The trumpet rattles, and in the battle the horn calls.
Here in the western squad and in the eastern
Shafts stick firmly in the stops,
The thorn was pierced into the horse's side.
Here you can see who is a fighter and who is a rider.
O thick shield breaks spear,
The fighter under the chest feels the tip.
Twenty feet beat debris up ...
Here, silver is brighter, swords soared,
Shishak in pieces crushed and embroidered,
Blood rushes blood menacingly.
Chaucer. Transfer. O. Rumer
There are always two approaches to any topic-problem: superficial and deep enough. The first one is to write with reference to the topic as follows: a tournament from the French word “tour”, i.e. circling, first began to carry out then ... and away we go. The second ... the second is many options at once. This is the role of the tournament in the daily life of a knight, and the tournament in chivalrous romances, and the tournament in medieval miniatures, and weapon and armor for tournaments. Moreover, it is possible to go deep into all this and much more for a very long time.
27 of March and 3 of April of this year, there were already my materials on the BO “Armor for Knight Fun” (https://topwar.ru/111586-dospehi-dlya-rycarskih-zabav.html), “Armor for Knight Fun” (illustrated continued) - (https://topwar.ru/112142-dospehi-dlya-rycarskih-zabav-illyustrirovannoe-prodolzhenie.html), in which the theme of tournament armor received a fairly detailed coverage. However, it was not completely exhausted. In fact, we only touched it, and one of the reasons for this was a rather random selection of illustrative material. In fact, no matter how rich the Internet is, well ... well, there is no need for it, for example, to me, in full.
In the photo fund of the Metropolitan Museum in New York there are more than 14 of thousands of photographs that, due to a strange whim of its creators, seem to be creatures from Tau Kit: they appear in the “windows” or disappear. To collect the necessary number of photos in such conditions - just risk your nervous system, because you have to look through them all every time anew! Why this is done, I do not know, although I guess. Very few photos posted from the Dresden Armories. Therefore, when I got there, the first thing I did was to look at its entire exposition in order to assess the general direction of the exhibits presented there. And I found out that tournament armor of the XVI century was assembled there, ceremonial armor of the same time and that was all. That is, the exposition itself is chronologically small, although very rich. And if so, then the theme of tournament armor, one might say, suggests itself. And - most importantly, it can be well illustrated and to please the readers of VO with beautiful photos. After all, it is better to see once than to read ten times.
We will begin our acquaintance with the “tournament pictures” with this photo taken at the Dresden Armory. Previously, it was located in another place and was decorated differently, but now it has fallen into one of the halls of the Palace-residence, that is, it is located in the same place as the famous “Green Vaults”. The figures of horses and riders are perfectly executed. The blankets are new models, of course, but this does not diminish their values, they are amazing in their quality of implementation. Well, this scene depicts a typical German spear tournament of the XVI century, when the role of preparing for war this game almost lost and turned into a magnificent game, typical of the nobility's way of life. In any case, it was a beautiful sight!
Today, speaking of the "tournament", we mean the competition of knights, which is a general concept. But the meaning of this word has changed over time. For us, a tournament (fr. Turney) is a duel of knights in peacetime, a kind of war game in which it is not so important to cause real harm to your opponent, how much you can clearly demonstrate your weapon mastery to everyone. Well, now let's start from afar and, if possible, with the maximum amount of details, touching on as many details as possible, with the attraction of the most interesting photo artifacts.
Already the Roman historian Tacitus wrote that the Germans are addicted to spectacles, reminiscent of real battles. The heroic epic “Beowulf” and also both “Edds” tells us the same thing. Someone Neithar, the nephew of Charlemagne, said that in 844, the retinue of Prince Louis of Germany and his brother Karl, having formed two detachments of the same size, organized a demonstration battle, both of the princes personally participated in it with their soldiers. Vendalen Beheim reported that the first set of rules for the tournament was made up by a certain Gottfried from Preyi, who died in 1066. Such games were called “Buhurt”, and in the 12th century they began to use the word “tournament”, then borrowed into the languages of various peoples. As for the original German terms, French began to be used instead, although later German terms were able to regain the positions lost earlier.
Until the XIV century, tournament weapons and equipment did not differ from combat, since the tournament was considered as an element of combat training of a knight. In the "Song of the Nibelungen" the armor of a tournament participant is described as follows: it is primarily a "battle shirt" made from Libyan silk; then strong “armor” of iron plates sewn on some kind of base; helmet with strings under the chin; The stoned shield belt is a tug. As for the shield itself, judging by the description, it should have exceptional durability, having three fingers of thickness near the umbon. It should have been, but ... I couldn’t stand a spear blow! In the poem there are frequent references to shields pierced with spears or shields with stuck spear tips. However, these descriptions are more typical for the middle of the XII century than for the beginning of the XIII century, when the poem was recorded and edited. By the way, it is interesting that, judging by the text of “Song of the Nibelungs”, the spears of that time did not differ in high strength and it was impossible to knock the rider out of the saddle. And this is really the case if we recall the scenes of Bayesian embroidery, where the warriors throw them at the enemy. Only in the last part of the “Song of the Nibelung” in the description of the duel between Gelpfrat and Hagen, it is about the fact that after the collision one of them could not stay in the saddle. That is, the main thing should be noted: since the tournament fights took place without a barrier (and who saw the real battle “with a barrier”), then the spears used lungs. They were aimed so that ... to pierce the shield with which the enemy tried to close, moving it from the left to the right, since the movement of the riders was right-handed. However, the spear kick was very strong, because the spear was almost perpendicular to the shield.
Now for the beginning let's turn to such a source as medieval illuminated manuscripts. For example, the legendary Ulrich von Liechtenstein - the winner of countless tournaments, was depicted in the pages of the famous "Manesky Code", which is stored today in the library of the University of Heidelberg. On the helmet he had a fortified figure of the goddess Venus. By the way, it's amazing why the filmmakersHistory Knight "did not tell the truth about him, but created a tearful (and incredible!) story of a poor boy who became a knight. Moreover, the most incredible of the films shown in the film is a clear violation of the rules of the tournament in the last match, involving the use of a sharp spear by his dishonest opponent. The marshals of the tournament and the “knight of honor” - his main judge, immediately, regardless of the titles, would have removed the knight who allowed such a shameful act. They would beat him with sticks, put him astride a fence (!), After which they would take away a horse and armor, and he himself for his freedom would have to pay a considerable ransom to his victim.
Now let's take a look at the tournament description given in the “Adoration of the Lady” manuscript, written under the dictation of the knight Ulrich von Liechtenstein. (“The Real“ History of the Knight ”- https://topwar.ru/99156-nastoyaschaya-istoriya-rycarya.html). Well, the very one who, for the sake of his lady's heart, cut off his lip, fought in a woman's dress, whiled away the time with lepers (!) And hung on the tower, hung by the arm. He already distinguishes between a duel between two participants and a duel in which opponents fight as part of a squad. Armor and weapons are very slightly different from those used in war. The rider is wearing a surcoat, embroidered with his coat of arms, as well as a horse blanket, which was double - the first of leather, and the second, over the first - also embroidered with coats of arms. The shield in the form of an iron, perhaps somewhat smaller than the battle. The heavy helmet topkhelm, in the form of a “bucket” well known to us in the film “Alexander Nevsky”, was put on the head by the knight just before going to the lists, and before that he was kept by a squire. The spear already had a pair of discs, named in the book "spear rings" to protect the brush and ease of retention. It is curious that the book emphasizes that the fight in Tarvis between Reinprecht von Murek and Ulrich von Liechtenstein: one of them took a spear under his arm (for us, it seems to be the most natural trick, but then it was surprising) hips, apparently holding it in a bent arm. Again, this says one thing - the spears and during the exploits of Ulrich von Liechtenstein were not too heavy!
On surko knight, participant of the tournament, as a rule, his coat of arms was embroidered. In any case, it was customary, although there were always exceptions.
By the beginning of the XIII century, the goal of the tournament as a “war game” was defined very precisely and rules were developed that had to be followed rigorously. It was necessary to imitate a combat collision with a blow with a blunt-tipped spear into the shield that covered the left shoulder of the enemy in order to break the shaft of his spear or to knock him out of the saddle.
"Manesky Code". Walter von Glingen breaks a spear in a tournament. Around 1300, tournament fights looked like this.
That is, it means that now the movement of the riders was left-sided, which made it easier for the spear to hit the shield from the left side, and not perpendicular, but at an angle of 75 degrees, which weakened the impact force by about 25%.
In this illustration from the “Code of Manesus” it is clearly seen that in tournaments of the beginning of the XIV century. spear tips were already used in the form of a crown, and the spears themselves had a shield for the hand. In addition, it is clear that the winner, Albert von Rappershville, took care to cover his neck with his special necklace.
There were two distances. The first one is short. At this distance, each knight demonstrated his ability to wield a spear and withstand a blow with a spear of medium strength, without falling off his horse, for which, in fact, such a short distance for a mistake was chosen. The second distance was longer. The horse and rider had time to accelerate so that it allowed to knock his opponent out of the saddle, and the spears usually broke from the blow so that they scattered into small pieces. However, this is precisely why, starting from the 12th century, spears began to be made much more durable, although their diameter did not exceed 6,5, see. That is why they could be held under the arm with a hand, without resorting to fixed hooks. For example, each of the squires Ulrich von Liechtenstein easily held three spears in his hand, tied together, which would be physically impossible if their weight was extremely high.
Of course, all this did not save the knights from danger. It happened that the knights collided with such terrible force that they fell dead to the ground along with their horses. It is known, for example, that in 1241, during the tournament in Nessa, almost 100 knights died because ... they suffocated in their armor from heat and dust, although most likely, in our modern opinion, they just had a heat stroke.
In the XIII century, two types of tournament battles began to be distinguished: “marching” and “appointed”. The first was furnished as a kind of random meeting of two knights who were “on the march,” that is, on the way. Although most likely she was deliberate and pre-negotiated. One of them was located at the very road and called knights following him in a knightly duel, arguing, for example, that a certain lady was the most virtuous and beautiful lady in the whole wide world. This knight was called the instigator. The other, of course, could not agree with this statement, and therefore he accepted the challenge, trying to prove that in fact the most beautiful lady ... was completely different! This knight was called the protector. Ulrich von Liechtenstein in his "Worship of the Lady" tells in detail about one such tournament. A certain knight Mathieu set up his tent on the way of Ulrich, but before that he had time to fight with eleven knights, so that on the ground there were fragments of their spears and shields. Since the interest in the tournament between such famous knights was simply enormous and led to an unprecedented crowd of people, Ulrich specifically fenced off the place for the fight with 200 copies with flags that had the color of his coat of arms. Such a device of the lists was not practiced at that time, so this innovation only added fame to Ulrich von Lichtenstein. A similar technique was in vogue until the end of the XIV century, and in Germany it was used even until the XV century. Naturally, the battle took place with military weapons, since it was simply unthinkable to carry a set of armor specifically for the tournament at that time.
In the group fight, shown in one of the miniatures of the “Manesky Code”, we see strange methods of combat. Knights seize their opponents by the neck, seeking to disarm, and, apparently, to capture them. And this is clearly not a fight, but a tournament, because the ladies are watching from the top.
The designated tournament was announced in advance, its place was determined and messengers were sent with invitations to the knights. Since there were no highways then, the tournament was announced many months before it began.
An important role in informing all nobility representatives who were interested in participating in the tournament was played by the heralds who announced the tournament itself and made sure that the unworthy entered it. Such - that is, the impostors were planted on the fence around the lists and with sticks they were taught to the mind, after which they removed the spurs on the dunghill, took away the armor and the warhorse and drove off the tournament! Only a herald who knew his business could falsify relevant documents for a knight, but finding one who would risk his position for money was not easy, and the amount required was what a false knight simply could not get!
Such tournaments were held until the end of the XIV century, and it was during these tournaments that an accelerated exchange of new weapons took place (sometimes overnight!), Since no one wanted to appear in public in outdated armor. However, only around the 1350 year, or a little earlier, the individual details of tournament weapons began to differ from the combat ones. The reason was simple: to show oneself to the ladies from the best side, as well as to produce a corresponding effect on the spectator stands, but at the same time (God save us from such a misfortune!) Did not receive.
"Manesky Code". Heinrich von Breslau receives an award in a tournament. Judging by the illustration of the award to the winner, a simple wreath served by one of the ladies. However, in fact, participation in the tournament was a very profitable occupation, of course, for those who won them. After all, the horse and the armor of the vanquished received the winner! He could only get back for a ransom. And it was a lot of money. For example, in the 70 of the XIII century. the tournament horse cost 200 silver marks in Basel, which is very decent, considering that one brand at the time weighed 255 g of silver! Well, the armor plus the weapon and the horse (or even two or three!) Pulled on 15 kg of silver.
In the 14th century, for group tournaments in the lands of southern France and in Italy, new rules were introduced: now the knights first encountered each other with spears in their hands (this group tournament, by the way, is described in the novel by Walter Scott Ivanhoe) until one side was conquered.
"Manesky Code". Gosley von Echenhein fights at the tournament with his sword. Interestingly, the head-mounted decoration of his horse is not just a helmet-mounted decoration, similar to what was on the knight's helmet. But for some reason ... his helmet itself! Perhaps it was because he was gilded!
At the beginning of the XV century in Germany, the club tournament became fashionable, which was also held between two knights detachments. In this case, their weapons consisted of a blunt, albeit heavy sword and a wooden mace up to 80 cm long and made of solid wood. The handle of such a mace had a spherical pommel and a round shield of sheet iron (“nodus”), which served to protect the hand from impact. The mace gradually thickened upwards and had a multifaceted section. At first glance, this “non-lethal weapon” actually had a deadly power and, probably, for the first time in the history of tournament practice, it required the creation of specially designed protective equipment and, in the first place, a helmet. The reason for the necessary innovation was that when hit with such a mace in the usual pot-like helmet, tightly fitting on the head, there was a danger to life. A new helmet was constructed, which had a spherical shape and a considerable volume, so that the head of the person enclosed in it never touched its walls. This helmet thus relied only on the shoulders and chest of the knight. In addition, he also put on a liner made of felt and cotton wool. Since such a helmet was used only in this tournament and nowhere else, it was possible to make it in the form of an iron spherical frame sheathed with durable “boiled leather”. The face in such a helmet was protected by a grille of these thick iron rods. Actually, such a “lattice helmet” would be quite enough to protect it from being hit by this club. But the fashion of that time demanded the similarity of tournament weapons with combat, so the frame of the rods were covered with canvas, then covered with chalky primer, and painted with tempera paints in the colors of the coat of arms of its owner. The helmet was fastened to the chest and back, where the armor had appropriate straps for belts hidden under the tournament surcoat.
Here it is - a helmet for a tournament on clubs 1450 - 1500. Made in Germany. Weight 5727 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)
And here is what a similar helmet looks like from the exposition of the Imperial hunting and armory in Vienna!
Helmets of the XIII and XIV centuries became fashionable to decorate with a variety of styles, from the bird cage, with a bird inside and ending with human heads up to the Negro, inclusive! There could be gloves, scarves, and a veil belonging to the lady of the heart of this knight. The robes of the knights were also very magnificent. However, the use of helmet-mounted ornaments in the tournament on clubs was caused not only by the desire of its participants to show off in front of the audience, but was also a necessary measure, since the victory in it was awarded to whoever would decorate this ornament with his opponent’s helmet.
Illustration from the book "Knights of the Middle Ages, V - XVII centuries."
As an option, a spherical helmet, forged from one single piece of iron, was also known. Unlike the previous sample, it had an opening visor in the form of a convex lattice. So that the metal of the helmet does not become red hot under the rays of the Sun, it was fashionable to cover such helmets with helmets that were fixed under its ornaments and fell backwards on its back. Such plans were often used already on tophelm helmets in the 13th century. They were made of thin linen or silk, of the same color as the color of the knight's coat of arms or of several colors with scalloped edges. A breastplate made of iron would be redundant, because instead of it, a “boiled leather” cuirass was used. On the left thigh on a hemp string there was a blunt sword tied, and on the right thigh - a mace. By the year 1440 on the cuirass in front and behind began to make round holes for ventilation. That is, it was exclusively tournament equipment, completely unsuitable for combat.
Leather or metal bracelets were usually tubular in shape. Shoulder pads also of “boiled leather” had a spherical shape and were connected to the braces and elbow pads with the help of strong hemp ropes, so that all these parts together made up a single strong and movable system. Mittens were made of thick cowhide and were just mittens, not gloves, and their back side was also protected by a metal lining.
Quite often, a club tournament was preceded by a spear duel whose goal was to “break the spear.” At the same time, the knight’s left side was protected by a shield, the belt of which passed through the right shoulder. Shields of various shapes were used: triangular, quadrangular, but usually concave. And they were always painted with heraldic emblems, or covered with embroidered fabric. At the request of the customer, the shield could be made of wood, covered with leather, or even metal. The custom was and clothing heraldic colors.
Managing a horse in a tournament was of paramount importance. Therefore, extremely strict and complex bits were used. For example, the bit of the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVII century. Germany. Weight 1139,7 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)
The equipment for the horse in these tournament matches was already very different from the combat. Thus, in the tournament, saddles with a high seat were used on the clubs, so that the rider was almost standing in the stirrups. The front of the bow was iron bound to protect the knight’s legs and thighs and rose so high up that it protected not only the groin, but also the stomach. At the top she had a solid iron bracket, which the knight could hold with his left hand, so that during the fight he would not fall out of the saddle. The back of the bow also encompassing the knight in such a way that he simply could not fall from the horse. The horse itself has always had a robe made of sturdy leather, which was covered with a bright cape with heraldic emblems on top. That is, the spectacle of the tournament on the clubs was very colorful and probably fascinating, but by the end of the 15th century it began to gradually go out of fashion.
Knight equipment for fighting on clubs.
Another type of mass tournament was “pass protection”. One group of knights declared that it would be an honor for their ladies to fight against everyone on such a road or, for example, on a bridge. So, in 1434, in Spain in the town of Orbigo, ten knights held the bridge for a month, fighting 68 opponents with whom they had more than 700 fights during this time!
An Angus McBride drawing depicting such a 1446 walking tour of the year. The Herold of the Duke of Burgundy and his assistant mark the violation of the rules and stop the fight.
Already in the early Middle Ages, along with the types of tournaments described here, another appeared, which at first was called simply “battle”, and later, in the 15th century, became known as the “old German foot battle”. In fact, it was an analogue of God's judgment, which lost its religious principle and turned into a war game, the purpose of which was only one: to gain universal acceptance in the art of gun possession and, of course, to achieve favor with beautiful ladies. Since the knighthood was always with respectful respect to everything that "gave antiquity", the "foot battle" from the very beginning was arranged with extraordinary solemnity and was carried out with strict observance of the rules.
To be continued ...