Military Review

Hydroaviation of the USSR Navy against Kriegsmarine

Hydroaviation of the USSR Navy against Kriegsmarine

The slightly changed name suggests that today we will look at planes that are not related to the usual Red Army and Luftwaffe air forces. Today we will talk about the hydroaviation, which was administered by the fleets.

We refer to hydroaviation seaplanes (aircraft with floats instead of landing gear) and flying boats (the fuselage itself serves as a float).

the USSR

In this material, we will not consider airplanes and boats by years, since everything that was in service in the USSR before the war, everything fought back.

The huge coastline of the Soviet Union implied the presence of aircraft capable of operating under sea conditions. And there were such planes.

The Heinkel HD55 or the licensed Heinkel became the firstborn of the Soviet hydroaviation KR-1. Since 1930, about 40 vehicles have been assembled, which were used as ejection reconnaissance aircraft on ships of the Baltic and Black Sea fleets, the battleships Marat and Paris Commune, and the cruisers Profintern, Chervona Ukraine and the Red Caucasus.

Weight maximum take-off: 2 270 kg
Engine type: 1 x Siemens Sh.20 x 480 l. with.
Maximum speed: 194 km / h
Cruising speed: 175 km / h
Practical range: 800 km
Ceiling: 4 800 m
Crew: 2 people
Armament: one machine gun PV-1 and two YES in caliber 7,62 mm.

According to the results of tests of КР-1, it immediately became clear that the sooner the Heinkel replacement comes, the better it will be, the plane was neither outstanding nor modern.

This is how KOR-1 appeared.

COR-1 (Be-2) - deck ejection float seaplane, which was planned to be used as a scout. Developed in the 1936 year OKB under the leadership of G. M. Beriev.

KOR-1 did not pass the state tests, but due to the lack of alternatives, it was released at Aviation Plant No. 31. Mr. Dimitrov is a series in 12 units and was in service in 1939 — 1940-s.

Crew: 2 people
Curb weight: 2093 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 2486 kg
Powerplant: 1 × M-25 × 635 l. with.
Maximum speed: 277 km / h
Practical range: 530 - 1000 km
Ceiling: 6 600 m
Armament: Shkas machine gun 3 7,62-mm, 2 x FAB-100 (overloaded version)

The tests and the use of the KOR-1 revealed significant shortcomings of the seaplane and the Beriev Design Bureau rather quickly designed with the KOR-2 data received (Be-4).

COR-2 (Be-4)

KOR-2 - deck ejection flying boat. The plane was prepared for the fate of the naval reconnaissance of the close range on the newly built ships.

The war has made adjustments to the construction of the ocean fleetNevertheless, KOR-2 was adopted and was produced from 1942 to 1945 in small batches.

Total 44 aircraft was released

Crew: 2 people
Maximum takeoff weight: 2760 kg
Powerplant: 1 × M-62 × 850 l. with.
Maximum speed: 356 km / h
Practical range: 550 - 1150 km
Ceiling: 8 100 m
Armament: Shkas machine gun 2 7,62-mm, bomb 4 FAB-100 (overloaded version)

Che-2 / MDR-6

According to the original plans, the aircraft was called the MDR-6 (Marine Long Range Scout). Made under the "flying boat" scheme, but compared to all its predecessors, it was already a twin-engine monoplane.

MDR-6 was created in OKB-45 under the leadership of I. V. Chetverikov, making its first flight in the summer of 1937. From the beginning of 1939, small-scale production was established at plant No. 31 in Taganrog, which continued until the plant was evacuated in the fall of 1941. In the same year he received the name Che-2.

Small arms consisted of three firing points. The bow rifle installation was a turret of the type NU-DB-3 under the ShKAS machine gun of 7,62-mm caliber with a KPT-5 sight.

The medium rifle installation consisted of a serial turret of the SU-DB-3 type under a ShKAS machine gun of 7,62 caliber mm.

The hatch rifle installation was of the type of pivotal installation of the DB-3 aircraft under the ShKAS machine gun of caliber 7,62 mm. The cartridge box with a capacity of 1000 pieces was located on a special platform on the starboard side. In the stowed position, the machine gun was placed vertically on the starboard side. On the casing, on the left side, there was a cable with a carbine, which the shooter fixed when firing.

The maximum bomb load of the aircraft was 1200 kg. Weapon options: twelve FAB-100 or FAB-50, four FAB-250 or BRAB-220, two FAB-500.

TTX Che-2
Weight maximum take-off: 7 200 kg
Engine type: 2 x M-63 x 1100 hp
Maximum speed: 360 km / h
Cruising speed: 309 km / h
Practical range: 2 650 km
Ceiling: 9 000 m
Crew: up to 5 pax
Armament: one 12,7-mm UB machine gun and one 7,62-mm ShKAS machine gun
up to 1000 kg bombs

Most of the production aircraft that received the designation Che-2, were produced with M-63 engines with a capacity of 1100 liters. with. The machine, despite its large size, was fairly light. The weight of empty Che-2 did not exceed 4100 kg, take-off - 6700 kg. In the reloading variant, the flying boat weighed 7200 kg. Thanks to its aerodynamic forms, the aircraft had good flight and seaworthy data.

Che-2 had a removable wheeled chassis, allowing you to be based on the coast.

The aircraft was used as part of all 4 fleets from the end of 1940 to 1946.

Further we will talk about aircraft that played a more significant role in the marine aviation.

The first, of course, the famous "barn", naval neighbor scout MBR-2.

This flying boat was created in the Beriev Design Bureau in 1931, the first flight took place in 1932, and after the meeting with Stalin 5 in August 1933, the aircraft went into series.

Despite the fact that the MBR-2 was wooden, it showed very good flight and seaworthy qualities, being in no way inferior to classmates in the world.

The wooden structure required a delicate attitude, after each departure the plane had to be dried. But naval aviation needed a simple and reliable aircraft, and the MBR-2 became one.

In 1938, on the MBR-2 (more precisely, on its civilian version MP-1), the crew of military pilots (Polina Osipenko, Vera Lomako and Marina Raskova) made a record non-stop flight on the route Sevastopol - Kiev - Novgorod - Arkhangelsk with a length of 2 416 km.

During the Great Patriotic War, the MBR-2 was used as a naval neighbor and partly as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft. There was a special aerial photography option, as well as the MBR-2 used as a light bomber.

“Ambarchik” honestly otpahal the entire blockade of Leningrad, like a fellow W-2. A tactic was applied when German airfields bombed single planes throughout the night, coming at intervals of 15-30 minutes.

Such blows not only exhausted the Germans, but often led to sensitive losses. So, on the night of September 30 1942, four MBR-2s were in turn dropped on the airfield in Krasnogvardeysk (Gatchina) 20 FAB-100 and 15 AO-15. According to enemy reports, as a result, two Ju-87 from 7 / StG1 were destroyed and Bf-109G-2 from Stab JG77 was damaged.

It should be noted that from 1534 sorties made by the Red Banner Baltic Fleet air forces against enemy airfields for the entire war, the share of the ICBM-2 is 678. The fighters in second place made only 375 sorties.

As the MBR-2 bomber did not quite take place, the low speed and weak defensive armament made it an easy target. But as a scout and rescuer, it was an indispensable aircraft.

Since the water areas of the airfield airports froze in harsh winters, this did not interfere with the work. Put on skis MBR-2 flew from land aerodromes.

Having conquered the whole of the Great Patriotic War, the MBR-2 continued its combat path in the Pacific, in the war with Japan. But this was not the last milestone in his stories.

In 1946, some MBR-2 went to Korea. Together with Po-2, which received the nickname "crazy Chinese alarm clocks," "barnchiki" received at least an honorable nickname from the Yankees: "Charlie's night coffee grinders." Reports from the “other side” repeatedly referred to the actions of night light bomber, which prevented minesweepers from working.

Both Po-2 and MBR-2 became a real headache for Americans, since even on the most luxurious radars of that time, detecting a small wooden plane was still that task.

The war in Korea has put the final point in the combat career of a flying boat. By the time of the conclusion of the Ceasefire Agreement in July 1953, there were no longer any MBR-2 in the DPRK air force ranks.

At the end of the story about the MBR-2, I would like to say that the definition of the “workhorse” fits to it, as well as to the 2 software.

Created by Soviet engineers Taganrog under the leadership of Georgy Mikhailovich Beriev, the flying boat really could not boast of any elegance of forms or outstanding characteristics, it simply reliably "pulled the strap" in the battle formation and on the lines of the Civil Air Fleet.

Normal take-off mass: 4 424 kg
Engine type: 1 x M-34НБ x 750 hp
Maximum speed: 234 km / h
Cruising speed: 170-200 km / h
Practical range: 690 km
Ceiling: 7 400 m
Crew: 2 people
Armament: two - four 7,62-mm ShKAS or YES machine guns, bombs up to 600 kg

A total of 1 365 MBR-2 aircraft of all modifications were built.

The last in our series will be just a unique car.


W-2 is the only large-batch aircraft in the world, the prototype of which was built in a private apartment at home.

When, in 1928, a young Leningrad engineer, Vadim Shavrov, offered Osoaviakhim a flying boat project that could land anywhere and lift a load equivalent to the weight of three people, Osoaviakhim approved the project, released the construction money and offered the Czechoslovak Walter engine 85 to the constructor l with.

The plant, where Shavrov worked, began to implement a large program of serial construction of training aircraft. The director refused to accept an order for the construction of an amphibian, only allowing assembly at the factory aerodrome.

There was only one way out: to build an airplane in the apartment of a friend and companion in the design of an amphibian - Victor Corvin. Not embarrassed by the fact that the apartment was located on the second floor.

Three of them worked: two engineers who designed the aircraft, Shavrov and Korvin, mechanic Nikolay Funtikov. Through the months of 13, the wings, the plumage and the boat-fuselage were assembled and pulled out through the balcony to the street.

In Moscow at the end of September 1929, the W-1 perfectly withstood state tests. However, the commission demanded that a more powerful domestic engine, manufactured in series, be installed on this well manned machine.

Shavrov was offered to remake the car under the Soviet serial engine M-11 in 100 l. with. After preliminary calculations, it turned out that this would require some increase in the size of the aircraft, leaving the scheme the same. Thus was born the second amphibian W-2.

Serial production of W-2 was organized at the Taganrog plant number 31, the first aircraft was released 1 April 1932 of the year. A sanitary version of an amphibian with a compartment for stretchers designed by F. F. Lipgart was designed for the needs of air ambulance (16 of such aircraft was manufactured).

In total, 1932 machines were produced in 1934 - 270, after which their production ceased. The exploited airplanes, having developed their own resources, were gradually written off, and by the autumn of 1939, they practically did not remain in the ranks.

The situation changed with the beginning of the Soviet-Finnish war, when it became clear that there was a need for a small seaplane for operational communications among the troops, removal of the wounded in a marshland, a large number of rivers and lakes.

In this regard, the GU GVF, it was decided to return the decommissioned W-2 into service. The Leningrad aircraft repair workshops of the Civil Air Fleet (ARM-21) were engaged in the restoration and overhaul of these machines. It turned out that the simplicity and low cost of aircraft design (it was cheaper to manufacture than even the Y-2) allowed them to resume their mass production.

Under the leadership of V. F. Rentel, the project was modernized - new aircraft received the M-11D engine, improved engine mountings and counter-kicks. Before the start of World War II, they managed to assemble 50 machines in the workshops.

During the evacuation of ARM-21 in August 1941 of the year to Irkutsk, ready parts for 20 of W-2 aircraft were also sent there, the first cars were produced there in the year of 1942.

At the GVF Repair Plant No. 403, new production was also organized, and a number of changes were made to the design, dictated by the supply difficulties during the war years. In total, 1942 X-NUMX X-NUMX and 1945 were repaired in Irkutsk from 150 to 2 years.

After the war, the aircraft was produced in Irkutsk in large batches in 1946 - 1947 and in 1951 - 1952. The modified version included a new, more powerful version of the M-11 engine (M-11L, 115 hp and M-11K, 125 hp), a device for starting it from a compressed air cylinder, trimmers on the handlebars heights and directions, closed cockpit.

There is no exact data on the number of W-2 released for all years. It is known that they were built from 800 to 1200). The simplicity and high maintainability of the machine (sometimes they went through 4 — 5 overhauls) ensured that the car had a long life.

Amphibians of Shavrov worked as post and passenger, ambulance, observation aircraft, as training for the training of sea pilots flying seaplanes. They were widely used in the Arctic for ice reconnaissance on icebreakers.

W-2 was widely exploited in the Caspian and on the rivers and lakes of Siberia up to the 1964 year. 32 of the year in operation - rare survivability.

Crew: 2 person (pilot and mechanic) + 1 passenger
Normal take-off weight: 937 kg
Engine type: 1 x M-11 x 100 hp
Maximum speed: 139 km / h
Cruising speed: 80 km / h
Practical range: 500 km
Ceiling: 3 100 m

As a result, it can be concluded that, although in the USSR, the hydroaviastronomy was in the second, if not in the third, plan, but nevertheless, the Soviet engineers were able to create non-energy-intensive machines with fairly good performance and performance characteristics.


In the prewar period, the main Kriegsmarine seaplane was "Arado Ar-196".

A very modern aircraft with good flying qualities also carried very decent weapons. "Arado-196" was used as a float plane from the airfield, and as ejected from the ships.

The Arado-196 was in service with all the major Kriegsmarine ships: Admiral Count Spee, Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Deutschland, Admiral Scheer, Bismarck, Tirpitz and Prinz Eugen.

Crew: 2 man (pilot and gunner-observer)
Weight normal takeoff: 3 300 kg
Engine type: 1 x BMW-132 x 960 hp
Maximum speed: 330 km / h
Cruising speed: 265 km / h
Practical range: 795 km
Ceiling: 7 000 m

Armament: two MG-FF 20-mm cannons (in the wings), MG-7,92 X-gun machine gun (course, to the right of the cab), MG-17 X-gun machine gun (on the turret) or a MG-7,92Z twin machine.
Two 50-kg bombs.

A well-proven aircraft was in service with the Royal Air Force and Naval Aviation of Norway, Finland, Bulgaria and Romania.

Total was released 451 aircraft.

Blohm & Voss BV-138. Flying boat-far scout

In 1937, designer Vogt had a very good airplane that fought the entire war. The first use of BV-138 was in 1940 in Norway, the last was 1 in May 1945 in Berlin.

LTH on ВV-138c-1
Normal take-off mass - 14 513 kg
Engine type: 3 diesel Junkers Jumo-205D x 880 l. with.
Maximum speed: 283 km / h
Cruising speed: 234 km / h
Practical range:
Maximum: 4 272 km
normal: 1 212 km
Ceiling: 5 000 m
Crew: 6 people
Armament: one X-NUMX-mm MG-20 cannon in the bow and stern turrets and the 151-mm MG-13 machine gun on the pylon of the central engine
Bombs: 3 x 100 kg or 6 x 50 kg, or 3 x 150 kg depth charges (overload).

A small number of BB-138 seaplanes in the 1942-43 were converted into minesweepers and received the designation BB-138-MS. Aircraft upgraded in this way is also called "Mausi-fluugsoyg" - "mousetrap".

The aircraft was used to trap magnetic mines on canals, rivers and at the coastline. With BB-138-MS removed all weapons. The magnetic winding mounted on the struts around the body was powered by an auxiliary motor mounted on the place of the nose tower.

Some models of the V-138 were equipped with the HoGVTX FuG-200 locators for searching for convoys and pointing submarines on them. If necessary, the aircraft could carry 10 fully equipped infantrymen.

All were released 297 aircraft

"Dornier Do-18"

The heir to the exceptionally successful flying boat of Claude Dornier Do-16 "Wal", the Do-18 was just as reliable and easily controlled as a machine capable of very long-haul flights.

Crew: 4 person
Maximum takeoff weight: 10 795 kg
Engines: 2 × Junkers Jumo 205 × 867 l. with.
Maximum speed: 265 km / h
Cruising speed: 164 km / h
Practical range: 3 500 km
Ceiling: 4 200 m
Armament: one 20-mm MG-151 / 20 cannon, one 13-mm MG 131 machine gun, 2 50-kg bombs on wing bombs.

Do-18 served in Crigmarin as a submarine hunter, a long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft, a patrol aircraft, and a sea rescuer.

Total was built 154 aircraft.

"Dornier" Do-24.

A three-engine flying boat developed by Dornier Flugzeugwerke for maritime patrols and rescue operations. According to Dornier records, this aircraft saved about 12 000 people during its operation.

Crew: from 3 pax
Curb weight: 18 400 kg
Propulsion: 3 × Bramo 323 x 1 000. with.
Maximum speed: 341 km / h
Combat use radius: 2 900 km
Ceiling: 5 900 m
Armament: 1 × 20-mm gun MG-151 / 20, 2 × 7,92 mm machine gun MG-15, 12 × 50 kg bombs.

This aircraft was also used as a minesweeper of magnetic mines.

A total of 1937 to 1945 year was built 279 machines of this type.

In addition, the Kriegsmarine was armed with aircraft produced in small series (up to 10 units), Dornier Do-26, Blom and Voss BV-222, which did not play any significant role in the war. For example, the Do-26 series was released in 6 machines, all six were lost during the Norwegian operation.

What can be concluded here? German seaplanes, and especially the Dornier flying boats, were the height of technical excellence. Berths, kitchens and toilets aboard Kriegsmarine distant naval intelligence officers - this was commonplace.

The role of hydroaviation on the sea and in the coastal zone was very significant. The aircraft conducted reconnaissance, detected and attacked enemy submarines, and sometimes even destroyed them, rescued those in distress.

However, the fact that the German hydroaviation was an order of magnitude stronger and more perfect than the Soviet, no matter how sad it may sound, it is true that the fate of the war was not decided in the sea and coastal zone.

Yemelyanov S.N. Taganrog Aviation.
Shavrov V. B. The history of aircraft design in the USSR.
Shunkov V.N. Luftwaffe Aviation.
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  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 17 October 2017 07: 48 New
    Despite the extra long coastline, Soviet hydro-aviation was still coastal, and the German oceanic one, providing Kriegsmarine operations in the Atlantic. Unfortunately, the only strategic and very successful seaplane ANT-44bis did not go into series although it fought very successfully on the Black Sea in 1941-43. .!
    1. maximghost
      maximghost 17 October 2017 10: 43 New
      And they forgot about him in the article.
      1. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 17 October 2017 11: 08 New
        If we talk about aviation fleets and their confrontation, the author "forgot" a lot of things. Neither structure, nor tasks to be solved, nor changes during the period of hostilities. An article is a dummy. Type in the search engine "Naval Aviation during the Second World War" and you will receive much more reliable and high-quality information without wasting time reading this article.
      2. Spitfire
        Spitfire 17 October 2017 12: 23 New
        And about the He-115, too.
  2. ICT
    ICT 17 October 2017 08: 21 New
    SENDED KAZachok, but with his contribution to the cause of victory and the post-war development of the north
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor 17 October 2017 08: 47 New
      Well, write that "Catalina." And why the "mishandled Cossack" is a synonym for a pest, it is not fair to this intruding plane!
  3. The comment was deleted.
    1. Andy
      Andy 17 October 2017 10: 25 New
      Excuse me, but have you been banned from the site? write your article. The author gave an overview of the types of seaplanes.
      1. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 17 October 2017 11: 01 New
        I forgive you. Not banned. The content of the "article" by the author does not match its title. Which I noted. If you think this is a review types seaplanes, this is also not true. An incomplete (very!) List of aircraft in service with the Navy and Kriegsmarine. To write an article with a similar list, even more complete, I see no reason in the presence of Vicky and Google.
        1. Andy
          Andy 17 October 2017 11: 03 New
          but you have the opportunity to either write an article or supplement the author in the comments. agree, we will be interested in both options
          1. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 17 October 2017 11: 43 New
            So I supplemented the author with comments. If they are not flattering and you personally do not like, refute the essence of the comment. You have such an opportunity. hi
      2. Curious
        Curious 17 October 2017 11: 19 New
        Excuse me, are you a referent? The author gave an overview of seaplanes either on the principle of "I knew about them" or on the principle of "what I quickly found." Or can I only praise the author? Like - rejoice that you at least wrote something, but don’t like it - write to yourself?
        If you write a review, then write a review. And where then, Arado 95 and 231, where are the Heinkel 59, 114, 119?
        And Blohm und Voss was called On 139.. And there was still an interesting Blohm und Voss At 140.
        1. Dooplet11
          Dooplet11 17 October 2017 11: 50 New
          TB-1 on floats, ANT-44, DB-3, Po-2 .... What can I say, it’s sloppy "fast." Hackwork.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 17 October 2017 13: 26 New
            MP-6 / MP-6:
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 17 October 2017 14: 38 New

              The figure is more clear. MP-6 ARCTIC
              Often used floats from the TB-1 aircraft. In this form, an aircraft called MP-5 (or MP-6 - without weapons) was used for both military and civilian purposes.
              During the Great Patriotic War, the ANT-7, already taken out of service, was used to tow gliders, deliver weapons to partisans and evacuate the wounded, etc. It was built 406 aircraft of various modifications.
              Most likely, as a seaplane they were not used
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 18 October 2017 10: 06 New
                But there was still real firstborn of the Soviet hydroaviation - float seaplane MP-1 (first flight - October 19, 1925).

                He is famous for the fact that on the account MR-1 (until 1943) was the largest of the ships sunk by Soviet aircraft.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 18 October 2017 10: 27 New
                  Do you mean the fighting for Luhasusu and the sinking together with the ships of the Amur Flotilla of the Chinese gunboat on October 12, 1929?
                  1. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 18 October 2017 17: 43 New
                    Quote: hohol95
                    Do you mean the fighting for Luhasusu and the sinking together with the ships of the Amur Flotilla of the Chinese gunboat on October 12, 1929?

                    Rather, this is the next battle for Fugdin.
                    On October 11, the Chinese flotilla commander Shen Hunle unexpectedly left Lahasusu on the flagship of the Jiangheng gunboat and went upstream of the Sungari to Fugdin. The commander of the Jiangheng captain, 2nd rank, Yin Zotsian, was left in Lahasusu with the order to temporarily take the flotilla under his control.

                    According to some data, 31.10.1929/68/XNUMX, seaplanes of the XNUMXth detachment sank the Jiang-Keng CL, according to others, planes and seaplanes inflicted such damage to the Jiang-Keng that the KL was forced to land.
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 18 October 2017 21: 38 New
                      "On the morning of October 31, they appeared near the town of Fugdin. The landing was preceded by the bombardment of the city by hydroplanes of the 68th detachment. Warehouses, a prison and the police department caught fire from explosions. One of the aircraft found a convoy and dropped bombs on it, destroying several wagons. Another crew attacked the detachment cavalry about 300 sabers and dispersed it with fragmentation bombs and machine gun fire. In the port, the pilots sunk an armed steamboat. "
                      article by V.R. Kotelnikov "CER, war in the air", published in the magazine "Aviamaster" No. 3-2007.
                      The following information is provided on the website of the NAVY OF RUSSIA:
                      In response to the provocative actions of the Kuomintang China, which seized the Sino-Eastern Railway on July 10, 1929 and fired at border outposts, settlements and steamships on the Amur, the Soviet command decided to strike at the main enemy forces concentrated in the mouth of the Sungari and in the vicinity of the city of Lahasusu ( Tongqiang), which was a heavily fortified defensive site. On the Lahasusu raid, there was a cruiser under the flag of Admiral Shen, 3 gunboats, 6 armed steamboats and a floating battery. The raid and adjacent channels were protected by mine and boom barriers.
                      The Soviet Amur Flotilla included 14 ships, including 3 gunboats, 4 monitors and 3 armored boats. They were tasked with destroying the White Chinese ships and ensuring the landing and advance of the landing.
                      On the night of October 12, the ships approached the mouth of the Sungari and anchored according to the disposition. At 6 hours and 10 minutes, the first strike on Lahasus was dealt by aviation, and after 2 minutes from the flagship monitor “Lenin” (until 1922 “Storm”) the first volley was fired, at which the remaining ships opened fire. The Chinese side immediately responded with fairly well-aimed fire, which forced our monitors to drop anchor and begin to maneuver.
                      The Sverdlov monitor was the first to succeed (until 1922 the Blizzard), which covered the gunboats Li-Ji and Li-Sui with several volleys. The first was sunk, the second with damage left the battle and went to Fungdin. On the way, MP-1 seaplanes caught up with her and several aptly dropped bombs turned all the add-ons at the boat.
                      Then, the Sverdlov shells started a fire on the Dyan-Pai steamboat. The monitor “Red East” (until 1927 “Hurricane”) in the first 20 minutes of the battle crushed the coastal battery, then blew up a gunboat. In the meantime, our fourth Sun-Yat-sen monitor (until 1927 the Flurry) finished off the Dyan-Pai steamer with two shells, on which the powder cellar exploded. After that, the gunners of the monitor transferred the fire to the floating battery and silenced its guns. Unable to withstand the fire, the surviving enemy ships went to Fugdin. The 2nd Amur Rifle Division was disembarked from our ships, which, with the support of naval artillery, occupied Lahasusa by 15 p.m.
                      The remains of the Sungarian Chinese flotilla (gunboat “Kiang-Heng”, 4 armed steamboats and several small ships) took refuge under the protection of the fortifications of Fugdin. On October 29, minesweepers of the Soviet Amur flotilla cleared landmines from Fugdin from mines, and the next morning, 4 monitors, 4 gunboats, a mine-layer, 3 armored boats, 5 transports and 3 barges with an amphibious assault moved up the Sungari. By 15 p.m., they were blocked by 7 barges and 2 steamers flooded by the White Chinese in the fairway. After some time, the Bars armored carrier managed to find a small passage, but it began to get dark, and the fleet ships anchored.
                      On October 30, aircraft made 17 sorties in the Fugdin area. As a result of the bombing, it got damaged and the gunboat “Kiang Heng” left its position, and 2 steamers and a barge were sunk.
                      After carrying out minesweeping operations, at 11 o'clock on October 31, a landing was landed from the ships, starting a battle at the approaches to Fugdin. Monitors of the Amur Flotilla destroyed the last ships of the White Chinese and opened fire on the coastal fortifications. The enemy gunboat was finished off by pilots E. Lucht and D. Borovikov. Only 4 people managed to escape from the crew of the boat. By 20 hours, most of the city was taken, and the ships received orders to return to Khabarovsk.
                      For this operation, 59 commanders and Red Navy of the Amur Flotilla were awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and the flotilla became the Red Banner.
                      1. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 19 October 2017 10: 55 New
                        Quote: hohol95
                        The remains of the Sungarian Chinese flotilla (gunboat “Kiang Heng”, 4 armed steamers and several small ships) took refuge under the protection of the fortifications of Fugdin.

                        This is what she is - "Jiang-Heng." Just in a different transcription. smile
                        And judging by the fact that in the battles for Lahasusu this KL is not mentioned - with a high degree of probability it really went to Fugdin a day before the battle on October 12. Because we couldn’t notice the participation in the battle of the largest ship of the Chinese flotilla (550 tons of displacement, 60 m in length) even with a 120 mm gun.
                        But you won’t get away from fate - and, having escaped the battle for Lahasusa, “Jiang-hen” had to participate in the battle for Fugdin on October 30-31. Where she fell under the attacks of the 68th squadron on the MP-1.
                        At dawn on October 31, Soviet ships approached Fugdin, and the minesweepers proceeded to make passages in minefields. Chinese ships and coastal artillery fired heavily. At this moment, over the raid appeared a pair of MP-1 unit commander E.M. Lukhta and chief of staff D.I. Borovikov. They quickly chose the main target - the flagship of the enemy flotilla gunboat "Jiang Heng" (in most sources its name is given as "Kiang Heng"). The planes went on the move on the offensive, despite the fierce bullet-and-rifle fire, from a gentle dive bombed aimingly at the enemy ship and fired at it from machine guns. As a result, the Jiang Heng rolled over to the port side and sank.

                        © Alexander V. Kotlobovsky. Combat use of R-1. Aviation and Time, No. 4, 2001
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 17 October 2017 12: 40 New
          Quote: Curious
          If you write a review, then write a review. And where then, Arado 95 and 231, where are the Heinkel 59, 114, 119?

          You still ask - where is this:
          1. Curious
            Curious 17 October 2017 12: 58 New
            Or is it a competitor of that.
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 17 October 2017 12: 01 New
    As a result, it can be concluded that, although in the USSR, the hydroaviastronomy was in the second, if not in the third, plan, but nevertheless, the Soviet engineers were able to create non-energy-intensive machines with fairly good performance and performance characteristics.
    I would not say that, because the development of new seaplanes was very active. This is the work of D. Grigorovich and the work of Chetverikov, in addition to MDR-6, he created the plane of the submarine SPL
    In the photo: SPL and I.V. Chetverikov and A.V. Krzhizhevsky.
    let / 919-plane-for-submarines-spl
    and the work of AGOS at TsAGI. That's bad only a lot of work has not reached serial production.
  5. hohol95
    hohol95 17 October 2017 12: 05 New
    It is known about some sorties of MTB-2D (and there were about 80 of them in total):
    on the night of September 13, 1941, the MTB-2 bombed enemy troops in the Odessa region;
    On the night of October 9, he attacked German airfields at Kulbakino and Slivna.

    On the night of October 17, 1941 MTB-2D successfully attacked Bucharest (bomb load 8 FAB-250). Return was expected in the morning, but at the appointed time the plane did not return from the combat flight to the base. In the morning, the GTS flew in search of him, followed by a second one, but the marine bomber was not found. The reason for the disappearance was a strong crosswind, which blew the plane, going in continuous cloud cover, far beyond the coastline. When the crew tried to restore the situation, it turned out that they were flying over land, in the Krasnodar region. Oriented, went towards the sea, were repeatedly fired by anti-aircraft fire from the ground. Finally, they made a splashdown in the Gelendzhik area and soon, at dawn, they were caught by two Soviet boats - sea hunters, who demanded that the pilots surrender. To prove to the sailors that "we are ours" for a long time did not work. Then I had to resort to the old proven method - Sukhomlin leaned out of the boat and shouted in "mighty" Russian everything he thought about the crews of the boats and their relatives. Only after that they believed that the plane was not hostile, and allowed him to fly to Sevastopol.
    According to the testimony of a major retired Fedor Panteleevich Mamai (in 1942, senior engineer for armament of aircraft), there was a prescription (or order) for MTB-2 - to provide fighter protection for each take-off. Otherwise, this noticeable car could be shot down by German fighters on take-off, which tirelessly barraged along the coastal spurs of the Caucasian ridge.

    August 10, 1942 MTB prepared for departure - hung 12 FAB-250. It was calm, so from the first, and even the second time, a heavily loaded plane could not tear itself away from the water. In the third attempt, at the moment of separation from the surface of the bay, the take-off MTB-2 was attacked by two Me-110 (or Me-109) fighters and it crashed into water. Only the captain of the ship, Captain Naumov, survived - he was thrown out of the cockpit and, according to his personal testimony, he did not even have time to understand anything. The navigator died captain I.P. Gryaznykh, co-pilot of Art. Lieutenant A.A. Chaika, radio engineer Lieutenant N.K. Nazarov, shooter Art. Sergeant M.M. Dubina, shooter-radio operator Junior sergeant A.U. Koshnar.

    The investigation of the incident was short: Captain Naumov was declared the culprit of the death of the crew and the aircraft: he allegedly began an early turn on take-off and hit the wing with water, followed by a disaster. Later, Naumov was transferred to continue his service in the Northern Fleet.
    The remains of MTB-2 have been lying in the sea for more than forty years, at a depth of 10-12 meters at the exit of the Gelendzhik Bay at the Tolstoy Cape. In 1988-1989 the place where the plane crashed was examined by divers of the Search amateur group for the possibility of lifting it to the surface. However, the inspection showed that the wreckage of the car was mixed with unexploded bombs (the same ones with which the MTB went into combat flight). The lifting operation was postponed, and then sappers called from Sevastopol blew up a dangerous find right at the bottom.
    1. polpot
      polpot 17 October 2017 20: 30 New
      Thank you for the information about the death of MTB 2
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 17 October 2017 20: 31 New
        Naryl on the Internet. hi
  6. Livonetc
    Livonetc 17 October 2017 12: 07 New
    Personally, it was very informative for me.
    Although not a scientific and technical treatise, but nevertheless a person tried, he even gave the opportunity to supplement to argue criticize.
    Well, hastily so hastily.
    Not always the same delicacies for breakfast to consume.
    Often, and the egg is quite.
    Well, not licked, that's okay.
    "However, the fact that the German hydroaviation was an order of magnitude stronger and more perfect than the Soviet one, sadly it may sound, really, that the fate of the war was not decided in the sea and coastal zone."
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 17 October 2017 12: 58 New
      He already has a whole collection. Okay, it would be incomplete or just quick, but correct. So a lot of mistakes, inaccuracies and distortions. See the comments on the previous parts of the "collection of works." Sensation, - the author writes in order to be ruled and supplemented.
  7. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 17 October 2017 12: 35 New
    Interesting ... KOR-1 (localized "Heinkel") is in the article. But the GTS - no. what
    And where is Heinkel 115?
    1. Curious
      Curious 17 October 2017 13: 30 New
      ! And where is Heinkel 115? "
      Yes, in your own photo, a little earlier in the comments.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 17 October 2017 14: 16 New
        Quote: Curious
        Yes, in your own photo, a little earlier in the comments.

        And I would like in the article - somewhere between the "shoe" and the "dornier". smile
        Moreover, the 115th even in our memoirs noted:
        The convoy continued to move. Above him appeared barrage 12 Me-109 and FV-190. This time there were no boats, smoke curtains, but without a smoke curtain could not do. They were pulled by 4 Xe-115s, arriving from Luostari precisely at the moment the convoy entered the reach zone of our artillery fire.
        © Kabanov
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 17 October 2017 15: 59 New
          The German command to conduct convoys to Petsamo organized the operation "Iolanta" with the participation of diverse forces. Small minesweepers carried out mine defense at the transition, fighters guarded the convoy from possible attacks from the air, dive bombers and artillery attacked the firing positions of Soviet batteries, and seaplanes, mostly Not 115, placed smoke screens.
          However, with the smoke curtains, not everything went smoothly at once. Only on May 20, in the Diary of the Commandant of the Naval Defense of Kirkines, an entry appeared: “For the first time, after a series of unsuccessful attempts, it was possible to cover the Petsama convoy from the airplane with a smoke screen.” In total, during the operation "Iolanta" seaplanes made 87 sorties for the installation of smoke screens.
          Alexander Zablotsky / Taganrog,
          Roman Larintsev / Severodvinsk
    2. maximghost
      maximghost 17 October 2017 14: 25 New
      KOR-1 is like the original development, and licensed German is KR-1.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 17 October 2017 14: 53 New
        You are absolutely right - I was wrong.
        Licensed Heinkel is exactly KR-1. AKОR-1 is Be-2.
  8. Strashila
    Strashila 17 October 2017 14: 20 New
    “Both Po-2 and MBR-2 were truly a headache for the Americans, because even on the most luxurious radars of that time, pinpointing a small wooden plane was still that task." ... here they are, the progenitors of the stealth.
  9. hohol95
    hohol95 17 October 2017 14: 29 New
    The successful flying boat of A. Ladden did not go unnoticed by Soviet specialists. It was considered quite suitable for production at domestic factories and on January 9, 1937, the Amtorg Corporation (which at that time served as the Soviet trade mission in the United States) signed an agreement with Consolidated to provide a license for a cargo and passenger flying boat. The plane was defined as “arctic” in the contract, therefore, the availability of hull reinforcements and drawings of the ski landing gear was specifically stipulated, and military use was not mentioned. According to the contract, Amtorg bought one assembled aircraft, working drawings, calculations, test results, specifications and technological documentation. In addition, the Americans pledged to familiarize Soviet specialists with the plant in San Diego and within three years to send materials to the USSR about all the changes made to production cars. In an additional letter, Amtorg requested two more seaports in disassembled form, without motors, instruments and equipment. The availability of all aircraft was determined no later than November 1, 1937.

    The company adopted the PBY-28 modification, but without weapons and with Rl 2-G1 motors, which, like the Soviet M-820, were the basis for the export version, called “Model 3-62” (or “Russian cargo mail boat”) engine R-1820-F3, and almost completely corresponded to the M-62 in size, weight and "seats", the nose turret was replaced by a fairing, and the rest of the flying boat "Model 28-2" copied PBY-1.
    Even before Amtorg’s order was completed, the Model 28-1 aircraft, an unarmed PBY-1 aircraft that was being prepared by the American Museum of Natural History for an expedition to New Guinea, and purchased in August 1937 to search for the missing crew, was included in the list of Soviet civil aviation aircraft. S.A. Levanevsky. The plane, which had its own name "Guba" ("Storm" - in the language of the Papuans of New Guinea), led by the crew of the famous polar pilot G. Wilkins flew to the north of Canada on August 23 to conduct searches. The boat was already considered Soviet and carried the designation USSR L-2. In December 1937, the aircraft was returned to the plant for minor repairs and refinement to the conditions of the Arctic, and in January-March 1938 Wilkins continued the search, but to no avail. L-2 was dismantled and sent to the USSR by sea. Subsequently, this machine was part of the Moscow Polar Aviation Detachment and died in 1942, shot by a German submarine off the coast of Novaya Zemlya.
    Mastering the production of “Model 28-2” was assigned to the plant number 31 in Taganrog. Despite the fact that the license was purchased for a civilian aircraft, which was also indicated by the Soviet designation GTS (“transport seaplane”), the machine was considered as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft and marine bomber, and only then as a civilian aircraft. The finalization of the design and its adaptation to domestic materials and technologies was carried out by the design bureau of G.M. Beriev, located at the factory.
    The GTS received a set of weapons from four ShKAS machine guns with a caliber of 7,62 mm, placed the same as on PBY-1, and six bombs (the largest - FAB-500). They did not plan a torpedo suspension, but provided for chemical weapons - two VAP-500 poured aviation devices.
    The first GTS were sent to the 80th Air Force Squadron of the Black Sea Fleet, and since July 1940 they began to arrive in the Northern Fleet. July 24, the first aircraft of this type participated in the parade on the occasion of the Navy. By the beginning of the war, there were 11 GTS aircraft in the Black Sea, and 7 in the North. Flying boats were also supplied since 1940 to the Polar Aviation of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route and the Civil Aviation Directorates in Siberia and the Far East under the name MP-7. Polar explorers praised the new flying boats, which have become a worthy replacement for the outdated Val Dornier aircraft.
    Nevertheless, the GTS did not, for a variety of reasons, become a mass plane. The American boat had opponents among the fleet command, guided by domestic aircraft. So, in November 1938, the People's Commissar of the Navy, reporting to the government on the successful testing of the MDR-6 aircraft designed by I.V. Chetverikov, suggested in this connection that they refuse to produce flying boats under licenses. The production of Model 28-2, which was difficult to manufacture, also provoked a negative reaction from the management of Plant No. 31. The final decision to remove the GTS from production was made after the US government imposed an embargo on supplies to the USSR after the outbreak of war with Finland. Having exhausted the supply of imported units, the Taganrog plant at the end of 1940 switched to the production of simpler MDR-6 (Che-2) aircraft, making only 27 GTS.

    By January 1, 1942, only five vehicles of this type remained on the Black Sea, which were part of the Sevastopol group. They were mainly engaged in the transportation of particularly important goods to the besieged city. At the end of April, the three remaining vehicles were relocated to Gelendzhik. They participated in the evacuation of the defenders of Sevastopol, and then - in the supply of the partisans of the Crimea. In the Northern Fleet, one aircraft of this type served until the end of the war in the 16th transport detachment.

    In August 1941, the flying boats MP-7 of the Polar Aviation armed on the model of military vehicles and involved in operations in the North. Several MP-7s became part of the 2nd separate air group of I.P. Mazuruk. In addition to her usual work - ice reconnaissance and transportation to distant wintering grounds, her crews patrolled in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in August 1941 they brought to Alaska a group of M.V. Gromov, flying to the USA to receive combat aircraft.
  10. vitlas
    vitlas 17 October 2017 17: 11 New
    The article is not clear about what. "However, the fact that the German hydroaviation was an order of magnitude stronger and more perfect than the Soviet one, sadly it may sound, really, that the fate of the war was not decided in the sea and coastal zone." Give examples of when this happened?
    1. ventel
      ventel 17 October 2017 21: 24 New
      There is a memory of sea pilots in Minakov in the book “The Angry Sky of Tauris”, many cases are described when German seaplanes either called fighters or went on the attack on torpedo bombers. Yes, and according to the book it was considered very difficult to fill the German seaplane with our fighters.
  11. hohol95
    hohol95 19 October 2017 11: 21 New
    Alexey RA,
    So the gunboat "Li-Sui" to the pilots was considered honestly as damaged, since in 1931 it was restored and was in service until 1941, after which it was converted into a training ship. In 1945 it was captured by Soviet troops in Manchuria, but was not commissioned and was soon scrapped.

    Built in Japan by the Kawasaki company, the main Jiang-Yuan in 1904-1905, the rest in 1907. "Jiang-Heng" was transferred to the Sungari River, sunk by the Soviet armed forces on October 31.10.1929, 26.9.1937 in Fugdin during the conflict on the CER. "Jiang-Li" was flooded on September 20.7.1937, 1963 in Qingdao, "Jiang-Zhen" was sunk on July XNUMX, XNUMX by Japanese aircraft on the Yangtze. "Jiang-Yuan" served as part of the Chinese Navy until XNUMX.
    Weapons data vary on this gunboat -
    Main caliber - 1 x 4,7 "Armstrong gun with a barrel length of 57 calibers
    The average caliber is 3 x 3 "guns made in Japan, according to other sources, only one gun with a caliber of 75 mm
    Small caliber - 4 x 47 mm. rapid-fire guns
    Machine guns - 4 x 7,92 mm.
    Only 4 people managed to escape from the crew of the boat.
    The gunboat "Li-Tzu" (Li-Czieh) was built in Germany in 1909 (314 tons; PM 1728 hp; 15 knots; two 88-mm and one 52-mm guns, three mortars).
    The gunboat Li-Sui was built in Germany in 1902 (280 tons; PM 450 hp; 13 knots; one 88 mm, two 75 mm, two 52 mm guns, two mortar).
    The gunboat "Jiang-Pin" (Czian-Pin) was built in Germany in 1912 (140 tons; PM 500 hp; 12 knots; two 75-mm, two 57-mm guns, two mortars).