Military Review

“Black face” or that everything is predetermined!

88
“... as I thought, so it will be; as I determined, and will take place "
(The book of the prophet Isaiah 14: 24-32)



And it so happened that on October 18, on their next birthday here at VO, many of his regulars began to congratulate me and I thought how good it was that the feeling of gratitude is a property of human nature, which, by the way, is shamelessly used by both advertisers and PR people. And I wanted, in turn, to thank both those who expressed various pleasant words addressed to me, and those who just thought about themselves well, and even those who did not think anything, but just went to the site and read the material, something like that special. That is, an article of a memorable character on some unusual topic, not about tanks, not about knights, not about castles, and not even about how Soviet (and tsarist) journalists destroyed their powers, but about something so ... philosophical, but at the same time specific and interesting. I strained the "styrofoam" and it was then that it dawned on me: and I will write about ... "black face" or that everything is predetermined!

“Black face” or that everything is predetermined!

These postcards were very popular in Italy during the war years in Abyssinia! “By mail:" I would like to send this souvenir to a friend from East Africa ""

And it was so that in the distant and distant childhood I often experienced a strange feeling (called deja va) when I took on an object, but it seemed to me that I had once held it in my hands. Our house was old, there are many antiques, and this feeling arose quite often, but I didn’t talk about it to any of my family. And still very strange thoughts came to my mind. For example, at the age of seven I had the idea that in the future I would marry a blonde woman and that I would have a daughter. A rather strange reflection for a child of seven, isn't it? I wish you had a dream about it in 14, but for a seven-year-old preschooler it’s obviously a bit early to think about family and marriage.


But the man without whom all these events would have been impossible at all - Benito Mussolini. Looks pretty good, right? Something like Adriano Celentano.

Then I began to tell everyone that ... I wouldn’t be an artist, although I drew well. “All in Daddy!” - those who knew my own father were touched, but I answered them that I would never become an artist. “And who will you be?” They asked me. “A historian, like a mom!” - and this was surprising, because I had the most superficial idea about the profession of a historian. He knew that they worked at the institute. And ... everything!


He is already in power - "It hurts you, it's terrible, as I can see!"

As I remember myself, I loved to play war. Had an impressive collection weapons, including a rifle from a board with a bolt from a latch and constantly ran along the street, firing from it in all directions. “We are fighting for peace! - politically literate neighbors admonished my mom. - And your son does nothing but plays war. Not good! ”I don’t remember now that she answered them, but something answered, of course. Well, and then they somehow asked me: “Probably, you will be a military man, if you like to play war so much?” And I answered, and I remember well that I didn’t think about the answer for a second: “No, I will not. In general, I will not serve in the army! ”“ How will you not? ”- in response, astonished eyes and an open mouth. “All serve, and you will not be?” “And I will not!” I replied and, I remember, I believed in this quite sincerely. In fact, we must remember that it was during the time. Then it was necessary to be “like everyone else”, to act as expected (in “The Irony of Fate ...” this is well said!), And then suddenly “that”. Yes, it was possible to declare myself a "psycho" and this, sometimes, was arranged, but I remember well that I had no idea that I could not "hang out". I just knew that I would not serve and that was all. And how, why - is unknown. In the second grade I also knew for sure that I would be a journalist (!) And a writer. And it is not clear where, but I even saw myself in a brown leather coat and a hat, taking a photo camera of a certain person who enters the house of someone else’s wife (!) In order to publish his photo and shame him in front of everyone. Where did this whim come from? Who would let me in the USSR shoot this, much less print it? My mother told me in general that I should not be a writer for a number of important reasons. In a word - everything in this life was against me.


"Two pair of boots" One fascist, another Nazi, and both still believe in their election. The Fuhrer of the German Nation even laughs ...

And then ... then began the execution of these children's foresight. First of all, in the novel “The Hour of the Bull” by I. Efremov I read that many children have the ability to foresee their future, but I didn’t really believe it. The novel is fantastic! But ... I met my future wife, I immediately realized that it was "she", I was courting her for the whole first course, after the second course I married her and a year later we had a daughter ... of course, a daughter! I saw exactly the same coat as a child in my mind at my institute friend, and literally made him sell me. And he saw himself in this coat, hat and camera. Just not in the bushes, and on the street. Sitting in the bushes, I didn’t take anyone off!


And here the duce is already laughing. He is still all right!

After graduation, I had to work for three years in a rural school, and it was then that it turned out that they would not take rural teachers into the army. So, without putting any effort, but simply by working for the intended purpose, I did not get into the army, and how much effort and money some of the people I know put into it.


And here he clearly wants to show someone “Kuzkinu mother”

When I was supposed to defend my candidate's daughter, I had a dream that she was defending herself not in Penza, but in Moscow, and I even saw the hall where this was happening. And when the defense took place in our “pedyushnik” and at first everything went well, I even became somehow worried - I had reason to believe in dreams. And then ... she was there "rolled" on defense and I would have to worry, be upset. On the contrary, I calmed down: it should have been, because she was destined to defend herself in Moscow! I saw it! And that's what happened. Soon, she was offered to defend herself in a prestigious university in Moscow and what is most interesting, a few minutes before the defense began, the head of the council changed the hall where she was supposed to take place. I went there and ... here it is, the hall from my dream! It was the last straw that broke the camel's back - as is usually said about this in the East. After that, it would not be foolish to believe in predestination at all, wouldn’t it?

But the funniest история, finally convinced me that absolutely everything is predetermined, only we ourselves do not know this, literally just happened. I wrote material about Crete and the song of the Italian Communists “Bandera Ross” was commemorated there. I really liked this song, and besides, I knew it by heart, because I studied in a special school, where it was fashionable to sing songs in various other languages ​​besides English songs. It was called "international education", but there was nothing bad about it.


No, whatever you say, and Hitler was still a little smarter than Mussolini. Well, why did he hang on himself so much tsatsek, not a boy after all ...

And I loved to sing and how Chuk at Gaidar (or Huck, I don’t remember exactly) sang very loudly. But I had, besides this song, another favorite song, and also Italian.

I learned it from the Italian movie, whose name I do not remember now. That is, it looked at the beginning of the 60-s. The plot is this: the corporal of the Italian army at the end of the Second World War carries a large suitcase from the front, and in it presents for the wife of his major - salami sausages, cheeses, brandy ... On the way to the train, his comrades take it all away ... and take it instead of eating stones In general, the movie is funny. The corporal all the time gets into ridiculous situations, including due to the fact that the suitcase is no longer "gifts", and stones. But at the end he is killed, and he never gets to his home, although his own home is very close to the house of his major's wife. I remember it was very sorry for him. This is the plot, and maybe someone even remembers this film ... But there was a song in Italian. The melody and words were memorable, but my memory is just beautiful. Therefore, I remember both that and the rest of my life, I used to chant: Fassett's ner, Bella Abyssin, aspetta sper chia avvisina ... And so many years! Half a century for sure!

And only literally a couple of days ago, the thought struck me: “Now is the Internet age, what if you look at what these words mean?” I typed “faccetta nera” and with horror — I will not find another word, I learned that this is Italian fascist march, written by the personal order of Benito Mussolini himself during the Second Italian-Ethiopian War. The words “faccetta nera” mean “black face” in Russian because the song refers to an Ethiopian slave whom the Italian black-shirts “freed from slavery” and brought to Rome, where she became a member of the fascist party and even met the Duce and the King Italy Victor Emmanuel III. For a long time, naturally, this song did not have a Russian translation. I was just glad that people in the USSR knew little foreign languages, and especially Italian, but how could I explain why I was singing the march of Italian fascists?


I wonder who is copying someone here? Mussolini Hitler or Hitler spied it at Mussolini. Or did everyone reach such here ... “methods” of influencing the public on their own?

From the Internet, I learned that the author of the song is someone Renato Micheli, and the music for the words was written by Mario Raucione. And here is the text itself:
When you see the sea beyond the hills,
Slave that is loaded with affairs
Look over holy ships
You bring freedom tricolor.
Ah, Ethiopian, ah, black woman,
Your hour will strike, you will cease to be a servant,
Italian Eagle
Learn the new laws of the king.
The laws are the love of the sacred vaults,
The cry of Rome is death for duty and for freedom,
And the years came to an end to the torment:
The long awaited hour has come!
Ah, Ethiopian, ah, black woman,
Your hour will strike, you will cease to be a servant,
Italian Eagle
Learn the new laws of the king.
Ah, poor black slave,
Free to Rome you will arrive Italian
And may the sun shine bright in the sky,
Shining a black shirt with light!


The words and music of the song.

The funniest thing about this story, however, is that it interested me and I thought it would be nice to write material for this about BO. But I would not be interested in this topic, and I would not have known such words if I had not remembered this song in remote childhood. And then he did not sing it all these years, for decades! That is, all this was predetermined in advance, and all this was solely so that ... so that my story about this slave Negro woman, freed by the soldiers of the Duce from slavery, would follow!


These photos were very popular in Italy in those years!

It is clear that, in fact, this so-called Second Italian-Abyssinian war in Ethiopia (1935 - 1936) was a typical colonial war, which Benito Mussolini started as part of his plan to turn Italy into an empire, and the Mediterranean Sea in a “marina nostrum” - "Our sea", as the ancient Romans said. First, they say, we will conquer Ethiopia, then we will take Egypt from the British and live in peace and tranquility. And of course, none of the Italians who were sent there to fight, did not even think that he would need to release some black women there. To sleep with them is another matter!

Interestingly, immediately with the beginning of the war in Italy, there was a mass of very frank postcards that depict Ethiopian women. And the funny thing is that according to the strict laws of "morality", these photos were considered - yes, the most real pornography and were prosecuted by the police according to the law, although I don’t think that it’s very severe ...


"Pornography" in Italian! Why? The country is catholic!

But it has always been and always will be that among the scum there were people with principles, and even noble and quite decent people. Who sincerely believed in the words of his daughter about the greatness of Italy and her legal rights. And it turned out that two young officers of the Royal Italian Army Pasqualino Chiti and Andrea Michele found a little girl about two years old on the Amba Aradam plateau. There were no parents with the child, and they decided to keep it in their unit. The military chaplain said that the foundling must be baptized. They decided to call her Maria (in honor of the Blessed Virgin) Victoria (that is, “victory”, because the Abyssinians were defeated in that battle) Amba Aradam (after the name of the place where she was found). Then the soldiers put her on a mule and drove to the monastery of St. Anne in Asmara, gave the nuns the honor and went to fight for the Duce on. Well, Maria Victoria spent the whole 20 years in the care of her sisters in the monastery, where she was raised and brought up. But everyone knew its unusual history and called it “Faccetta nera”. And it turned out that the duce was told about the incident. He apparently realized that this would be a good “PR” and ... ordered me to write a song about it. And the song, written by request of the dictator, was a success. She began to sing, and she became popular.


This is how the heroine of this story looked like in her youth.

And then what happened to Maria Victoria? She grew up, got married, she had three children. In 2007, she was 71 year. But her savior Pasqualino Chiti also survived, returned home, and then he worked as a forester for as many 30 years. Once he read a newspaper, saw her photo and recognized his “Black Face”. It turns out that this happens not only in the movies! He immediately wrote to the Italian embassy in Asmara and found it half a century later. Having learned that her family lives not rich, he sent her money to build a new house.


And this is how Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci ended their lives. “He didn’t think about it, he didn’t expect such an end, such an end!” He didn’t foresee, and the “speaker” didn’t dream him either ...

When he was 2001 in the year of 91, and he was in the hospital, Maria Victoria came to comfort him. She was given a residence permit for three months, but not renewed, although she requested it very much. A year later, he died, and left her a small plot of land. And she said that she wants to stay here and work in this land and that she loves Italy. "Italians saved me from death, I speak Italian, I am a Catholic believer and I want to live in Italy." But she was never given Italian citizenship. And what a fate — she didn’t need her, and he, her savior, also died at home alone. And they found each other ... and could not console each other in old age. But he didn’t manage to start a family, he probably didn’t have time ...

And at the end of the conclusion: an interesting story, is not it? But I could not write it if I hadn’t sung “faccetta nera” since childhood. And it turns out that all this happened to me just to write about this girl, rescued by an Italian colonizer soldier, in HE? And I still say after this that everything in the world is an accident? No, absolutely everything serves a completely definite purpose, absolutely everything is predetermined by Fate!
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  1. OAV09081974
    OAV09081974 25 October 2017 08: 34
    23
    The thoughts of the author, his observations and personal experience are always interesting.
    absolutely everything is predetermined by Fate

    It is also possible - after all, Pushkin was also predicted about the appearance of a murderer: a white man (that is, a blond boy) on a white horse. But can there still be an element and a person’s influence on the events of his path and the truth is somewhere in the middle? Between "everything is predetermined" and "the man himself is the blacksmith of his own happiness" wink
    Ethiopians are truly a pity - an Orthodox power, an old friend of Russia, and fell under an Italian rink. The fate of the Ethiopian, like all the characters in the article, is ambiguous. But everything is very significant.
    Interesting original article and illustrations are selected
    Visually and informative
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 25 October 2017 08: 53
    22
    Even the Ethiopians somehow piled on the heroes of Italians
    It turned out badly to liberate something - if you do not take into account individual girls))
    Although the people are not bad, they are the only ones on the Eastern Front who fed locals from the camp kitchens and provided medical assistance to the wounded Red Army soldiers.
    Interesting parallels and conclusions
    To the author - success)
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 25 October 2017 12: 31
      16
      Even the Ethiopians somehow piled on the heroes of Italians

      EMNIP, during that war there was a unique case of an enemy tank stopping when enterprising Ethiopians put a log between the wheels of an Italian wedge heel! wassat
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 25 October 2017 15: 33
        12
        The most fierce resistance was provided by the Ethiopian troops defending the oasis of Gorrahey. The first assault attempt, which took place on October 11, was unsuccessful and over the next month the Italians resorted to intensified bombing of the positions of the 3-strong garrison, which was practically devoid of outside support. Only on November 7, after a massive air attack and shelling, did the Italian troops begin a new assault on the Gorrahei oasis. This time, several FIAT 3000 tanks and CV35 wedges supported the infantry. The chief of the Ethiopian garrison was wounded and the Ethiopians began an erratic retreat.
        However, the Ethiopian army managed to find forces to repel the offensive. Already on October 11, parts of the Italian motorized convoy met at the village of Hamanma with an Ethiopian detachment advanced from Dagabur to cover the withdrawal of the Gorrahei garrison. Italian tanks and trucks came under fire from 37 mm cannons. Having lost three tanks and several trucks, the Italians retreated to the village of Gabre-Darre.
        The Italian expeditionary force near Addis Ababa managed to inflict the most severe defeat during the December battles of 1935. In fierce battles, the Ethiopian soldiers managed to capture and disable many enemy tanks. Climbing onto the tanks, they broke, broke tracks, opened hatches and captured the crews. The onslaught of the Ethiopians forced the Italians to abandon Mr. Abbi Addi. Among the trophies, the defenders got several perfect whole CV35 wedges thrown by their crews.
        Accurate loss data among CV35 wedges and their crews is not available. According to some Western sources, the Ethiopians managed to capture 18 cars. Now it remains unclear whether they were used for their intended purpose, or as fixed firing points. In any case, the Ethiopian army simply did not have as many trained crews.
  3. hohol95
    hohol95 25 October 2017 09: 04
    11
    According to Vmkpedia missed the last refrain -
    Ah, Ethiopian, ah, black woman,
    Free you are Italian now
    Italian Eagle
    You will pass before the face of the Duce and the king!

    (Black lover: "loves ... does not love ...)
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 25 October 2017 10: 38
      11
      Fortune telling on a cactus. Cool.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 25 October 2017 09: 23
    12
    The story is interesting, but photographs, what do photographs have to do with it?

    It seems to me that everyone has situations when he knows for sure that THAT he already experienced and knows for sure what will happen next recourse
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist 25 October 2017 11: 04
    11
    A curious story. "..... wants to stay here and work on this land, and that she loves Italy," and here is a moot point. If Italy were on the African continent would she love Italy? Something seems to me that having a land plot in Italy is preferable than in Ethiopia.
    Somewhere in the media infa flashed that in Italy there is either Clari Petachi street or a monument. I know who Benito Mussolini is, but if we ignore everything that is connected with him, then he has a pretty nice face, especially in 1 photo. And Clary Petachi is even pretty somewhere
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 25 October 2017 11: 20
      13
      then he has a pretty nice face, especially in 1 Photos

      he personally reminded me of the wrestler Dwayne "Rock" Johnson - "the king of scorpions." laughing
      about the "funny pictures" that appeared with the start of the war with the Ethiopians, the enterprising did business. request Moreover, I suspect that the appearance of such creativity on the hands of the male population only raised its morale, and made the attitude to this war more .. interesting, perhaps .. what as the saying goes, "if you cannot prevent the booze, you must head it." soldier Could it be that with the tacit approval of Mussolini such photos came out? wink
      The author was pleased. hi
      1. Eight
        Eight 25 October 2017 11: 57
        14
        The women of East Africa were one of the most photographed objects during the second Italo-Ethiopian war. There is such a writer and feminist - Anne McClintock. She called this genre po ... rno-tropics tradition (moderators - photo below - history).
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 October 2017 12: 13
          12
          The women of East Africa were one of the most photographed objects during the second Italo-Ethiopian war.

          Exotic after all, moreover, the cash! The Germans also liked to photograph, especially before the execution, but there was another motive - anger, courage, pleasure from the defenselessness of the victim, multiplied by impunity. angry
          if I am not mistaken, European travelers were amazed at the sight of the Hottentot women, as they have ... a big back! fellow
          for example, "The build is lean, muscular, angular, but in women (partly in men) there is a tendency to deposition of fat on the back of the body (buttocks, thighs), or to the so-called steatopygia - the predominant deposition of fat on the buttocks.), Which, for some observed, is caused by increased nutrition at a certain time of the year and decreases markedly with more scarce food. "
          here is the link from the photo http://mirfotografii.com/blog/43030867416/Gottent
          otyi: -samyiy-zagadochnyiy-narod-Afriki
          I think some Brazilian contests are rooted precisely in Africa - for example, "Miss Boom Boom" (in other words, who has the most beautiful ass). bully However, I do not see violations of the site’s rules in my words, the information fits into the topic of the article. hi
          1. Eight
            Eight 25 October 2017 12: 59
            +8
            But the time gap is big. They gathered for a very long time. Diash in 1487 reached Cape Storms. In 1647, the East India Company created the first base in South Africa. And the first Miss Boom Boom contest in 2011 passed. Such a long organizational period.
            In addition, figures of prehistoric women found in caves in southern France and Austria, and some cave paintings indicate that steatopygium was previously widespread in primitive communities.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 October 2017 13: 11
              +9
              In 1647, the East India Company created the first base in South Africa. And the first Miss Boom Boom contest in 2011 passed.

              many factors were necessary for its implementation - confusion of the population, weakening of the role of the church, general "freedom of morality." That’s what happened. wink Okay, even though among women they are conducting - apparently, "Europe has not reached the second time yet" request and there, you look, and the "Dona Padro" line up with shaved asses measured twenty-five years later wink
              that steatopygia was previously widespread in primitive communities.

              as I understand it, this is a feature of the body in some regions - the ability to put off fat for the "hunger period". Apparently, it depends on the climate and living conditions. No wonder!
              1. Eight
                Eight 25 October 2017 13: 22
                +4
                Maybe Ayahuasca acts on them, they like to drink it there. Although not so far from Brazil, in Mexico, there is a gay beauty contest. So twenty-five years do not have to wait.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 October 2017 13: 25
                  +4
                  first read: "Alaska" belay Is this drink so African? what I'm just not in the subject. I prefer rum. drinks or gin. Belorussian. But he is not in St. Petersburg .. crying
                  I mean, do gays drink? belay
                  1. Eight
                    Eight 25 October 2017 13: 45
                    +8
                    This is a drink from the creeper Banisteriopsis kaapi (vine vine). Grows in the jungle of Brazil. Entheogen and hallucinogen. If rum, then perhaps Pyrat XO Reserve or better Cask. Gina doesn't understand at all. Although in the Indian climate, nothing else climbs.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 25 October 2017 14: 11
                      +3
                      If rum, then perhaps Pyrat XO Reserve or better Cask.

                      in this case, I do not aesthetize, I was advised in the Dominican Republic "Barcelo".
                      1. Eight
                        Eight 25 October 2017 14: 16
                        +6
                        Barcelo. Yes, this is one of the most popular local brands. There is a decent exposure. When we were there, the natives also treated everyone with this rum.
              2. ruskih
                ruskih 25 October 2017 13: 42
                +3
                "Europe a second time has not reached yet"

                You are mistaken. I got it. In any film, these characters are present, and in the role of goodies, the concept that all this is the norm and that people should be treated with attention and respect is very emphasized. It all sounds so obvious, it is simply striking.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 October 2017 13: 55
                  +3
                  It all sounds so obvious, it is simply striking.

                  you fucking want to spit. negative Therefore, I do not watch their films. stop except quality.
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 25 October 2017 15: 23
                    +2
                    “The most coveted man” (German: Der bewegte Mann) - 1994 German comedy film. The film is based on the comic books of Ralph Koenig ("Der bewegte Mann" and "Pretty Baby").
                    Schweiger Tiehl and Gay ...
                    But a comedy with good humor and the "re-education" of one of the geevs in straights with the help of a pathogen for animals!
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 25 October 2017 15: 48
                      +2
                      But a comedy with good humor and the "re-education" of one of the geevs in straights with the help of a pathogen for animals!

                      they should use this film as a visual aid for "retraining". wink
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 25 October 2017 15: 57
                        +1
                        1994 film!
                        But perhaps before him unconventional characters appeared in films and TV shows (in some Brazilian “soap” a “youthful craving for one's sex” flickered)!
                        Gradually, gradually. Soft paws, manicured CLAWS and scratched a gap the size of a door and climb into that door ...
              3. Razvedka_Boem
                Razvedka_Boem 25 October 2017 13: 49
                +2
                as I understand it, this is a feature of the body in some regions

                Rather, the fact is that this is a sign that the tribe is rich and does not need anything, respectively, a girl with large buttocks looks much more attractive, as this means that she is doing well. Such are the concepts of beauty ..)
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 October 2017 14: 05
                  +1
                  may be hi I would have to ask dear Doctor Avva 2012, but Doctor Phyllonite has not visited us for the last two weeks, they will not call us by name request
      2. andrewkor
        andrewkor 25 October 2017 12: 02
        +5
        And reminds me of the young Marlon Brando.
  6. Eight
    Eight 25 October 2017 11: 16
    +8
    The article is interesting, but the Wikipedia version that the song Faccetta nera was commissioned by Mussolini himself is questionable.
    Indeed, the song was written by Renato Micheli and Michele Rucheone in 1935. Italian propaganda strenuously exploited at that time the thesis of slavery in Ethiopia and convincing everyone that Italy brought the Ethiopian people liberation from slavery.
    Renato Miqueli was going to present this song to the 1935 Roman Song Festival. The first performance by Italian singer Anna Fougez took place at the Teatro Quattro Fontane in Rome. However, as they say now, she became a hit after it was performed by the popular Italian singer Carlo Buti. This is one side.
    Second side. The song did not like the fascist government of Italy and the Duce personally, as it clearly contrasted with the racial ideology of Italy at that time.
    Initially, Italian fascism did not pay much attention to “race issues,” and was not hostile to Jews. However, in preparation for the start of the Italo-Ethiopian war in 1934, the thesis about the "superiority of the white race", which in 1937-1938, sounded in fascist propaganda. resulted in segregation measures in relation to the "colored" population of the Italian colonies. At the same time there was a rapprochement between fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, which held the positions of militant racism and anti-Semitism. The result of this was the publication on July 14, 1938 of the “Manifesto on Race,” and in September-November 1938 a series of racist anti-Semitic laws, the most important of which was the royal decree-law of 17.11.1938 No. 1728 “Measures for the Protection of the Italian Race” . In the light of these events, the song was forbidden, the words of the song were redone three times, while they "fit" into the demands of the moment. Cards with corresponding plots were removed. To reduce its popularity, the song Faccetta bianca (White Face) was even written with the words and music of Nicola Macedonio and Eugenio Grio. But the black face won.
    To be honest, it is doubtful that a song written at the command of the Duce itself would be subjected to such pressure from the authorities.
    By the way, even today the song among the black population of Italy sometimes causes an ambiguous assessment.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 25 October 2017 22: 54
      +3
      "Initially, Italian fascism did not pay much attention to" race issues "" ///

      Mussolini, however, emerged from the socialists, almost communists. The son of a blacksmith, proletarian.
      Hitler’s Aryan theory was ridiculed: "German barbarians are the highest race? Here we are the descendants of Great Rome hoo!" Denied the concept of nations. But, having contacted the "bad company" - Hitler - he began to adapt to their motives sad
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 26 October 2017 18: 37
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        "Initially, Italian fascism did not pay much attention to" race issues "" ///

        Mussolini, however, emerged from the socialists, almost communists. The son of a blacksmith, proletarian.
        Hitler’s Aryan theory was ridiculed: "German barbarians are the highest race? Here we are the descendants of Great Rome hoo!" Denied the concept of nations. But, having contacted the "bad company" - Hitler - he began to adapt to their motives sad

        Not really ... Jews were about 20 people in the highest echelons of the fascist party, in addition, if I am not mistaken, 6 generals and admirals of the Italian army were Jews. By 1942, they were all removed, in my opinion ...
        1. Gransasso
          Gransasso 26 October 2017 18: 59
          +1
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Not really ... Jews were about 20 people in the highest echelons of the fascist party, in addition, if I am not mistaken, 6 generals and admirals of the Italian army were Jews. By 1942, they were all removed, in my opinion ...




          Mussolini introduced these laws in summer / autumn 38. They contained a ban on military service, a ban on studying and teaching at state schools and universities, a ban on "intellectual professions" - journalists, writers, etc. ... a ban on working in banks and insurance companies. Even private. deprivation of citizenship of all who received it after 1919. a ban on ownership of real estate above a certain value.


          Many scientists and intellectuals emigrated, including E. Fermi, who had a Jewish wife.

          many were hired by Vatican schools and universities. Also, the Vatican hired private Jewish students in their schools who wanted to.


          Mussolini did not directly repress. This was already done by the Germans in 43-44.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 26 October 2017 19: 36
            0
            Yes, Mussolini was not a racist, but caved in under Hitler. And he could not escape from under the German heel. When the Americans landed troops in Sicily in the 43rd joyfully capitulated. But Skorzeny stole it, and had to puff on.
            1. Gransasso
              Gransasso 26 October 2017 19: 54
              +2
              Quote: voyaka uh
              When the Americans landed troops in Sicily in the 43rd joyfully capitulated.



              Mussolini didn’t capitulate a bit. He was actually removed from his post by his own party on July 25th. He was called at the plenary session of the Central Committee of the Party — Gran Consiglio del Fascismo. On the second day he was arrested by carabinieri on the orders of the king right during .and kept under arrest on that mountain from where he was "freed" by skorzeny. why was Mussolini not very happy)


              The army hated Mussolini. After his arrest, the king appointed a new government to replace the fascist led by Marshal Badoglio, who signed a truce and not surrender on September 8, the 43rd on behalf of the king.


              Then Mussolini created a puppet state in the north. From 43 to 45, he shot many of those who voted against him then in July of the 43rd, including his son-in-law Ciano.


              About bent under the Germans and pulled Italy into the war, you are right. But the army and even part of his party were against it
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 26 October 2017 22: 59
                0
                Yes, thanks for the corrections, I forgot how events unfolded there. Simplified.
                1. Gransasso
                  Gransasso 26 October 2017 23: 04
                  0
                  In any case, his 20-year reign is a black period in the history of Italy .. and these moronic laws of the 38th year are considered the most shameful page ...
        2. Gransasso
          Gransasso 26 October 2017 19: 14
          +1
          Quote: Krasnodar
          the generals and admirals of the Italian army were Jews. By 1942, they were all removed, in my opinion ...



          Specifically for the military ... a little more than 3.000 officers of the Italian army in 1938 were Jews. Moreover, there were 40.000 Jews in Italy at the time. Of these, 80 were generals and admirals in service. And about 30 were in reserve. All were dismissed from the army in December 38 th
  7. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 25 October 2017 13: 52
    +5
    The author’s point of view is understandable, but I think that life is not so much predetermined, but that during our life we ​​have “bifurcation points”, and what choice we make and what the future course of life depends on.
    1. Eight
      Eight 25 October 2017 14: 30
      +5
      "No, absolutely everything serves a very definite purpose, absolutely everything is predetermined by Fate!"
      Pure fatalism. Given that the author of the article is a historian, Aristotle's logical fatalism is more suitable for him.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 25 October 2017 14: 38
        +2
        Please note that at the moment (14.30-14.40) the article has attracted interest among a sufficient number of people. hi that is, think! what Sorry, not everyone writes comments. request
      2. San Sanych
        San Sanych 25 October 2017 15: 47
        +2
        Quote: Eight
        "No, absolutely everything serves a very definite purpose, absolutely everything is predetermined by Fate!"
        Pure fatalism. Given that the author of the article is a historian, Aristotle's logical fatalism is more suitable for him.

        and maybe Diogenes, but as they say God forbid anyone
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 October 2017 15: 55
          +5
          maybe Diogenes

          Diogenes Plato called the "sleeping Socrates" laughing in general, to read about him - it was still that outrageous and entertainer. wink To the patient, the "artist", a pyromaniac (to the same one) and the newly-minted "presidential candidate" with their self-PR, are sick of him, as of the moon. fellow good
          1. San Sanych
            San Sanych 25 October 2017 16: 17
            +1
            and the "artist" is a pyromaniac, is this Nero?
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 October 2017 16: 33
              +4
              Nero was clearly more talented and ... more battle, or something. what He set fire to Rome, and this unhealthy only sets fire to the doors, thank God, now in France. It would be better to pee on them, but oh, the sight is not that! request Can this be attributed to creativity? No. Нет! stop PR, rotten, unhealthy + making money. negative
              1. San Sanych
                San Sanych 25 October 2017 16: 50
                +4
                Are you talking about this, which nailed his genitals in a crowded place? This is generally a kind of misunderstanding, it would be better if his mother had an abortion, the same could be said about Nero’s mother, but what is, that is request but somehow it’s necessary to deal with the manifestations of such a relapse
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 October 2017 17: 06
                  +2
                  Are you talking about this, which nailed his genitals in a crowded place?

                  about him yes (I want to add a "darling", but I will not add it). That is, this creature calls itself an "artist" .. belay True, there are even more "talented" people - some lady painted pictures with feces, for example. fool and that’s all, all of them without exception - “fighters with the regime”! fellow So to speak, glamorous fighters, direct special forces "Blue seals"! soldier
                  1. San Sanych
                    San Sanych 25 October 2017 17: 12
                    +2
                    it would be more correct to name them not blue cats, but blue worms
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 25 October 2017 17: 15
                      +5
                      it would be more correct to name them not blue cats, but blue worms

                      really. Seals are sacred! love that my Mikado (at home), that our common Kotische (on the site). laughing and these creatures are not worthy of comparison with them.
                      1. San Sanych
                        San Sanych 25 October 2017 17: 24
                        +2
                        it’s yes, and it’s more correct to call them simply worms, because, like the color of the sky, there’s nothing to do with it, these scum try to monopolize even the rainbow
  8. Mikado
    Mikado 25 October 2017 14: 29
    +4
    Eight,
    Barcelo. Yes, this is one of the most popular local brands. There is a decent exposure. When we were there, the natives also treated everyone with this rum.

    as far as I understand, Cuba and the Dominican Republic are "measured", who have more moonshine, and cigars are more fragrant. In each of these countries they will tell you that, they say, THERE ARE THEM rum and cigars are the most, and what they say on a neighboring island with a different political system is nonsense and lies! stop hi
    we were transported to the plantation in the Dominican Republic, where these cigars are folded. It’s interesting, but ... I, apparently, have not grown up to them, I don’t know how to smoke them, the pleasure of this process is dubious for me. And the price tag there too - Mama Do not Cry. To each his own. request
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 25 October 2017 14: 44
      +6
      Aesthetes ...

      But neither you nor I can try such a thing !!!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 25 October 2017 14: 47
        +3
        yes .. aesthetes .. recourse do not try !!!!! crying it's some kind of hello from the past drinks ?
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 25 October 2017 14: 58
          +3
          Aha
          The older generation of this Cuban swill drank a lot! They said that even wine and vodka were sold at a minimum - the whole city was inundated with this "ROMER OF THE NEGOR"!
          In Soviet times (before the Olympics-80) rum "Negro" was widely sold in a tall bottle of 0,7l for 4 rubles. 50 kopecks
          In addition to the Cuban rum Havana Club, in the 70s we also sold Egyptian rum D'Habitant. Both drinks were imported to pay for industrial supplies from the Soviet Union, which provided economic assistance to these countries.
          I was in the USSR and my own rum. It is curious that the drink, which was called "Soviet rum", tasted like classic rum, but in fact it was not. It was a bitter 45-degree tincture of golden color, made from alcohol and prunes. Real rum spirits, of a decent level, were made from reed, which was grown in the republics of Central Asia. As it often happened then, far from the best product was supplied to the domestic market, while the rum produced for export was not inferior in quality to many brands of Jamaican and Cuban rum.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 25 October 2017 15: 07
            +5
            stunned! belay I was still small during the USSR, I didn’t mention such a variety, I only remember Pinocchio. laughing
            Now there are similar drinks too - "Captain's rum" and "Captain's whiskey", made in Russia. Yes, a strong 40-degree drink, in one case sweet, in the other bitter. For an amateur, just inexpensive. request
            Both drinks were imported to pay for industrial supplies from the Soviet Union, which provided economic assistance to these countries.

            and it is tempting to say - the strongest currency for settlements! laughing drinks
          2. kalibr
            25 October 2017 15: 23
            +4
            And from Abu Simbel was coming from Egypt - also a great thing! Tincture in 26 degrees.
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 25 October 2017 15: 27
              +2
              Phrase from the Internet -
              The balm of 35-year aging can be purchased at online auctions, though not for 5,80, but for 9-11 thousand rubles.
              But some describe that after drinking this balm, it was not alcoholic, but drug-like intoxication. Or shit people?
          3. San Sanych
            San Sanych 25 October 2017 16: 03
            +4
            and there was also a “dominance” on the windows of the USSR of that time of the Hungarian Tokay and Bulgarian sun breaks, as well as Czech liquor, insisted on bay leaves, but Moscow and Siberian 0,7 liter bottles in beautiful bottles, with beautiful labels, still had a large popularity.
      2. kalibr
        25 October 2017 15: 19
        +4
        And I drank it as a student - Rum Negro! That was great! And Puerto Rican rum in 68%
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 October 2017 15: 37
          +1
          And Puerto Rican rum in 68%

          it is too painful wassat I'm afraid my body is not designed for this laughing
          1. Eight
            Eight 25 October 2017 16: 33
            +6
            Normal Puerto Rican rum has a strength of 35-40%, the same Castillo. And what Vyacheslav Olegovich is talking about is the so-called strong rum. It is intended for cocktails. But to our man, yes, in those years no one specifically explained about cocktails. Bourgeois habits were not in fashion.
            Rum River Antoine Royale Grenadian - it is generally 90%.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 October 2017 16: 40
              +5
              It is intended for cocktails. But to our man, yes, in those years no one specifically explained about cocktails. Bourgeois habits were not in fashion.

              imperishable conversation from the movie "Autumn Marathon":
              "Was there a conversation about me?"(the character of Yevgeny Leonov, frowningly ashamed, incredulously, after visiting a detoxification center together with a foreign scientist).
              "Was .. (Basilashvili's hero - in a mean tone). They said that you interfere with port vodka .." negative
              "I told him, and he - "cocktail, cocktail"! Oooo hippie shaggy!" angry

              guides told us: white - for cocktails, black - for intrauterine drinks but their rum is stunned winked
              1. ruskih
                ruskih 25 October 2017 17: 34
                +5
                laughing I read everything with pleasure, but I remembered something. Your reasoning reminds of someone
                1. Eight
                  Eight 25 October 2017 17: 50
                  +4
                  Oh you who combined
                  With a deep feeling, the taste is so true
                  And the exact mind, and the approximate syllable ...
              2. San Sanych
                San Sanych 25 October 2017 19: 52
                +2
                /// I told him, and he - "cocktail, cocktail"! Oooo hippie shaggy! " laughing Actually, all their cocktails, this is a complete perversion, with the exception of maybe blood Mary laughing And if we talk about strong drinks, then there is probably nothing better than Russian vodka (with all due respect to cognac and rum), you can bite it with at least a cake, at least a pickle laughing
                1. Eight
                  Eight 25 October 2017 20: 09
                  +5
                  Unfortunately, that. what today is called Russian vodka, is not Russian vodka. The basis of the current drink is rectified spirit, which deprives it of everything, leaving one opportunity - to get drunk. Therefore, between the different varieties of vodka, the difference is only in the quality of alcohol and water. But real Russian vodka is long in the past.
                  1. San Sanych
                    San Sanych 25 October 2017 20: 33
                    +2
                    Of course, not everything can now be called vodka, which is produced under this brand, but nonetheless ...
                    1. Eight
                      Eight 25 October 2017 20: 56
                      +3
                      If we proceed from the old (until the end of the XNUMXth century) Russian traditions, then all the drinks that are now produced under the name "vodka" are "breech wine", but not vodka, since alcohol-distillate is not used in the production of current vodka.
                      1. San Sanych
                        San Sanych 25 October 2017 21: 03
                        +1
                        not surprising, because in our days, you can often hear the phrase in Russia: "will you drink wine?" although this is about vodka laughing
                      2. kalibr
                        25 October 2017 22: 32
                        +2
                        "Smoked wine" according to the Code of Alexei Mikhailovich 1649 of the year!
                  2. San Sanych
                    San Sanych 25 October 2017 20: 39
                    +2
                    by the way about alcohol: "... it's vodka? ...! What are you! Would I allow myself to pour lady vodka? It's pure alcohol!" /The Master and Margarita/
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 25 October 2017 21: 26
                      +2
                      my favorite expression. Especially the voice of Semyon Furman, who voiced the Behemoth. laughing
                      1. San Sanych
                        San Sanych 25 October 2017 22: 04
                        +1
                        Is this the same shoemaker? laughing charismatic actor good
                2. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 October 2017 21: 29
                  +2
                  except maybe blood mary

                  to each his own! for example, I can’t stand vodka with tomato. request but rum and cola - please. And vodka, yes, you need to drink clean, and have a bite to eat. drinks eh, sorry, there is no Mordvin, he would give another recipe to the mountain ... sad good
                  1. San Sanych
                    San Sanych 25 October 2017 21: 55
                    +2
                    well yes laughing as they say in taste and color, there is no friend, but still vodka, it is also vodka in Africa drinks laughing and also in China, the Chinese have a great respect for Russian vodka and sprats, and ice cream (unless of course they are made according to Soviet recipes) laughing
                  2. kalibr
                    25 October 2017 22: 40
                    +4
                    Rum should be with a twig (a mint leaf - knead) with lemon juice and a little sugar + ice. Rum with Coke - this is not good! Better Havana Club is bright!
                    But the best is Curacao, then a circle of ice along the diameter of a glass, then on top is absinthe. The trick is to freeze a straw in ice. Then advance to the desired depth. Then the drinks do not mix for a long time and it is not clear why. First, one is drunk, then another ... Then ... then it never happens!
                    1. Eight
                      Eight 25 October 2017 23: 01
                      +3
                      If you have rum aged over 15 years, chop mint there and add lemon and sugar - sacrilege. Light rum usually has a minimum exposure, therefore, the maximum content of the fowl. Here it is seasoned with lemon and sugar to drink more pleasantly. And drinks do not mix due to the different density of curacao liquor, in which no more than 30% alcohol and absinthe, in which alcohol is at least 75%, and often under 90%.
            2. Mikado
              Mikado 25 October 2017 17: 12
              +2
              River Antoine Royale Grenadian rum - it is generally 90%

              in short, as alcohol is the basis in vodka, only this mix with juices hi drinks
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 25 October 2017 23: 18
                +2
                I once insisted on alcohol nettle and then mixed with sugar syrup ...
                The foreman who did not drink for many years tried 50 grams and ... disappeared for two weeks! wassat
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 27 October 2017 21: 43
                  +1
                  I’ll go gather nettles ..
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Eight
    Eight 25 October 2017 18: 00
    +5
    San Sanych,
    If we look at this issue in the context of today's article, then just 77 years ago in fascist Italy, a campaign to combat homosexuality began. The first group of "degenerates", as they were called in the fascist press, was exiled to a remote island in the Adriatic.
    For example, a fragment from a report to the authorities in Rome of a police prefect in the Sicilian city of Catania: “We note that these sick people attend public holidays, beaches and mountain resorts, and that young people from all social classes are looking for communication with them,” he wrote in the report.
    According to him, he was determined to stop "the spread of degeneration in our city or at least limit the manifestations of sexual perversions that undermine morality and have a catastrophic effect on the health and heredity of the race."
    His report ended with the phrase: "This evil must be burned to the ground."
    In 1938, about 45 men who were considered homosexuals in Catania were arrested and sent into exile.
    They were sent to the island of San Domino in the remote Tremiti archipelago on the other side of Italy.
    Now there is an Italian rear-wheel drive memorial plate installed.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 25 October 2017 21: 20
      +3
      In 1938, about 45 men who were considered homosexuals in Catania were arrested and sent into exile.

      the other 18 693 Spanish “men” themselves voluntarily went to Leningrad in 1941 as part of the so-called The Blue Division. I would venture to suggest that these were undeveloped Spanish homosexuals. And what else to call them? am damn them! The Germans can be cursed, and these "good intentions" too. am
      Now there is an Italian rear-wheel drive memorial plate installed.

      let them install it in their rear-wheel drive. They can also be installed by the "artist" Pavlensky (accused of sexually motivated crime), and some other "comrades." fellow Sometimes you regret that there is no Stalin, and comrade Yezhov personally. I would arrest the “Tseyevropeets” Mr. Alekseev (who, by mistake, bears the same name as mine), the head of a homo-activist in Russia, and there would be happiness. I would have applauded standing! drinks
      1. Eight
        Eight 25 October 2017 22: 10
        +3
        The fact is that homosexuals are called "blue" only in Russian. There is no definite explanation for this, but it is a fact. In many European languages ​​there are no words denoting shades of blue. So only volunteers went to the División Azul division, and the vast majority of almost 50000 - for ideological or selfish (money) reasons. True, part of the Republicans, forced to hide, took advantage of this to get to the Eastern Front and surrender. First they went to Novgorod. To Leningrad only later.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 26 October 2017 10: 35
          +1
          True, part of the Republicans, forced to hide, took advantage of this to get to the Eastern Front and surrender.

          just to these people we have no complaints. soldier provided they didn’t have time to perfect anything along the way.
      2. ser6119
        ser6119 26 October 2017 01: 20
        +1
        Dear Mikado, you are wrong about the Spanish Blue Division! It included a lot of participants in anti-fascist inter-brigades. Pinochet then acted wisely enough in relation to Hitler - "On wretchedness, that we do not care." He did not fall under the Nuremberg trials.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 26 October 2017 10: 31
          +2
          Good afternoon, Sergey! yes, Franco de jure did not participate in the war. Maybe I'm wrong. But the "Blue Division" somehow participated in the blockade of my city and the destruction of the 2nd shock army. Whoever they are are enemies. And, at least partially, the victims of the blockade are on their conscience. angry
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 26 October 2017 13: 48
            +1
            There was also a blue squadron (Escuadn'lla Azul)
            In the Luftwaffe, she received the official designation of the 15th “Spanish” squadron and became part of the 27th fighter squadron (Jagdgeschwader 27), commanded by Mr. Bernard Woldeng.
            On March 1, 1942, all the survivors arrived in Madrid, where a solemn meeting awaited them. At the front, the squadron made 449 sorties, of which 178 were combat (84 - to attack). According to Spanish data, 11 enemy aircraft were destroyed (4 of them on the ground). Own losses amounted to 4 pilots and 6 aircraft (according to other sources, 11 Bf 109E-3 burned down on the ground, another 13 other cars were damaged or were in malfunction). One pilot, Mr. Lopez, defected. He not only surrendered, but also expressed a desire to fight in the ranks of the Red Army! How his further fate came about is impossible to say for sure. It is known that in the Kuban a pilot instructor with a similar surname served in one of the schools, and some researchers claim that it was he.
            Summing up
            In just 28 months of combat work, Spanish pilots made about 5500 sorties, conducted 606 air battles and won 158 victories. 12 pilots were killed, 6 were injured, 7 were missing, 1 was captured, 1 went over to the side of the enemy. In total, 96 pilots received combat experience, of which 12 became aces, that is, destroyed more than 5 enemy aircraft. Another 30 pilots won fewer victories.

            True, there are also noticeably different information from the above. So, in the Polish edition of Monografie Lotnicze No. 50 Messerschmitt Me-109 b.p. on page 96 we read: “... the results of the activities of all the Blue Squadrons were lossless not in favor of the Spaniards. On the Me-109 with the emblem of the phalangists, 56 air victories were won with 50 aircraft lost in battles, destroyed or damaged on the ground. 11 pilots died and were captured. ”
  11. Eight
    Eight 25 October 2017 21: 46
    +3
    San Sanych,
    In general, this is a separate, very interesting topic. Here you can write a series of articles. If you are interested in the matter, I recommend Boris Rodionov’s book, The History of Strong Russian Pits, You will not regret.
  12. Weyland
    Weyland 26 October 2017 00: 38
    +1
    No, whatever you say, and Hitler was still a little smarter than Mussolini. Well, why did he hang on himself so much tsatsek, not a boy after all ...

    Well, he’s far from the “dear Leonid Ilyich ... By the way, half of the awards there are foreign - and not only the allies (Hitler, Franco, Antonescu and Hirohito) were noted, but also all 3 Baltic Limitrophs, Poland, Naglia, the Vatican, Sweden, Denmark, Brazil, Albania, Malta, Ethiopia
  13. Yura
    Yura 26 October 2017 20: 29
    +1
    interesting story isn't it
    Good story, interesting. Thanks for the story, just a gift. Our life is shorter than an echo, which is shorter than the cry of our newborn, but there are so many things in it.
  14. Monarchist
    Monarchist 28 October 2017 14: 07
    +1
    hohol95,
    Figs with them let them be "scratched" in the USA, but not to us. We have so far, pah, pah, normal men prevail, but if you recall Boria Moiseyev