The control system of the Russian Empire was designed for a brilliant ruler like Napoleon, and in our country - Peter I, Catherine II or Stalin. All ministers were subordinated personally to the tsar and had the right of a personal report. They did not submit to the prime minister and were not obliged to coordinate their actions with each other.
When Sergey Yul'evich Witte was dismissed by the tsar from the post of minister of finance and appointed prime minister, he was extremely distressed and considered this to be a disgrace.
26 April 1906, Stolypin was appointed Minister of the Interior and remained so until his death. 8 July the same year, he became chairman of the Council of Ministers, but it almost did not increase his power. The foundation of Stolypin’s power in the early years was the confidence of the king, frightened by the revolution. Nicholas II in the 1906 – 1908 years took Stolypin more often than all other ministers combined.
However, Stolypin never dealt with matters of defense, foreign policy, finance, communications, etc., there were his ministers there.
Stolypin didn’t even go into the business fleet and ports. He would try to call for the report the head of the Main Directorate of Merchant Shipping and Ports, Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich!
As an example of his influence on Russian foreign policy, Stolypin’s apologists say that in September 1910 persuaded Nicholas II to dismiss Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and put his relative Sergey Dmitrievich Sazonov in his place (the wives were sisters ). The very Sazonov who dragged Russia into the First World War.
Even if it is, so what? Grigory Efimovich “persuaded” a dozen ministers.
So, both before 8 July 1906 of the year and after Stolypin’s activities did not extend beyond the scope of the Ministry of the Interior.
SAD TOTAL REFORM
The main merit of Stolypin consider the land reform. The result of it - from the end of 1916 of the year to 25 of October of 1917 of the year, that is, before the Bolsheviks came to power, the peasants in the central provinces of Russia, on their own initiative, burned or plundered the overwhelming majority of the manor’s estates and seized the landed estates.
The second main merit of Stolypin is the suppression of the revolution by purely repressive measures. 13 March 1907, he introduced the law on field courts. In this regard, Pyotr Arkadyevich uttered: "Sometimes state necessity is above the law." If Nikolay Ivanovich Ezhov had read this, he would immediately have subscribed to every word.
As a result, in the 1907 – 1910 years, martial courts passed death sentences for 5735, 66 thousand people were sent to penal servitude. In addition to the military field courts, the officers received the right to shoot people without trial. A typical case in Moscow is that a patrol detains a person who has a Browning. And here is often a drunken gentleman lieutenant decides to release or shoot on the spot.
I note that in Russia before 1906, as in the civilized states of Europe, and in the USA, any pistols and revolvers were sold without any permission. In 1906, Stolypin banned the sale without permission of especially powerful revolvers and pistols, for example, a Mauser.
The Bolsheviks, having come to power, were forbidden to have a personal weapon everyone except party members. In 1934, Stalin forbade the possession of weapons and the Communists. Moreover, if under Stalin only the cartridge pistol with the central battle was considered a crime, now our “democratic” bodies can send behind bars for a duel pistol of Pushkin's era, and even times of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
When Stolypin headed the Ministry of Internal Affairs, there were monastic prisons in Russia: 16 in men's monasteries and 15 in women's. It is curious that in the 1786 year in the Solovetsky Monastery there were 15 life prisoners, and for what seven of them were imprisoned, the archimandrite himself did not know.
A number of historians believe that by the end of his rule Stolypin destroyed the monastic prisons. In fact, he only conserved them, and money for the maintenance of monastic prisons was still allocated from the budget. Eh, Peter Arkadyevich did not know for whom he protects these prisons!
THE GOVERNOR BARE
All the governors of the empire personally submitted to Stolypin. And it was in his reign, they reached the utter lawlessness. For example, the Vyatka governor Kamyshansky issued a mandatory decree: "Those guilty of typing, storing and distributing works of tendentious content are fined and replaced with imprisonment of up to three months!"
Kherson Governor Fedor Alexandrovich Bantysh in 1908, fined a local newspaper for the telegram of the Petersburg Telegraph Agency from England with a speech of some English leader.
And this is a widespread practice of banning governors from reprinting articles from state publications. What would have happened in Kherson, in 1937, that in 1967, if there were forbidden to reprint articles from Pravda.
Imagine that the secretary of the Crimean regional committee in 1957 or the mayor of Simferopol in 2017 would force schoolchildren at the sight of themselves to stand up and salute, and who hesitated to put them in a punishment cell for several days. Simferopol Vice-Governor Pavel Nikolayevich Massalsky did this regularly. And how did Stolypin punish him? Appointed governor to Kharkov.
In October 1906 of the year, Yalta’s mayor Stolypin appoints Colonel Ivan Antonovich Dumbadze, the son of a tradesman of Kutaisi province.
2 November 1906 of the year Dumbadze introduced in Yalta a provision for emergency protection that was in effect until July 1 of the 1914 year. According to this provision, it was possible to arrest any suspicious person and, without investigation, expel him from the county.
Dumbadze, without trial or trial, evicted all residents of Yalta who did not like him with anything. So, the artist GF was expelled. Yartsev, the owner of the photo studio "South" S.V. Dziuba For some reason, Dumbadze was very fond of expelling doctors: Zemsky doctor A.N. Alexina (he treated Gorky), doctor TM Gurka, doctor V.I. Saltykovsky, school doctor Anna Stepanenko, the landlord of the children's beach of Lapidus, the sanitary doctor of Yalta, P.P. Rozanov, doctor S.Ya. Elpatyevsky.
About the latter is to say a few words. Sergey Yakovlevich Elpatyevsky treated Korolenko, Chekhov and Gorky. At the expense of solid fees, he built himself a big house in Yalta. Chekhov jokingly called the “Vologda Province” the estate of Elpatyevsky, and Gorky envied: “What house is Elpatius building!”
In some ways, the expulsion went to Elpatyevsky for the benefit. After the revolution, he became Lenin’s personal physician and worked in the Kremlin hospital until 1928. Elpatyevsky 9 of January 1933 of the year died and was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery.
Well, okay, one of the doctors paid for his left-wing convictions. However, Dumbadze expelled hundreds of people from Yalta for the "bytovuha". Among them was Dale Taiganskaya - the daughter of the commander of the Crimean Equestrian Regiment of Muyati-Zade. She paid for flirting with the officers.
The mayor thought for a long time how to please the residents of the city entrusted to him, and finally thought up: “Are there Jews in the units stationed around Yalta? - There is! “So send them out right away!”
Who else would send - Dumbadze was puzzled. And he began to expel the ladies who were splashing in the sea without swimsuits. Generally speaking, at the beginning of the century, one swimsuit in Russia accounted for several thousand women. And Nicholas II himself was swimming naked, even the documentary footage was preserved. In order not to become a woman hater, Dumbadze exiled men, who, although they were dressed, but criminally watched naked bathers.
I must say that Dumbadze did not calm down on this, and in 1915 he issued a decree “On the observance of decency in the bathing areas of cities ...” There it was forbidden “to people bathing from the shore ... to stay out of the water for rest, etc., unless they wearing a dress Translated into normal language, this meant that a person, coming out of the sea, could not be on the beach, even in a bathing suit, and immediately had to wear outerwear.
26 February 1907, a homemade bomb was thrown into the crew of Dumbadze because of the fence of the mansion of the merchant Novikov. No one was killed, the assailant killed himself. The owner of the house was not there, he was in Moscow. Then the city leader, who was not confused, ordered the convoy to go to the grocery store, take cans of kerosene and burn the house of an innocent merchant. From the mansion only stone walls remained, as the police forbade to extinguish the fire.
Homeowner Novikov sued 75 thousand rubles. And what did Stolypin do? Condemned the actions of Dumbadze? Punished zealous mayor? No, he kept silent, and Novikov secretly issued 40 thousand rubles from the budget of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Coast Peter Arkadevich state money!
During the Stolypin reign in the Police Department, the provocation system took on dimensions unprecedented either before or after, neither in the empire nor around the world.
In fact, to be honest, the first police provocations began in the middle of the XIX century. By this time, some of the most “thoroughbred” princes of Rurik — Peter Vladimirovich Dolgorukov, Ivan Sergeevich Gagarin, and Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin — turned out to be abroad. They did not climb into terrorists, but allowed indecent statements about dignitaries, ministers and even about the most ... And so the police department conducted a brilliant special operation. In the Russian censored media was stuffing compromising. Dolgorukov and Gagarin were declared homosexuals and the authors of the scandalous libel directed to Pushkin. With this forgery, Soviet forensic experts only sorted out in the 1976 year, and before that Dolgorukov and Gagarin were slinging mud at anyone.
The reign of Nicholas II began with a farce. In May, 1895, the gendarmes reported to the king about the great success in the fight against terrorists who were going to kill Nicholas during coronation celebrations. At the head of the organization was ... Rasputin, though not Gregory, but Ivan. Historians and publicists have noticed a number of fatal coincidences in stories Romanov dynasty. It all started in the Ipatiev Monastery, and ended in the Ipatiev House, etc. And I add: Rasputin began, Rasputin and ended.
A total of 35 people were arrested in the Rasputin case. “Searches made by intruders were found: a laboratory with all sorts of accessories for making shells, literature and other literature that quite exposed a group in a planned crime.”
For the preparation of a terrorist act against the emperor, Ivan Rasputin, Alexey Pavelko-Povolotsky, Ivan Egorov, Vasily Bakharev, Taisiya and Alexander Akimovs and Anastasia Lukyanov were sentenced to death by hanging. Zinaida Gerngross was sentenced in absentia to 20 years of hard labor. Nevertheless, the terrorists were not executed, but sent to penal servitude, and Zinaida Gerngross was exiled to Kutais.
What happened? King joyfully pardoned the villains?
Alas, it was different. The real organizer of the attempt was not Rasputin, but 20-year-old Zinaida Gerngross. Zinaida came from a rich family with German roots. In the 1893 year, immediately after graduating from the Smolny Institute of noble maidens, the 18-year-old tall slim girl with a shock of golden hair made an appointment with the vice-director of the Police Department, Colonel Semyakin, and asked for secret agents. It was this beauty, who was listed in the Police Department as an “agent Mikheyev” who inclined Rasputin’s student circle, which was engaged in idle talk, to conduct a terrorist attack against the sovereign. It was Gerngross who took out the components for the production of explosives.
Placed in exile in Kutais, Gerngross agreed with the medical student Zhuchenko for conspiratorial purposes, married him, gave birth to a son and went down in history as Zinaida Zhuchenko.
As a result, the red beauty sent a few dozen people to penal servitude and the gallows, many of whom she herself inclined to acts of terrorism.
October 12 1909, Premier PA Stolypin presents to the Tsar the “all-present” report, which concerned the secret agent Zinaida Zhuchenko, who had worked in the secret police since 1893. In a detailed report, Stolypin informs the tsar about the vicissitudes of Zhuchenko’s intelligence activities both in Russia and abroad. Due to the fact that in the summer of 1909, the emigrant Burtsev managed to expose Zhuchenko, Stolypin is asking for the most gracious award to Zinaida Zhuchenko from the secret sums of the Police Department for a life pension in the amount of 3600 rubles. per year, in relation to the size of her salary in recent years.
But the main super-agent of Stolypin was Evno Fishelevich Azef. He, like Gerngross, himself offered his services to the Police Department.
Azev was paid a salary in 50 rubles. per month and assigned a pseudonym Vinogradov. Later at the Police Department he was named Kapustin, Raskin, and he called himself Nikolayev at the Social Revolutionaries.
Azef’s reports were organized by the secret police. On one of them, a note was preserved: “The messages of Azef are striking in their accuracy with the complete absence of reasoning.”
In 1902, a number of organizations close to the Narodniks merged into the Social Revolutionary Party. The Socialist-Revolutionaries for the first time proclaimed terror as part of their official doctrine, in order to provoke the government to respond to repressive measures and thereby cause an explosion of popular discontent, and ideally a revolution.
For this purpose, a “Combat Organization” (BO) was formed under the Central Committee of the Party - the most secret party structure, modeled on the Narodnaya Volya Executive Committee. Despite the fact that the terrorist group was established by order of the party Central Committee, it possessed considerable autonomy, had a separate cash register, its own turnout and safe houses. The Central Committee only gave the BO tasks and set approximate dates for their implementation.
Headed by BO one of the founders of the party, a member of the Central Committee, 32-year-old Grigory Gershuni. His closest adviser was another member of the Central Committee, Yevgeny Filippovich (Azef). In the first Bo composition, there were 15 people.
2 April 1902, a member of the BoD Social Revolutionary Balmashev shot down the Minister of the Interior of the Russian Empire, Dmitry Sergeyevich Sipyagin.
After the arrest of Gershuni, all power over the “Battle Organization” was concentrated in the hands of Azef, who soon after these events left for Geneva.
Having become the actual leader of the military unit, Azef decided not to use revolvers for terror, leaving them only as a weapon of self-defense, but to make assassinations with bombs.
In Switzerland, several laboratories engaged in the manufacture of dynamite were equipped. Under Azef, Bo was finally separated from the party of the Social Revolutionaries - its members were forbidden to use party funds, documents, and turnouts. Azef said: "... with a high prevalence of provocation in mass organizations, communication with them for combat will be disastrous ..."
In 1903 – 1906, 13 women and 51 men were included in BO. Among them were 13 hereditary nobles, 3 honorary citizens, 5 clerks, 10 from merchant families, 27 burghers, and 6 peasants. Six had higher education, 28 was expelled earlier from universities. 24 had a secondary education, 6 - primary.
28 July 1904 of the year on the bridge over the Obvodny Canal, a member of the BoS Sazonov threw a bomb at Plehve's carriage. From the received wounds the minister died on the spot.
4 February 1904, in the center of the Moscow Kremlin on Arsenalnaya Square, threw a bomb into the carriage of the Moscow Governor-General, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich. Sergey was literally torn to shreds. On this occasion, in the light of joked that the Grand Duke for the first time in his life poraskul brains. Artist Ivan Kalyaev, the son of a police officer, was a member of the militant organization of the Social Revolutionaries and carried out the order of its head Yevno Azev.
In 1906, Mikhail Bakay, an official for special assignments under the Ministry of the Interior, came into contact with Vladimir L. Burtsev, a historian of the revolutionary movement. Bakai knew about the existence of a major agent Ruskin in the combat organization of the Social Revolutionaries. He suspected Azef, but he had no irrefutable evidence.
In 1908, Aleksei Alexandrovich Lopukhin, the former director of the Police Department, provides detailed information about Azef Burtsev. Back in May, 1902, upon assuming the post of Director of the Department, Lopukhin received a note from the head of the foreign agency agency Rachkovsky asking him to give him 500 rubles. for transfer through its secret agent of the combat organization of the Social Revolutionaries to the manufacture of bombs. Let us imagine how wild it was to read such an offspring of an old boyar family, related to kings, and to a graduate of the law faculty of Moscow University.
As a result, Azef was exposed. Russian and foreign media were filled with reports of a grand provocation by the secret police.
Stolypin was furious. 11 February 1909, he gave a two-hour speech in the State Duma in defense of Azev. I carefully read the speech with a pencil. Nevertheless, to understand it is surprising. The essence of the speech in one phrase: In 1906, "Azef becomes close to the combat business as a representative of the central committee in a military organization."
How lovely! The Central Committee of the Party sent its observer to the BO, and indeed!
But the lesson with the case of Azef did not go to future Peter Arkadyevich. The gendarme general Alexander Vasilievich Gerasimov, who led the secret police from 1906 to 1908, wrote in his memoirs: “At the beginning of 1903, I had to go to St. Petersburg ... During my visit to the next conversation, in which Zubatov and Mednikov participated, the latter told me:
- You do nothing there. Not a single secret printing house was opened. Take an example from the neighboring, Yekaterinoslav province: there the captain Kremenetsky every year the printing press arrests 3 – 4.
This statement directly blew me up. For us it was no secret that Kremenetsky himself through his agents arranged these illegal printing houses, giving them font, money, and so on.
And I answered:
- I do not arrest printing houses because we don’t have them in Kharkov. But to put them myself, as Kremenetsky does, and then to receive awards - I do not intend to ... "
But St. Petersburg is not Yekaterinoslav Province. And 8 June 1906 of the year, at the meeting of the First State Duma, the Minister of the Interior Stolypin nevertheless had to answer the deputy's request for printing “appeals calling for pogroms” in a secret printing house in the Police Department. The explanations of the minister were confused and inconclusive. After Stolypin, Prince Sergei Dmitrievich Urusov, the former governor of Tver and former Interior Minister, delivered a speech: “When a bunch of immature youths who proclaim anarchic principles are going somewhere, you are attacking this crazy youth with guns. And I think that the anarchy that wanders in young minds and nests underground, in secret corners and back streets, is a hundred times less harmful than your high-profile anarchy. ”
Prince Urusov quite accurately formulated the state of power in Russia - “high anarchy”. It’s a pity that he didn’t specify who caused the high-level anarchy.
Meanwhile, Interior Minister Stolypin sanctioned ... Prime Minister Stolypin decided to continue the hunt for ministers. The new victim was to be the former Minister of Finance and Prime Minister Sergei Yulievich Vitte. General Trepov, the head of the St. Petersburg security department, Colonel Gerasimov and others were involved in the preparation of the attempt.
The gendarme’s captain Komissarov, who had previously worked at Azef, spoke directly with the terrorists. For the elimination of Witte took the police agent A.E. Kazantsev. He incited Witte to kill two young workers - V.D. Fedorov and A.S. Stepanova, not previously in the revolutionary organizations. Kazantsev introduced himself as a worker to Social Revolutionary. Of course, the Social Revolutionary Party did not know anything about this undertaking.
Early in the morning of 29 on January 1907, Fedorov and Stepanov climbed onto the roof of Witte’s house and lowered two time bombs into the chimneys. The explosion was scheduled for 9 in the morning. However, the fuses did not work, and in the evening the servants found bombs.
I will give the floor to Witte himself: “When I came upstairs, I saw a quadrangular small box in the view of the stove; A very long string was attached to this box. I asked Guryev, what does this mean? To which the fireman replied to me: that when he opened the view, he noticed the end of the rope and began to drag and, pulling the rope arsh. 30, I saw that there is a box. "
Colonel Gerasimov, the head of the security department of St. Petersburg, arrived at the scene. “This captain Komissarov carried the box into the garden himself and uncorked it. When he uncorked, it turned out that in this box is a hellish machine, operating through a clockwork. The clock is set exactly on the 9 clock, meanwhile it was already around 11 in the evening. ”
When Witte returned from France to St. Petersburg, Kazantsev began to prepare Fedorov for a new assassination attempt on Witte. It was planned to throw a bomb into the car of Witte on the way to the State Council. The time of the attempt - the end of May - was not chosen by chance. The government needed a reason to dissolve the Second State Duma. The calculation was simple - the Duma was supposed to demand a sharp condemnation of the terrorist act in particular and the actions of revolutionaries in general. Failure was inevitable, followed by a reaction - the dissolution of the Duma. But this time, Fedorov and his friend Petrov had the sense to consult the left-wing deputies of the Duma. Those were horrified, they informed the workers that Kazantsev was a provocateur, and that Witte himself had been informed of the attempted assassination to the police.
27 May 1907, Kazantsev went out of town to fill bombs with explosives. While Kazantsev fired the first bomb, Fedorov approached him from behind and struck him several times with a dagger.
After the murder of the provocateur, Stepanov disappeared into Russia, and Fedorov went to Paris, where he made revelations to the press.
Count Witte had close ties with the government and financial circles of France, and he informally probed the question of Fedorov’s extradition to the Russian authorities. I will give the floor to Witte himself: “... I was told that Fedorov was accused of political murder ... On the one hand, the Russian government officially demanded the extradition of Fedorov, but on the other hand, verbally conveyed that it would have been nice if our demand had not been fulfilled” .
Witte repeatedly appealed to Stolypin as the prime minister and as the interior minister demanding to find out who stood behind Kazantsev, but received no answer. Finally, in person, Witte pressed Stolypin against the wall. We’ll listen again to Witte: “He said to me in an irritated tone:“ From your letter, Count, I have to make one conclusion: either you consider me an idiot, or do you find that I also participated in the attempt on your life? Tell me, which of my conclusions is more correct, that is, am I an idiot, or did I also participate in an attempt on your life? To this I replied to Stolypin: “You spare me the answer to such a delicate question on your part.”
HOW DID YOU DECREASE
After this, Count Witte was placed under external surveillance by Stolypin.
Both Nicholas II and Stolypin did not like the composition of the State Duma, convened on February 20 of the year 1907. And on the instructions of Stolypin, an agent of Kazan dispersed the State Duma and carried out a coup d'etat.
Here is how it was. Agent Kazanskaya (Ekaterina Nikolaevna Shornnikova) worked for the secret police from 1906 onwards. In March 1907, General Gerasimov personally met with Shornikova. She offered the general an interesting move - to link the deputies from the SDLP to the military organization with a call for an armed uprising.
The mass gathering of soldiers in the village of Lesnoy was attended by two deputies from the SDLP faction, where a soldier’s Order was issued to deputies of the State Duma.
Let us give the floor to Shornikova: “Since the soldiers did not read well in written form, as a secretary I was invited by members of the organization to reprint it on a typewriter. Taking care of the security department, instead of one copy, I printed an 2 copy, and the first copy, with the seal of the committee, I gave to the organization, and the second to Lieutenant-Colonel Yelensky. I, with a member of the organization Elabeev, destroyed the penalty by hand. ”
Here Kazan little cunning. She radically changed a few phrases that gave the order to the criminal content.
And on May 5 of the year 1907, gendarmes broke into the premises of the Social Democrats faction on Nevsky Prospect, 92. They seized a printed document calling for an armed uprising. 37 Duma deputies were arrested on the night of 2 on 3 June, directly at the moment when the imperial decree came into force on the dissolution of the Duma and they lost parliamentary immunity.
The funny thing is that Stolypin out of habit (remember the merchant Novikov) inflated Shornikov, without paying the promised fee for the coup d'etat.
In the end, the next prime minister, Vladimir Nikolaevich Kokovtsev, sympathized with the poor girl. He wrote in his memoirs: “It turned out that Shornikova played a prominent role in the process of the Social Democratic faction: she was secretary of the military section of this faction; she herself, or with the assistance of someone else, composed the so-called mandate of this section, which served as one of the significant points of the prosecution; she brought him into the hands of the gendarme police, thereby providing substantial assistance to the prosecution. "
In the end, only in September 1913, Shornikova, receiving 1800 rubles, went abroad. Its further fate is unknown.
Ну что ж, отдадим должное Кате Шорниковой, которая в 24 года помогла Столыпину произвести государственный переворот без стрельбы по Думе из 125-мм tank guns.
5 September 1911, a police agent Kapustiansky (nee Mordka Bogrov) went to the Kiev opera to see “The Tale of Tsar Saltan”. Theater tickets were registered and were distributed to especially reliable persons, but Bogrov was personally handed the ticket by gendarme lieutenant colonel Kulyabko. In the intermission Mordka defused Browning in the premiere.
The trial of Bogrov was closed. It lasted 6 hours, and then Bogrov was hanged. In total, the investigation, trial and execution took 11 days. In fact, it was a massacre of too much of an agent. Against the higher ranks of the secret police, Lieutenant-General Kurlov, Colonel Spiridonov, and Lieutenant Colonel Kulyabko, an official investigation began, but by the highest order, it was discontinued. The ends finally went into the water.