Military Review

He was called the "soul" of Port Arthur.

33
October 12 (September 30) 1857 of the year, exactly 160 years ago, was born Roman Isidorovich Kondratenko. The name of this amazing person is forever inscribed in the military history Russian state. It was he who, at the hardest moment of the famous siege of Port Arthur, by Japanese troops led the defense of the Russian fortress, doing everything possible for this, using his military engineering knowledge and his courage to the maximum.


There are quite a few military engineers in Russian military history whose names can be recalled with admiration. For example, Edward Totleben - the legendary builder of the defensive structures of Sevastopol. From the same galaxy and Roman Kondratenko. Like many other true heroes of the wars waged by the Russian Empire, Roman Kondratenko was not a native of the most notable layers of the nobility. He was born into an impoverished noble family living in Tiflis. Roman's father, Isidor Kondratenko, once served in the army, rose to the rank of major, and then retired. Since the family had no estates, it existed on a small pension of a retired major. The family lived so poorly that from six to seven years old Roman even had to earn money as a peddler of water on the streets of Tiflis in order to help his parents at least somehow.

Following the example of his father, and in his own heart, Roman Kondratenko chose a military career. Moreover, training at government expense in a military school could seriously unload the family financially. The older brother, by the time of Roman's boyhood, had already lived in the Russian capital, helped. Roman entered the Polotsk Military Gymnasium, founded in 1835 to prepare noble children for military service. Roman completed his studies at this institution in 1874, becoming one of the best graduates. A talented young man entered the Nikolaevsk engineering school in St. Petersburg. It was one of the best military schools of the time, specialized in the training of military engineers.

After a three-year course, graduates were awarded the title of engineer-ensign with secondary general and military education. Roman Kondratenko and during his studies at the school showed great success, and since he entered after the Polotsk military gymnasium, the course was heard quickly and 23 June 1877 of the year Roman Kondratenko was released in the rank of ensign in 1. Senior battalion. However, the command soon changed its decision and instead of this unit, Roman was seconded to the Caucasian Reserve Battalion, and in 1878, he returned to his original battalion, where he was promoted to lieutenant. A year later, a young officer entered the Nikolaev Academy of Engineering and was promoted to lieutenant.

Career Roman Kondratenko was fast enough. Already in the 1881 year, while still studying at the academy, the 24-year-old military engineer was promoted to the rank of captain, and after completing a full science course at the academy in 1882, he was assigned to the head of the engineers of the Caucasian military district. Then he was transferred to the disposal of the head of the Charohsk engineering distance, and in the 1883 year - to the Main Engineering Directorate. In 1884, 27-year-old Kondratenko was promoted to captain. Then he entered the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff, which he graduated from in 1886 year and was appointed to the Vilna military district, and then as a senior aide to the staff of the 4 army corps. In the 1888 year, 31-year-old Roman was promoted to lieutenant colonel and was assigned to be the headquarters officer of the 6 local brigade. In 1891-1895 Kondratenko served in the headquarters of the Vilna military district, where he also quickly moved up in ranks and positions. In 1891-1893 he served as a senior aide to the headquarters of the Vilna military district, receiving the rank of colonel in 1892 for a total of 35 years. In 1893-1895 he served as a staff officer for missions, and then was transferred to the chief of staff of the Ural region. In 1895-1901 Roman Kondratenko commanded the 20 rifle regiment. The command position provided opportunities for a future career, so in 1901, Roman Isidorovich was promoted to major general and appointed as a district duty general of the headquarters of the Amur military district. So he was in the Far East, where he was destined to distinguish himself and forever go down in history.

In 1901, Kondratenko participated in an operation against the Ihetiuan uprising in China - as part of the Russian airborne corps. In 1903, Major General Kondratenko was appointed commander of the 7 East Siberian Rifle Brigade. By this time, the situation in the Far East was quite tense. The Japanese empire was gaining strength and increasingly claiming the role of hegemon in the Asia-Pacific region. Japan included Japan, China, Korea and a significant part of the Russian Far East, hoping, sooner or later, to establish control over vast territories. In 1903, relations between Russia and Japan sharply deteriorated, helped by the further promotion of Russian companies in Korea and Manchuria. Japan, which considered these territories “their own,” demanded that Russia immediately withdraw from Korea and Manchuria. The aggressively-minded ruling circles of Japan did not refuse the military scenario of the development of events, and Russia could have avoided war only at the cost of completely surrendering positions in Manchuria and Korea. The war became inevitable.



27 January (9 February) 1904, the Japanese fleet attacked the Russian 1-th Pacific squadron, which was on the outer roads in the fortress of Port Arthur. Thus began the bloody Russian-Japanese war. The fortresses of Port Arthur were to play an important role in it, so we will tell about it in more detail. The fortress was located on the southeastern edge of the Liaodong Peninsula and was founded by the Chinese in 1880-ies under the name "Lushun". The English name "Port Arthur" was given to the fortress in honor of the fact that in 1860, the ship of English lieutenant William C. Arthur was being repaired here. After the first Sino-Japanese War in 1894, the fortress was captured by Japan, but under pressure from world powers, Japan was soon forced to return it to China. In 1898, Port Arthur was leased to Russia for 25 years, together with the Kwantung Peninsula.

The Russian authorities hoped to create the second-largest naval port in the Pacific after Vladivostok from Port Arthur. The construction of the fortress began in 1901, which was completed by 1904% by 20. In Port Arthur, the 1 th Pacific Squadron was deployed as part of 7 battleships, 9 cruisers, 24 destroyers, 4 gunboats, commanded by Vice Admiral Oscar Stark. The ground forces were represented by the Port Arthur Fortress Infantry Regiment of the 4 battalions stationed in the fortress. The regiment was commanded by Vice Admiral Yevgeny Ivanovich Alekseev. In 19091-1904 The commander of the fortress of Port Arthur was Rear Admiral Nikolai Romanovich Greve, and in 1904, he was replaced by Rear Admiral Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich. Just before the start of the Russian-Japanese war, realizing the inevitability of hostilities, the command decided to convert the 7 th East Siberian Rifle Brigade, commanded by Major General Kondratenko, into the East Siberian Rifle Division, and redeploy it to Port Arthur - to reinforce ground troops stationed in the fortress. Kondratenko retained the post of commander, only already a division, and arrived in Port Arthur. With the outbreak of hostilities, he, as a professional military engineer, was appointed head of the land defense of Port Arthur fortress.

It was in this capacity that Roman Isidorovich Kondratenko was able to show his military and engineering talent to the greatest extent. He began to reorganize the defense of the fortress before the Japanese forces began the siege of Port Arthur. By this time, the Port Arthur fortification system included 5 forts, 3 fortifications and 4 individual artillery batteries. Between them rifle trenches with barbed wire were dug out, and land mines were buried along the lines of the enemy's likely attacks. The advanced field-type positions were equipped on the nearby mountains of the Syagushan, Dagushan, High and Corner. In the direction of the valley Shuyshin were placed Kumirnensky, water and rocky redoubts. In addition, batteries and separate firing points were installed, as well as observation posts for spotters of artillery fire. Fortifications of the fortress used a very advantageous landscape for organizing the defense. Port Arthur was located in a mountainous area, which greatly facilitated the task of deploying fortifications. The mountainside was a great cover from enemy fire.

23 April (6 May) 1904 2-I Japanese Army General of the Army Oku Yasukata landed in Bidzyuo, after which Port Arthur was cut off from the land routes linking the fortress with the positions of the Russian Manchurian army. 13 (26) May 1904. The army of Oku Yasukata broke through the defenses of Russian troops on the Jinzhou isthmus - in the narrowest part of the Liaodong Peninsula. May 19 (June 1) Japanese troops occupied the port of Dalniy, which was of strategic importance for the further advancement of the Japanese troops. The 1904 units of the Japanese army under the command of General Legs Marasuke arrived in the Far East (in the photo). He was an experienced and talented military leader, strictly adhering to samurai principles. By the way, shortly before the landing of his army in Manchuria, his eldest son Katsunori, who served under General Oku Yasukata in the 2 of the Japanese army, was killed. It was the 3-I army of General Nogi who was to begin the assault on the fortress of Port Arthur. 17 (30) July 1904, the Japanese troops approached Port Arthur, after which the Russian ships from the harbor opened fire on them. July 25 (August 7) Port Arthur’s 1904 was first shot at by Japanese artillery. The Japanese opened fire on the Dagushan and Xiaogushan redoubts. Thus began the siege of the Russian fortress by superior enemy forces. The next day there was a battle on the redoubts and on the night of 27 July, the Russian troops were forced to retreat, losing 450 soldiers and officers. Japanese troops on the assault of redoubts lost 1280 people.

Major General Roman Kondratenko led the defense of Port Arthur throughout all four storming of the fortress. His contribution to the defense was truly enormous, as noted by the higher command. Thus, the commander of the Pacific squadron, Admiral S.O. Makarov said that in Port Arthur there was no one else to talk from command with anyone except Kondratenko. The general became the real soul of the defense of Port Arthur, personally participating in repelling enemy attacks. On his initiative, handicraft production of improvised hand grenades and lighting flares was established from the sleeves of small-caliber guns in the besieged fortress. Kondratenko invented 47-mm naval guns to make mortars firing over-caliber pole mines. The role of Kondratenko in the defense of Port Arthur is comparable to the role of Nakhimov and Kornilov in the defense of Sevastopol.

He was called the "soul" of Port Arthur.


However, the Japanese army more closely approached the fortress. Japanese troops had the opportunity to constantly gain both personnel and weapons, which Port Arthur defenders were actually deprived of. Russian troops failed in Manchuria and were unable to help the fortress. But the defenders of Port Arthur did not want to surrender, at least under Roman Kondratenko. Perhaps Port Arthur would have lasted longer if not for the death of the combat general. 2 December 1904 of the fort number 2's casemate exploded an 11-inch Japanese projectile. Major General Roman Kondratenko and eight garrison officers who were in the dungeon were killed.

The death of General Kondratenko was the beginning of the end of the fortress. Without a soul, the fortress could not long resist the enemy. Already 20 December 1904, Lieutenant-General Baron Anatoly Stessel, the former commander of Port Arthur, expressed a desire to begin negotiations with the Japanese command on the surrender of Port Arthur. Although the military council of the fortress was against surrender, 23 December 1904, Stoessel signed the surrender of the fortress. By this time, 23 had thousands of people in Port Arthur, including 10-11 thousands of people were combat-ready, and the rest were wounded and sick. All of them, on the order of Stoessel, were to surrender, with all the combat equipment and weapons.

23 August (5 September) 1905, the Russian-Japanese war ended. Russia ceded Japan the southern part of Sakhalin, rental rights to the Liaodong Peninsula. Port Arthur, drenched in the blood of Russian soldiers, also came under the control of the Japanese Empire. The body of Major General Roman Isidorovich Kondratenko, posthumously produced as lieutenant general, was delivered after the war to St. Petersburg and October 8. 1905 was reburied at Nikolsky Cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.

As for General Stessel, who played an ambiguous role in the surrender of Port Arthur (this is a separate topic, many eyewitnesses and participants in those events believe that Stessel’s fault was exaggerated and he just tried to save people from inevitable death), he was fired in 1906. from military service and appeared before a military tribunal - precisely for the surrender of Japan. 7 February 1908, he was sentenced to death, then the sentence was replaced with 10 years in prison, and 6 in May 1909, Stoessel was released on the orders of Nicholas II.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 12 October 2017 07: 37
    11
    On December 2, 1904, an 2-inch Japanese shell exploded in the fort casemate No. 11. Major General Roman Kondratenko and eight garrison officers who were in the casemate were killed.
    .... There is a version that the Japanese bombardment of fort No. 2 from large-caliber guns during their stay there, Kondratenko was not accidental and was caused by the conscious betrayal of one of the supporters of the surrender of the fortress.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 October 2017 10: 15
      +7
      Quote: parusnik
      There is a version that the Japanese shelling of fort No. 2 from large-caliber guns during their stay there, Kondratenko was not accidental and was caused by the deliberate betrayal of one of the supporters of the surrender of the fortress.

      Alexei. The version has the right to exist, because in Port Arthur the Japanese used both Chinese scouts and their own, Japanese, agents disguised as Chinese.
      SPY ORGANIZATION IN THE JAPANESE ARMY

      This report outlines only the most characteristic features of Japanese
      organizations, as they expressed in our military trials and
      documentary data of the intelligence department on this issue.
      Before the war, the Japanese had their secret agents not only in all more or
      less important points of their designated theater of war, but also in the inner provinces
      Russia, thanks to which they were well aware of the actual state of affairs.
      In the Ussuri Territory and Manchuria, the agents are mainly Japanese in
      in the form of traders, hairdressers, landlords of hotels, furnished rooms, public
      houses, etc. institutions. In the internal provinces, this contingent was replenished even
      Jews, Greeks, Austrians, British and our other Western European
      neighbors.
      With the outbreak of war, when an order was issued to evict the Japanese and stay
      them at the theater of war became dangerous, the Japanese had to be content with services
      only those Chinese with whom they still had relations in advance. In this
      the chaos that was observed during the first period of the war helped the minute of the Japanese.
      Prior to the establishment of gendarme police surveillance
      there was almost none, thanks to which a mass of all kinds of swindlers poured into the theater of war:
      former Sakhalin residents who have already served their sentence, fugitive convicts living
      according to someone else's or fake documents, Jews, Caucasians, Greeks, Turks - they all sought
      to the theater of war solely for the sake of profit, not disdaining any means. We traveled from
      Shanghai, Tianjin, Shanghai-Guan, through Yingkou and Sinminting.
      With this man many spies penetrated us, who filled up the gap,
      caused by the expulsion of the Japanese. This is a quote from the book by Ilya Derevyanko
      "Russian intelligence and counterintelligence in the war of 1904-1905."
      There are several discrepancies in the death of General Kondratenko, even in those books that I read about the defense of Port Arthur.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. Catherine II
        Catherine II 12 October 2017 17: 47
        +3
        Quote: Ken71
        On the mobile ranger called that Kondratenko supposedly shoot here.

        The agents through Chinese, Russian and foreign agents worked clearly. Messages were transmitted quickly.
        The version of the special shelling of fort 2 11 with inch shells (and the Japanese just didn’t pick it up — delivery was not easy) suggests that the night bombardment is not accidental.
        There is a version of the purchase of Port Arthur (Fock's action for the death of Kondratenko and after that evidence)
        After the death of Kondratenko-forts surrendered without assault, just like that sometimes. The same wording is to protect people, shells, food (which the Japanese took at 2 months after the capture of the fortress).
        1. Kenxnumx
          Kenxnumx 12 October 2017 20: 26
          +1
          Of course everything is possible. But the complexity of transmitting operational information through the contact line in those days still greatly exceeds today's.
    3. Monarchist
      Monarchist 12 October 2017 17: 40
      +2
      Stepanov’s book “Port Arthur” indicates that Stessel himself was involved.
      1. bionik
        bionik 12 October 2017 19: 39
        +1
        Quote: Monarchist
        Stepanov’s book “Port Arthur” indicates that Stessel himself was involved.

        As far as I remember, the novel seems to be Fock, not Stessel
      2. Kenxnumx
        Kenxnumx 12 October 2017 20: 20
        +2
        Let’s just not talk about Stepanov’s frankly propaganda novel.
        1. Catherine II
          Catherine II 13 October 2017 10: 56
          +2
          Quote: Ken71
          about Stepanov’s frankly propaganda novel.

          he is good, but there, in general, the chief was the wife of the chief Ukrainian. district (Vera). smile
          so that the "soul of defense" was based on the novel, Vera S. As soon as she "decided" that it was time to end, she immediately surrendered.
      3. Amurets
        Amurets 13 October 2017 04: 03
        +3
        Quote: Monarchist
        Stepanov’s book “Port Arthur” indicates that Stessel himself was involved.

        I would not rely on Stepanov, because you can find genuine materials from the archives.
        The most important thing is that there is no evidence that someone reported something to the Japanese, this is a white spot in the defense of Port Arthur. There is an interesting book: Derevyanko. White spots of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. There is a book by A.V. Shishov. Unknown pages of the Russo-Japanese War.
        "Tokyo demanded that Marshal Oyama and the siege commander of the 3rd Army take Port Arthur at all costs. The birthday of the divine Mikado was approaching on October 21, and the possession of the Russian fortress would be the best gift to Emperor Ishihito. The Japanese army knew this all.
        In addition, it became known on the Japanese islands that the Russian 2nd Pacific Squadron left the Baltic. An alarm sounded in Tokyo, and there it was decided to send the last, 7th cadre division of the imperial army under the walls of besieged Port Arthur. The islands and the capital could now only be protected by reservists. "
        For some reason, the Japanese did not need to take Port Arthur before the arrival of the Second Pacific Squadron. Here is what A.I. Sorokin writes in his book. The defense of Port Arthur. "On the afternoon of December 15, the Japanese in a part of Fort No. II's counter-escarp gallery they lit a felt saturated with unknown substance. Asphyxiating gas, penetrating everywhere, forced the fort's defenders to leave the entire gallery. General Kondratenko decided to look around the fort that day and find out what a new means of struggle the enemy used. In the evening he arrived at Lieutenant Colonel Naumenko, commander of the second department of the Eastern Front, and with him, accompanied by other officers, went to the front line of defense. "
      4. bionik
        bionik 13 October 2017 16: 05
        +2
        Quote: Monarchist
        In Stepanov’s book, Stessel himself is implicated.

        From the novel: - Listening to this speech, Fock realized that Kondratenko had never been so dangerous for the fulfillment of his plans as now. He, having received information from the prisoners about the internal weakness of Japan, decided to act immediately .... The meeting ended. The guests began to disperse. Only Fok and Kondratenko were detained ..... Nevertheless, go there, Roman Isidorovich, - suggested Smirnov.
        “I was going to be there tomorrow morning.”
        “No, no, you should go now,” Fock perked up immediately. - The master's eye can notice a lot, which no reports will say.
        Kondratenko looked at his watch.
        “By nine in the evening, I won’t be able to get there before ...” he said.
        “Of course, one should not hurry,” said Fock. - I myself would go with you, Roman Isitsorovich, but something has a cold, a runny nose, a cough.
        ..... Upon returning home, Fock immediately sent for Shubin and informed him of Kondratenko’s upcoming trip to the second fort.
        “It seems to you the most convenient opportunity to untie my hands,” the general finished.
        “I will do my best to help your excellency.”
        Shubin disappeared.
    4. unknown
      unknown 14 October 2017 11: 14
      +1
      Very reminiscent of the death of our general in Syria
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 12 October 2017 07: 41
    +3
    Thank. I agree, the defense of Sevastopol and the defense of Port Arthur have something in common in our minds.
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 12 October 2017 07: 48
    20
    Kondratenko was a great tactician
    And he proved that fortresses at the beginning of the 20th century can be successfully defended only with the support of the field army.
    It was interesting to remember and read.
    Thank you
  4. Moore
    Moore 12 October 2017 11: 09
    +8
    The destroyer "General Kondratenko".


    And in 1910, the Polotsk Cadet Corps, which graduated from Roman Isidorovich, began to bear his name.
    It is clear that over the course of a century new heroes have appeared whose memory should be perpetuated. But this man earned himself a monument, I suppose.
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 12 October 2017 13: 12
      +9
      1. In 1907, a memorial chapel was built over the grave of R.I. Kondratenko, inside which was a huge marble icon case with icons and many silver wreaths. The openwork metal chapel was consecrated on August 12, 1907. During the years of Soviet rule, it, like most chapels of the Nikolsky cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, was destroyed.
      The grave itself was restored only in 1951.
      2. In 1910, the Polotsk Cadet Corps was renamed the Polotsk General Kondratenko Cadet Corps. At the same time, a bust of the general was established in Polotsk. In the 1930s he was destroyed.
      Pre-revolutionary view of the chapel:



      1. The comment was deleted.
  5. Kenxnumx
    Kenxnumx 12 October 2017 12: 32
    +2
    I add that the main reason that Legs was instructed to storm the fortress was that it was he who fought it off the Chinese. With a repeat it turned out badly. Feet with its patterned actions largely contributed to the gigantic losses of the Japanese.
  6. Kenxnumx
    Kenxnumx 12 October 2017 12: 45
    +2
    According to Stessel, after the loss of the High Defense of the fortress was impossible. But the massacre of the assault is quite possible. Another thing is that the change could be framed differently.
    1. Catherine II
      Catherine II 13 October 2017 10: 58
      +1
      Quote: Ken71
      According to Stessel, after the loss of the High defense of the fortress was impossible

      to keep at all costs, he also did not particularly seek. The sailors too. Kondratenko simply ran out of reserves and did not receive any new ones.
  7. Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 12 October 2017 13: 15
    +8
    And more:
    1. Modern (2008) monument of Kondratenko in Polotsk.
    2. Japanese commemorative sign.



    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 12 October 2017 18: 11
      +4
      Ryazanets, thank you for the photos
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist 12 October 2017 18: 07
    +4
    Ilya, thank you for the story about Roman Isidorovich Kondratenko. In fact, apart from Stepanov’s book “Port Arthur,” I didn’t read anything mentioning Kondratenko. To be completely honest: I and Port Arthur know almost exclusively from Stepanov’s book.
    Dear comrades: Amurets, Sailboat, how do you think, how much did Sepanov reliably describe the events and which books on this subject would you recommend? I had high hopes for “Notes of the former naval minister” by Grigorovich, I found the electronic version with great difficulty, but I didn’t find anything about Port Arthur and those events.
    Ilya, you really surprised me “that Stepanov’s guilt was exaggerated,” I used to think that he was a radish and a cheater. Also, I can’t decide how it relates to Nebogatov? A few years ago on TV there was a d / f about him and the opinion is ambiguous
    1. Roman 11
      Roman 11 12 October 2017 19: 15
      +2
      Quote: Monarchist
      Also, I can’t decide how it relates to Nebogatov?

      It is difficult, the admiral was technically out of place, technically superior to Rozhdestvensky’s individual opinion, although Jessen and Chukhnin would probably have been more suitable.

      As for the surrender: there was no sense in the battle, as such, they would simply be shot in a couple of hours within the reach of the Japanese .... i.e. in fact, it’s like an independent discovery of kingstones, with casualties from the Japanese fire. Another thing, unlike the destroyer with Rozhestvensky, was the ships that chose a heroic death, i.e. what the charter requires! In any case, surrender overshadowed the pogrom. For Tsushima, Uncle Kolya had to give up the throne to another. They treated the campaign negligently, somewhere the genius was in a hurry, and they didn’t have time there and it was already impossible to return - they chose the third most terrible ..... to the bottom.

      Something similar happened last year - they trumpeted the campaign to Syria, but apart from the mistakes, they didn’t notice anything, it’s good that there was a war with the savages, although the ships survived - history does not teach anything.
      1. co-creator
        co-creator 16 January 2018 18: 45
        +2
        Quote: Novel 11
        Something similar happened last year - they trumpeted the campaign to Syria, but apart from the mistakes, they didn’t notice anything, it’s good that there was a war with the savages, although the ships survived - history does not teach anything.

        Why are you writing this nonsense? The fleet showed itself perfectly, conducted live firing. If you are talking about losses in the air group, then where do you think you can get combat experience if not in war? The exercises were dofiga and more and everything was regular, but the combat work showed that we still need to study and study.
        Whom and what history has not taught is generally not clear.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 13 October 2017 04: 32
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      Dear comrades: Amurets, Sailboat, how do you think, how much did Sepanov reliably describe the events and which books on this subject would you recommend?

      I think that the events themselves are described almost reliably. Still, Stepanov himself survived the defense of Port Arthur. Relations with some individuals are politicized, but this also applies to Sorokin's book "The Defense of Port Arthur." But in general, I would not separately distinguish the defense of Port Arthur from the general course of the Russo-Japanese War. It was a heroic defense, but still only an episode of this war. There were little-known actions of the Vladivostok detachment of cruisers. There was a war in Manchuria. And specifically about Port Arthur, you can add "Vinichenko. The defense of Port Arthur. Underground confrontation."
      "Japanese oligarchy in the Russo-Japanese War"
      "In the book of Sumpei Okamoto, a professor of history, a major specialist in the field of political science in East Asia, on the basis of numerous sources, the role of Japanese oligarchs in the country's foreign policy in the triumphant period for the Japanese people after the victory over the Russian Empire is investigated. The author analyzes the consequences of Western influence on the ruling elite, "mechanisms of riots, and also reveals the weaknesses and strengths of oligarchic rule."
      Well, look at my comments on this article, they have links to literature on the Russo-Japanese War.
  9. Roman 11
    Roman 11 12 October 2017 18: 46
    +3
    Roman Issidorovich was the soul of Arthur. I tend to think that our best general is until the 30s.

    The fort had excellent acoustics, the partitions between the warring parties were audible, and during his visit, the fighters welcomed clearly, loudly. Of course, the Japanese realized that we had big bosses and immediately began bombing with 11 ". I don’t believe in agents for too long. It’s another matter that a real betrayal began to take place, the fortifications were reduced by half, the grocery and other warehouses were continued carefully to guard, although the fortress was deprived in everything.

    I saw the archived newsreel of Arthur’s surrender on the net as Stessel and his companions with a white flag rode, Legs, etc. I think Fock and Stessel are traitors.
  10. Catherine II
    Catherine II 12 October 2017 18: 58
    +3
    The combat general, who did not want to be in the attack, had great authority among his subordinates. And among his superiors too. The head of the fortified area, the commandant of the fortress, and the naval authorities had to maneuver among them to get what they needed for defense (people, ammunition, food, fire support, permits, etc., etc.)
    And then he had a gift, almost always able to convince. Correctly set up and motivate personnel.
    In general, with all the putrid system of tsarist Russia, it was that gold that glitters and which drowns first in the abyss.
    Although he was stubborn, his origin affected.
    THAT about whom it is necessary to make films (Mikhalkov is not necessary)
    The photo below shows the Head of the fortified area, Kondratenko, and the future boss (after the death of Roman Isidorovich) who passed everything. For free that of the Germans.


    The revenge for Port Arthur was not immediately taken.
  11. Luga
    Luga 12 October 2017 19: 28
    +5
    Thanks to the author for the text Ryazan87 - for the photos. hi
    Rumors about the involvement of Fock or Stessel in the death of Kondratenko I consider unproven. Moreover, I do not see any motivation for this. Kondratenko worked effectively for defense, if Port Arthur were held, everyone involved in this victory would have received excellent prospects for further service, becoming "Heroes of the Fatherland", including Stessel and Fock and the governor ...
    In order for individuals of the caliber of Fock and Stessel to simply think about organizing such liquidation, some very serious motivation was required, at the level of either me or him. It’s just “because of him we will all perish” here, in my opinion, it doesn’t fit, it is weak for a career officer, general of the Russian army.
    I don’t even want to seriously analyze the technical side of the issue - how can such a liquidation be realized in such a way? After all, it is necessary not only to develop a plan, but also to coordinate it with the Japanese (direct conspiracy!), And also to coordinate joint actions with them (constant operational communication is necessary) ...
    No I do not believe.
    Both generals and admirals die in war. Roman Isidorovich Kondratenko, in my opinion, deserves memory and veneration, but it seems to me an overkill to build on his death a conspiracy detective story.
    1. Romey
      Romey 12 October 2017 20: 40
      +1
      Yes, pure chance. A successful hit at a good moment for the Japanese. Golden bullet so to speak. Remember, for example, a successful volley “Bismarck” on “Hood”.
  12. Romey
    Romey 12 October 2017 20: 37
    +1
    Lord! Do not tell me, maybe there are somewhere in the public domain materials of the trial in the case of A.M. Stessel? It is painfully interesting to look into the source without delay by quotes, but the opinions of contemporaries regarding the head of the Kwantung fortified area are completely different. And actually the combat biography of the general, in principle, does not lead to a direct accusation of cowardice and treason.
  13. Conductor
    Conductor 13 October 2017 05: 26
    0
    The serf regiment was commanded by vice admiral?
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 13 October 2017 10: 15
      +1
      In my opinion, the author made a slip of tongue here: Vice Admiral Alekseev was the tsar’s governor in the Far East. Then Alekseev was removed, now I do not remember the wording, and General Kuropatkin was appointed governor. About this there is Ignatieff's "Fifty Years in Service"
  14. Monarchist
    Monarchist 13 October 2017 10: 36
    +1
    Quote: Ken71
    Of course everything is possible. But the complexity of transmitting operational information through the contact line in those days still greatly exceeds today's.

    Really transmitting operational information then was difficult: shouting at shout-. Is it easier to shoot yourself immediately, to send carrier pigeons?
    Although there is a fact in the history of espionage that the bees transmitted information. German agents, under the guise of governors, began to take their hives to the border, and the Germans watched through binoculars: narrow ribbons were attached to the accounts (I can hardly imagine how to do this, in my childhood there was an apiary and helped my father. So, I know bees and ultra). Green infantry, blue cavalry, etc.
    1. Catherine II
      Catherine II 13 October 2017 11: 01
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      Really transmitting operational information then was difficult: shouting at shout-. Is it easier to shoot yourself immediately, to send carrier pigeons?

      Yes, what's so complicated .. the transfer of information has evolved at all times. From light (lights, lighthouses, glare of the sun) to sound ... And the telegraph has already been since the time of the Eastern War ...
      And to convey by people has long been.