned to attract foreign capital through the granting of concessions. The surplus, which caused the peasant uprisings, was replaced by a tax in kind. And, of course, no new economic policy was possible without a new ruble. Supporters of the gold supply of the new Soviet currency won the disputes. October 11 1922, by decree of the Council of People's Commissars, introduced a new monetary unit - chervonets. The gold supply of the new currency constituted the 1 spool and the 78,24 gold fraction (1 spool - 4,26575417 gram, in the spool 96 fraction).

It should be noted that the reform was extremely successful, the chervonets was quickly recognized by the population as a reliable currency, whose values ​​were not in doubt.
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https://vpk-news.ru/articles/39371
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 21 October 2017 07: 24 New
    +2
    A mean article ... like from a textbook ...
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 21 October 2017 08: 30 New
    17
    In 1914, the ruble of the Russian Empire was considered one of the most solid and reliable national currencies in the world.

    Yes, the German mark was worth 49 kopecks
    As once a penny was worth a dollar and to the Soviet ruble
    On July 27, 1914, a law was passed in the Russian Empire that suspended the exchange of paper money for gold (as did most of the countries participating in the war)

    The realities of war. England by the end of the war so generally lost its financial position
    Both in 1914-17 and in 1990-93. - politics “ate” the economy
    I almost said - as now ...
    1. Observer2014
      Observer2014 21 October 2017 14: 29 New
      +7
      XII Legion
      Yes, the German mark was worth 49 kopecks
      As once a penny was worth a dollar and to the Soviet ruble
      Yes sir ! Like the salary in the USSR of 200 r was good. And the wristwatch (fake) “Montana” with 6 tunes cost 60 r in the commission. And the double-cassette 3000 r wassat laughing
      Speaking of gold pieces of gold. God forbid anyone overshadowing now to release one. For American papers, they will immediately take everything out clean.
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 14: 42 New
        +6
        Quote: Observer2014
        And a wristwatch (fake) "Montana" with 6 tunes cost 60 r

        For 45 bought from the Vietnamese.
        Quote: Observer2014
        .A double cassette 3000 r

        What is this?
        1. Curious
          Curious 21 October 2017 18: 12 New
          +3
          What is this?
          Gold Star is now LG.
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 18: 30 New
            +5
            Quote: Curious
            Gold Star is now LG.

            Well, that LG is Goldstar (don't annoy my nerve cells by forcing to search for unfamiliar letters laughing ), at I know. I even agree that pricing in the USSR is not good. Or is it bad in the West? If, according to Parshev "Why Russia is not America", for a garden pump worth 18 rubles. (I don’t remember this, I remember the deep one, for 25) they gave two video recorders (I don’t know the company)? Not, rather, with us, if a summer house was exchanged for a VCR near Moscow. As a result, it turns out that the summer cottage near Moscow had the cost of a Soviet full pump, plus some manipulations associated with traveling abroad. recourse Aren't you tired of reading my opuses yet? laughing drinks
            1. Curious
              Curious 21 October 2017 22: 18 New
              +1
              I will answer you mine. Such a two-cassette player at my factory (received by barter) cost 600 p. Guano is rare. According to the Soviet classification of equipment, probably 6th grade. But it looked solid. I took it directly from the factory to the komisionka, where I didn’t even have time to convey it to the merchandiser, they took him for 3000 r.
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 22: 26 New
                +4
                Quote: Curious
                I will answer you mine. Such a two-cassette player at my factory (received by barter) cost 600 p.

                And I can remind you of a certain "national", which also sold for two and a half years in the 90th. Also rare rare guano. The native “Lighthouse” was a hundred times better, at least one-cassette. But, it seems to me that we are a little about the time, and not talking about those prices? Ahhh, damn it, I missed .. By barter ...
                1. Curious
                  Curious 21 October 2017 22: 30 New
                  0
                  I agree, I just did not find 1917.
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 21 October 2017 22: 37 New
                    +4
                    Quote: Curious
                    I agree, I just did not find 1917.

                    What? I didn’t understand ... I mean, I missed yours, on barter ... We had such tapes on barter, worse than MK ... And then, it could be sold for 20 rubles, because it was written not according to ours . sad
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 21 October 2017 22: 45 New
                      +1
                      I must note that this was the only time for us. For these two-cassette director director so screwed up that they did not bring any more shit, only serious companies.
                      1. Catherine II
                        Catherine II 21 October 2017 23: 28 New
                        0
                        Quote: Curious
                        didn't bring

                        I was kind of lucky, dad is a sailor and the flights are long. Allowed to bring any medium-sized. Goldstar were, however, until the 90-th Soviet equipment was better than beautiful imported. Dad brought only olive oil (Greece, metal packaging) and souvenirs from Venice. But in Turkey, all sorts of clothes.
                        This already later went the flow of better things (especially the prefix was remembered)
      2. Vladimir 5
        Vladimir 5 30 July 2018 13: 49 New
        -1
        Observer 2014, - a troll and already clearly professional appeared on VO. The moderators should pay attention to littering the site with a clear provocateur.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 October 2017 08: 50 New
    +5
    the Bolsheviks who created the new government - the Council of People's Commissars (Council of People's Commissars). They inherited a difficult inheritance - the state was on the verge of collapse

    They created a new TEMPORARY government, before the CSS, as they declared.
    The state was in a much better position than other warring countries: in Germany, it died of hunger 800 000 person! The brutally starving French, the British. This was not the case in Russia.

    Under the Provisional Government, prices were 5-10 times higher than pre-war. With the Bolsheviks, 147 THOUSAND times (in salt, in particular)! The population of the capitals was left without money, rations and dying, the population of Moscow was reduced by half, St. Petersburg, by two-thirds ....

    Industrial production in 1920 amounted to 0,001% of the production in 1917, the salary of workers -30 kopecks from the pre-war period - the new "economists" turned out to be "good" .....

    The author does not say, unfortunately, about the many reasons that led to this disaster. It’s enough to imagine WHAT will happen if today, suddenly, the banks stop working, confiscate deposits and valuables, assets: enterprises will stand up without payments, salaries. wants to work, invest? But this happened after October, the result is a complete collapse of the economy

    The idea was used that the more money depreciates, the sooner it will be possible to get rid of this “remnant of capitalism”. The decree of the Council of People's Commissars of May 15, 1919 formally authorized the issue "within the limits of the real need of the economy for banknotes." How much is needed, so much and print! And they printed: the most prosperous workers were workers in the factories of the then Goznak in Moscow, Petrograd, Penza, Perm and Rostov-on-Don, about 14 thousand people worked in three shifts. To this we must add officials at all levels who were in charge of the issue, money carriers, security guards, cashiers, etc.

    Then, in 1921, Ulyanov will say: "we were mistaken." But how many millions of lives were worth the mistake ...
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 10: 23 New
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      The state was in a much better position than other warring countries: in Germany, 800 people died of starvation! The brutally starving French, the British. In Russia, this was not

      Proof?
      Quote: Olgovich
      Industrial production in 1920 amounted to 0,001% of the production in 1917, the salary of workers -30 kopecks from the pre-war period - the new "economists" turned out to be "good" .....

      About the Civil War have not heard, no?
      Quote: Olgovich
      What will happen if today, suddenly, stop the banks, confiscate deposits and valuables, assets: enterprises will stand up without payments, wages. Who wants to work, invest?

      By the time the Bolsheviks came to power, in kind exchange began to dominate. S / pl, the money depreciated very much.
      Quote: Olgovich
      in 1921, Ulyanov will say: "we were mistaken."

      1 - Not Ulyanov, but Ulyanov.
      2 - Which one was "mistaken", did Lenin mean?
      Quote: Olgovich
      how many millions lives were worth the mistake ...

      How many ?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 21 October 2017 10: 48 New
        +5
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        Proof?

        ГУГЛ
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        About the Civil War have not heard, no?

        No coup, no gr. war (see Germany, France, etc., etc.)
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        By the time the Bolsheviks came to power, in kind exchange began to dominate. S / pl, the money depreciated very much.

        I gave the numbers, you-nothing.
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        1 - Not Ulyanov, but Ulyanov. 2 - Which one was "mistaken", did Lenin mean?

        1. exactly so - Ulyanov
        2. Ulyanov: "The layout in the village, this immediate communist approach to the tasks of construction in the city, interfered the rise of productive forces the main cause of the deep economic and political crisis,

        T.51.p.357
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        How many ?

        10-15 million, different estimates. 5 million of them from hunger
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 11: 35 New
          +6
          Quote: Olgovich
          ГУГЛ

          In general, they spoken. In principle, I thought so.
          Quote: Olgovich
          No coup, no gr. war

          There is no foreign assistance to the lovers, there is no intervention - there is no gr. war.
          Quote: Olgovich
          I brought the numbers, you-nothing

          Google.
          Quote: Olgovich
          "An apportionment in the countryside, this direct communist approach to the tasks of building in the city, interfered with the rise of productive forces and turned out to be the main cause of the deep economic and political crisis.

          And where is there about the error?
          Forced measures, even if not entirely successful, but when there are no other options, this is not a mistake. One can argue about the degree of pressure on the peasantry, but the Bolsheviks did not have other ways to feed the workers and the army, other than by surplus-appraisal.
          Quote: Olgovich
          10-15 million, different estimates. 5 million of them from hunger

          Even during the Great Patriotic War, and immediately after it, despite the fact that the USSR was already firmly on its feet, there were still difficulties in providing food. What can we say about the young state, which inherited a backward country, after several years of WWII. Plus, against this young state, the war was also unleashed.
          So the death of these millions is a merit of bailers and their western masters.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 21 October 2017 12: 27 New
            +6
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            In general, they spoken. In principle

            Generally. you deer. t.d. The figure was on.
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            And where is there about the error?

            spread-out crisis. read VO for 17. 15, 13 years.
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Forced measures, even if not entirely successful, but when there are no other options, this is not a mistake. One can argue about the degree of pressure on the peasantry, but then the Bolsheviks did not have other ways to feed the workers and the army, other than by food surplus

            There is a saying: you can’t, don’t torture.
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            There is no foreign assistance to the lovers, there is no intervention - there is no gr. war.

            Gr. war - from October 25, 1917 Moscow, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk, Orenburg. Ukraine, Don, Terek, Transcaucasia — read the decrees of the Soviet authorities on the Civil War in November-December 1917, when there was no one else.
            Against Germany, many interventionists and no gr. war.
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Even during the Great Patriotic War, and immediately after it, despite the fact that the USSR was already firmly on its feet, there were still difficulties in providing food. What can we say about the young state, which inherited a backward country, after several years of WWII. Plus, against this young state, the war was also unleashed.
            So the death of these millions is a merit of bailers and their western masters.

            Hard is you about food ?! The level of 1913 was reached only through 40 years!
            The state was not so young and he was almost 1000 years. And they returned to the NEP to what they had just destroyed.
            1. rkkasa xnumx
              rkkasa xnumx 21 October 2017 18: 21 New
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich
              Generally. you deer. t.d. The figure was on.

              You threw a certain Old, you and the flag in your hands. In the sense of proving the fidelity of these data. And the numbers on VO are not a proof, since they can be from you like olgovichs. Or even from you laughing
              Quote: Olgovich
              spread-out crisis. read VO for 17. 15, 13 years.

              1 - I remind you - I had a question about the error. Once again - a mistake, this is when the wrong or worst is selected from several options. And when not the worst one is chosen from several bad options, then this is not a mistake, but a necessary measure.
              2 - again, VO is not the ultimate truth.
              Quote: Olgovich
              There is a saying: you can’t, don’t torture.

              So the Bolsheviks could! good
              Quote: Olgovich
              read the decrees of the Soviet authorities on the Civil War in November-December 1917, when there was no one else

              Ahh, so all this foreign trash, together with our scum, they were trampled upon us because of the decrees of the Soviet government on gr. war? Original laughing
              By the way - what kind of decrees are these? That's about decrees about the world, about the earth, I know.
              Quote: Olgovich
              Against Germany, many interventionists and no gr. war

              So, it seems, there were no interventionists on the territory of the GI?
              Quote: Olgovich
              The level of 1913 was reached only after 40 years!

              There will be no proofs again? About VO is not necessary laughing
              Quote: Olgovich
              The state was not so young, it was almost 1000 years old.

              Insanity grew stronger ... it turns out the Bolsheviks ruled in our country for thousands of years!
              Quote: Olgovich
              returned by the NEP to what they had just destroyed.

              To capitalism or what ?! Or immediately to the monarchy ?! fool
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 22 October 2017 05: 17 New
                +5
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                You threw a certain Old, you and the flag in your hands. In the sense of proving the fidelity of these data. And the numbers on VO are not a proof, since they can be from you like olgovichs. Or even from you

                Why should I fill in the gaps in your knowledge? The figure is exactly German, read the "Encyclopedia of the Great War" (in German)
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                Ahh, so all this foreign trash, together with our scum, they were trampled upon us because of the decrees of the Soviet government on gr. war? Original
                By the way - what kind of decrees are these? That's about decrees about the world, about the earth, I know.

                Little you know, negligible. Enlightening you is your concern.
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                There will be no proofs again? About VO is not necessary

                Report TSSUSSSR 1955-Secret.
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                Insanity grew stronger ... it turns out the Bolsheviks ruled in our country for thousands of years!

                Yeah ...
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                To capitalism or what ?! Or immediately to the monarchy ?!

                To the market, money, private property, NEP is called.
    2. Snakebyte
      Snakebyte 21 October 2017 11: 04 New
      +4
      Whether it is a matter of God-saved RCMP!
      90% of the population lived on the verge of extinction, so that 10% enjoyed the crunch of French bread.
      Quote: Olgovich
      The state was in a much better position than other warring countries: in Germany, 800 people died of starvation! The brutally starving French, the British. This was not the case in Russia.

      About 8 million deaths from hunger and its consequences for 1901-1912. At 700 per year (on average) in peacetime. Where there is a warring Germany, which is under siege.
      Quote: Olgovich
      Under the Provisional Government, prices were 5-10 times higher than pre-war. With the Bolsheviks, 147 THOUSAND times (in salt, in particular)! The population of the capitals was left without money, rations and dying, the population of Moscow was reduced by half, St. Petersburg, by two-thirds ....

      Industrial production in 1920 amounted to 0,001% of the production in 1917, the salary of workers -30 kopecks from the pre-war period - the new "economists" turned out to be "good" .....

      But the Civil War and intervention, well, nothing to do with it.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 21 October 2017 12: 33 New
        +6
        Quote: Snakebyte
        90% of the population lived on the brink extinctionso that 10% enjoy the crunch of French rolls.

        Yeah, they "died out": before the 1950s, citizens ate (bread, meat, milk) (and dressed) WELL THAN than in 1913 (Secret report of the Central Statistical Administration of the USSR 1955).
        Quote: Snakebyte
        About 8 million deaths from hunger and its consequences for 1901-1912. At 700 per year (on average) in peacetime. Where is the warring Germany, which is under siege

        Lying.
        Quote: Snakebyte
        The Civil War and the intervention well, nothing to do with it.

        Until October 25, 1917, there was no war.
        1. long in stock.
          long in stock. 21 October 2017 13: 09 New
          +7
          nonsense as usual .. of course there weren’t hunger riots during the 1st World War. Everything was deanery and well-being in the air ... we go further, your favorite 1913 record year. Grain consumption per capita in different countries kg.
          Russia - 288.
          England - 267
          Germany - 328
          France - 304
          USA - 699. that is, people ate much less than those where this grain was exported to and that’s all considering that they collected more grain than in Europe. The truth is much less than in America and Argentina.
          Brockhaus and Efron in their Encyclopedic Dictionary provide the following data for 1898.
          Wheat consumption per capita, pounds / kg:

          France - 15/240
          USA - 11/176
          Great Britain - 8/128
          Italy - 8/128
          Germany - 4/64
          Russia - 3/48 is malnourished but exported .. only olgovichs weren’t malnourished .... and the kings ate in the villages ate only on major holidays ... you are our comparator .. we’re going further. At the beginning of the 1901th century, Russia was hungry: 1902-1905, 1908-1911 and 1912-XNUMX.
          In 1901 - 1902, 49 provinces starved: in 1901 - 6,6%, 1902 - 1%, 1903 - 0,6%, 1904 -― 1,6%.
          In 1905 - 1908. starved from 19 to 29 provinces: in 1905 - 7,7%, 1906 - 17,3% of the population
          In 1911 - 1912, over 2 years, 60 provinces swept the famine: in 1911 - 14,9% of the population. 60 out of 78 provinces ... brave and brilliant government.
          On the brink of death were 30 million people. Well, yes, then the word hunger was forbidden to use in the press, there is such a streamlined word-wretchedness ... we read the periodicals of that time-N 10 of the “Russian weekly” for 1903: “Up to two hundred were sent to suppress the riot of peasants and workers of the Poltava and Kharkov provinces thousand regular army soldiers, as well as all available local Cossack and gendarme forces. ” The newspaper Kievsky Vestnik, dated March 9 of the same year, reports in the incident section: “Yesterday, three gendarmes chopped down a blind singer with sabers for outrageous songs:“ Oh, there will come a good time, the worker will have enough, and the panov - for one racket. ”Tambov say the uprising ... well, there was no civil war until 17 years. so what? there were no problems listed above? s olgovich, as always, I’m calling a lot and garbage in my head .. before 50g we lived worse .. no -2 world war, civil war plus an inheritance in the form of an extremely miserable economy and agriculture, a model of feudalism should have been great to increase wealth. .as always your words are a loud sound in a puddle ..
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 22 October 2017 05: 46 New
            +5
            Quote: long in stock.
            nonsense as usual ..
            SECRET Report of the Central Statistical Bureau of the USSR-nonsense?! So disprove it.
            Bread products (bread translated into flour, flour, groats, pasta)
            1913 - 200 kg
            37g -192
            40 g-195
            50 g-172
            meat and fat (with boiled meat)
            1913 g-27 kg
            1937 - 18
            40 g - 24
            50 26
            Milk, eggs are the same. If you think in 1913
            Quote: long in stock.
            On the brink of death were 30 million people. Well, yes, then the word hunger was forbidden to use in the press
            , then what can we say about the period up to the 50s, when they ate WORSE worse than 1913, and 7 million starvation deaths are not mentioned anywhere in a word ??
            Quote: long in stock. Poor economy
            and agricultural feudalism pattern

            The "wretched" farm was fed, as the Central Statistical Bureau of the USSR showed, better than the "advanced" one, in which only 7 people died from starvation in 1933, 5 million in 1922 and 1,5 in 1947.
            So
            Quote: long in stock.
            as always your words are a loud sound in a puddle ..

            lol
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 22 October 2017 09: 53 New
              0
              why refute it? a set of numbers? Bread products (bread translated into flour, flour, cereals, pasta)
              1913 - 200 kg
              37g -192
              40 g-195
              50 g-172
              meat and fat (with boiled meat)
              1913 g-27 kg
              1937 - 18
              40 g - 24
              50 26
              Milk, eggs is the same. Is that what you wrote? the ratio of growth to the length of the equator? what is this? I advise you to read the classics. to start at least Leo Tolstoy. and only then read highly specialized articles. all the more to state them. and lastly, Germany, with its own grain production a little smaller than Russian, also bought it abroad. And we sold it ... due to malnutrition of our own population .. yes yes .. agriculture was for the record year so beloved by you, more than half of the land was not cultivated with plow-plows ... and there were 152 tractors of this all over Russia ... epic proportions .. the Bolsheviks only released a fordzon putilovets from 1924 to 1933 - keep your pants ... from 39 to 46 thousand ..... the data vary due to the release of a large number of repair kits .. I'm not talking about the number of fertilizers released for agriculture. the data is generally off scale ... so you again the famous route straight into the puddle ... you personally lied to me another branch right in the eye ...... referring to Google .... stunned proof .. about cards in Samara in 70-80 ... remember, lying is not good .. what will God say when meeting?
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 22 October 2017 10: 07 New
                +5
                Quote: long in stock.
                why refute it? a set of numbers?

                THIRD TIME I say what: a secret Report from the Central Statistical Bureau of the USSR, from where figures of nutrition per capita are given. How many times do you need to repeat? fool
                Quote: long in stock.
                Milk, eggs is the same. Is that what you wrote? ratio of growth to the length of the equator?
                The same (ratio), the same (situation). Russian, apparently, for you-step?
                Quote: long in stock.
                I advise you to read the classics. To start at least Leo Tolstoy.

                A description of cannibalism, corpse eating and eating fell at Tolstoy's lead. Reports of the police, gendarmerie, eyewitnesses. (Such evidence is about 33 g, etc. years)
                Quote: long in stock.
                keep your pants on.

                our compatriots kept the trousers: if in 1913 there was "hunger", then HOW is that time (given) when they ate LESS?

                PS deal with numbers Soviet statisticians, tired of empty agitation.
  4. Curious
    Curious 21 October 2017 18: 50 New
    +4
    The article is of very low quality. A number of important points have been missing. There is generally false information. Why such articles on the site ?. To provide the podium to Olgovich?
    If anyone is interested in the question - "E. N. Sokolov. The financial policy of the Soviet government (October 1917 - August 1918), Ryazan 2008", (http://www.fedy-diary.ru/?p=2773).
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 21 October 2017 19: 38 New
      +4
      how affectionately you are with him .. to the ligovic not the stands but the stools are enough ... and then the head will spin.
      1. Curious
        Curious 21 October 2017 19: 56 New
        +2
        He runs on the correct assessment of his condition to complain to administrators, those cards are distributed. Checked.
        1. long in stock.
          long in stock. 21 October 2017 21: 00 New
          +1
          Well, he’s an intellectual. Who wrote 4 million denunciations is known ...
          1. Curious
            Curious 21 October 2017 22: 10 New
            0
            Pelevin has an interesting thought on this subject. "The secret freedom of an intellectual is when you sit between stinky goats and rams and giggle quietly with your finger up." The definition of the protagonist gave some Romanian. Coincidence?
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 22 October 2017 00: 40 New
              +1
              I do not think ....
            2. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 22 October 2017 12: 14 New
              0
              Pelevin, I remember, it was said in response to
              lines of Alexander Blok: "Pushkin, we believe in secret freedom, we followed
              you. Give us your hand in bad weather, help us in a dumb struggle. "
              The last poem. Soon the poet died ("from malnutrition," as
              it was said). So - do not distort.
  5. Curious
    Curious 21 October 2017 23: 31 New
    0
    Catherine II,
    So they brought after all that there cost a penny.