I have already touched on the absurdity of these accusations in my article in “What really was“ part of Asia, ”and what did not exist. A special piquancy to these charges is attached to the fact that they are put forward by representatives of the “Square”. But in the territory where Ukraine is now located, the Mongol-Tatar yoke caused maximum damage and left the hardest traces. Now I will not touch on the question of how much the Horde (where periods of the so-called barimty, “war of all against all”, with its raids, alternated with periods of strong power and proper robbery of a subjugated sedentary population) has influenced the political culture of Ukraine. I have so far compiled a small certificate on the topic of the Horde yoke in the lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the very ones where, after many centuries, the Ukrainian nation and Ukrainian statehood were formed ...
The territory of South and South-Western Russia in the early 40-ies. The 13 centuries underwent a Batu invasion - and here it turned out to be even more devastating and met with much weaker resistance than in North-Eastern Russia. The princes of South-West Russia, who, unlike the princes of North-Eastern Russia, did not give a single field battle to the conquerors, quickly recognized the authority of Karakorum, the great Khan, and then the Golden Horde. Including the famous Daniel Galitsky (then Volynsky), who preferred to leave for the time of the Batu invasions in Poland and Hungary, and in 1245 went to the Khan's headquarters to get a label on the Galician principality, which only after that became irrevocable for him. 
A characteristic feature of the yoke in South-Western Russia was the long direct rule of the khan's governors - in the Northeast, it was quickly curtailed due to the strong resistance of the cities, behind which the princes stood. Moreover, in the vast territories of South-Western Russia Tatar feudal lords directly roamed, which was not noted at all in the Northeast. VV Mavrodin writes: “During the 40-50-s, the whole Chernihiv-Seversk land and Pereyaslavl were captured by the Tatars, and Pereyaslavl apparently lost its independence and was directly dependent on the Tatars; in the city stood the Tatar chambul of Kuremsa (Kuremshy) ... Pereyaslavl turned into an outpost of the Tatar khan in the southern steppes; in his stronghold, from where the khan's governors ruled southern Rus ... Just as in some districts of the Right Bank, in the Pereyaslav land, Tatar officials and military leaders ruled the region, they themselves collected tribute, and perhaps made the population plow for themselves and sow the favorite Tatars millet ... Considering that the Tatars really turned part of the left bank lands into pastures, the other part, having bled and devastated it, completely subjugated itself, we conclude that there is a Tatar administrative system on Left Bank Ukraine ("t »m »") and Tatar feudal lords ... Part of the land in Posemye ... on 1278 was transferred directly to Temnik tempered. "
Approximately a century later, these lands were included in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), mainly due to the military campaigns of the Lithuanian princes, already in the 40-s of the 13 century, engaged in raids on the Dnieper.  The lands of Vladimir-Volynsky, Galich and Kiev were attached to the GDL in 20-30-her years. 14 century. Volyn, Podolsk (together with Pereyaslavskaya) and Chernihiv-Seversk lands in 40-60 - its years. the same century. And on some Tatar feudal land tenure continued to exist - for example, on Sula, Psle and Vorskla (Circassians resettled from the Caucasus lived in Sniporod on the Sula river - did not they give the name "Cherkasy" to the population of the southern parts of the GDL, which they named in Russian documents 16-17 cc.).
Chronicle sources are fixed under 1331 for the year when the prince of Kiev, Fyodor of the Horde Baskak, who oversees the fulfillment of vassal and tributary obligations, is in Kiev.  The prince, along with Baskak, assiduously participated in the attacks on travelers, for example, on the Novgorod bishop Basil returning from Vladimir-Volynsky through Kiev. “Poih Basil the lord of the Metropolitan; Yako priiha under Chernigov, and that doctrine prince Fyodor of Kiev with the Baskak in fifty people rozboyom drove, and Novgorod was careful not to wrestle against himself, the evil didn’t do anything between them; but the prince took shame and othiha, nh from God, the penalty is not without refuge: having broken the horse of his. "
The payment of tribute from the Kiev region continues in the second half of 14, 15 centuries. . The city of Kiev itself, which received the name Mankerman from the eastern conquerors, was at the end of 14 c. under the direct control of the nomadic Bek-yaryk.
“Timur the conqueror ... heading against the right wing of the Juchi-Khan ulus, moved into that boundless steppe to the Uzi River (Dnieper) ... Reaching the Uzi River (Dnieper), he in the Mankerman area (Kiev) robbed Bek-Yaryk-Oglan and some of The people of the ulus of the Uzbek were there and conquered most of them, so that only a few people could escape with only one horse. ”
“In pursuit of the right wing of enemy troops in the direction of the Uzi River, Timur again led a raid (ilgar) to the army and, reaching the Mankermen area on the side of the Uzi River, plundered the Bek-Yaryk region and all of their farms, except for the few who escaped.” [8 ]
M.K. Lyubavsky notes that at the end of the 14 century, Olgerd did not manage to “emancipate the Kiev region from the Tatars,” and “when the strong Khan's power was restored to the Horde and the strife stopped, Prince Vladimir Olgerdovich was still in the custom of paying tribute to them, and“ on the coins we meet Tatar tamga, which served as the usual expression of citizenship in relation to the Tatar khan. "
“From the documentary evidence of a somewhat late time, it follows that the population of the Podolsk land continued to pay tribute to the Horde people,” and on the coins of Vladimir Olgerdovich there was a tamga, “a symbol of the supreme power of the khan.” 
The charter letter granted by Podolsky to the Lord Alexander Koriatovich Smotritsky Dominican Monastery of 17 in March 1375 announces the need for the monastery people to pay the Horde tribute: "If all the earthmen have a tribute from the Tatars, then the silver is also given to the people of the dati." 
In the diplomatic documents of the Order, the princes of South-Western Russia, who accepted the citizenship of Lithuania, like the Lithuanian princes themselves, are called Horde tributarii, that is, tributaries. 
A direct confirmation of the tribute paid to the Horde is the label of the Great Khan Toktamysh to the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagiello from 1392-1393: “Gathering outlets from the citizens to us, delivering ambassadors to the treasury”. 
Thus, having seized the lands of South-Western Russia, the Lithuanian princes began to collect and give to the Horde a tribute, called, as in North-Eastern Russia, “exit”. And the payment of tribute is the most important sign of the dependence of a princedom on the khan rate.
However, the “payment of exit” obligations of the ancient lands in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were not limited. 
The treaty of the Lithuanian princes with the Polish king Casimir from 1352, says about the military service of the tributaries: "... Already go Tatars on lyahi, then the Russians will bond with Tatars ..." 
As for participation in hostilities as part of the Horde army, the Russian lands, which fell under the rule of Lithuania, were in a much worse position than North-Eastern Russia. As Daniel Romanovich Galitsky and Roman Mikhailovich Chernigovsky gave their troops for the campaigns of the Tatar-Mongols to the west, so did the Lithuanian princes a hundred years later.
So, in the 14 century, the Russian lands that became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were carrying the full complement of the tribute to the Horde, and the Mongol-Tatar yoke was de facto heavier than in Northeast Russia, where the Basque administration was forgotten at this time. , and in fact there was no military service (only one such episode is noted, in 1270's).
Only recognition by the Lithuanian princes of the shed rights of the Saray to the Russian lands could ensure for Lithuania the inclusion of the latter in the sphere of their domination. Legally, this was issued in the form of a Lithuanian Grand Duke receiving a label on the Russian lands, and later on the Lithuanian lands. The Lithuanian princes had to send kilichic ambassadors for investiture, or the khan himself could have sent such ambassadors - an example is the label of Tokhtamysh to the Polish king Vladislav II Yagailo.
At the beginning of the 15 century, after the defeat of Tokhtamysh and Vitovt from Murza Edigey (the former, by the way, analogue of Mamaia) in the battle of Vorskla, a kind of Asianization of Lithuania is underway. Immigrants from the Golden Horde settle in various localities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, large Horde troops participate in almost all military campaigns of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, making up half of the Lithuanian army, including wars against European opponents such as the Teutonic Order, and in the invasions of the Russian principalities, first of all Pskov. 
So in 1426, Vitovt, at the head of the whole International, Polish, Lithuanian and Tatar regiments, tried to conquer the Pskov region for the second time. Pskovites fought back from the last forces. Novgorod, as usual, feared, but the young Basil II threatened Lithuania with war and the Lithuanian prince agreed to peace, having received a contribution from Pskov.
Under Khan Seid-Mohammed (1442-1455), in favor of the Great Horde, there was a tribute from the Kiev region, which was directly collected by Tatar officials, “daragi”, who were in the cities of Kanev, Cherkasy, Putyvl. 
“The registry of the write-offs of the inhabitants of Gorodetsky” (a collection of documents from the end of 15 and the beginning of the 16 centuries. On granting privileges to the servicemen of the land, close gentry) contains such records about the exemption from paying tribute to the Horde: “We are a great dragon Shvytrygaylovaya Anna. They let go of the Esmo Tatarshin 15 pennies and pennies to Moshlyak the old man and his children. Don't give them anything, only serve them as a horse, and no one knows anything else. ”
The Danish relations of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania continued even after the fall of the Golden Horde, moving to its successor states.
Having defeated the Great Horde in 1502, the Khan Mengli-Girey began to consider himself the successor of the Great Horde and Juchi Ulus, the overlord of all previously subordinate to the Horde lands.
Referring to the traditional tribute to the Danish relations, the Crimean Khan is demanding the restoration of the income of the tribute from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as it was “under Sedehmat with the king” , paying the “tribute” and “exits” in the previous volume: “Kolko of the tribute cities and the exits gave ... tribute and let us serve from the current hour. ” 
Lithuanian princes, in general, do not mind, just find a more diplomatic formulation for their dependence. The payments to the Crimean Horde are called “commemorations” (gifts), which are collected “from both our goods of Lyadsky (the current territory of Belarus) and Lithuanian”. The Polish king Sigismund (1508) declares with great cunning that the commemoration is delivered "... not from the lands of our ambassadors, even from our person, as before ...". 
The Crimean Khanate does not object to the amended wording, the main thing is to pay, necessarily and annually.
A.A. Gorsky points out that “at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries, the Crimean khans, who considered themselves heirs of the Horde, continued to give Lithuanian labels to the Grand Dukes of Russia, and they still paid tribute - at a time when the Grand Duchy Moscow already did not do it! ”
During the Smolensk war, a Moscow-friendly Crimean nobleman, Appak-Murza, wrote to the Grand Duke of All Russia, Vasily III: “You have a Khan asking for eight cities, and if you give them to him, you will give him a friend, but not to happen unless you send him as much treasury as the king sends, then he will give these cities to you. And how can they not be friends with the king? And in the summer, and in the winter, the treasury from the king, like a river, flows incessantly, and it uproots the little and the great ”. [22a]
If Lithuania did not keep up with the payment of tribute, the Crimean Khanate conducted an “educational” raid. And protection against raids in Poland-Lithuania was posed very badly, due to the domination of the oligarchy, who had little interest in solving national problems. Moskovskaya Rus builds indentation lines, creates solid lines of fortification and defensive structures on the border with the Wild Field, advancing from forest-steppe into the steppe, increases the depth of sentinel guard and stanitsa service, mobilizes all large military forces to act on their Ukrainians to defend defensive lines and growing border towns, sending shelves to the steppe, little by little wringing the Crimeans to Perekop and reducing the number of raids.  Poland-Lithuania, as a rule, is helpless before the raids of the Crimeans; defense based on rare castles and castle servants is ineffective against raids; all its forces, military and propaganda, are spent on the struggle with Moscow Russia.
“This is not a city, but an absorber of our blood,” described Mihalon Litvin (Ventslav Mikolaevich) of the Crimean slave trade Kafu. This Lithuanian author reports a small number of escapes of captured Litvinians from the Crimean bondage - in comparison with prisoners from Moscow Russia. Crimean slavery looked for the Lithuanian commoner no worse than life under the rule of the nobility. “If the gentleman kills the flake, he says that he killed the dog, because the nobility considers kmet (peasants) as dogs,” testifies the writer of the middle of 16 c. Modzhevsky.  “We keep, in unceasing slavery, our own people, who were mined not by war and bought, belonging not to someone else’s, but to our tribe and faith, orphans, the poor, trapped in a marriage through marriage with slaves; we evilly use our power over them, torture them, disfigure, kill without trial, at the slightest suspicion, - Mihalon Litvin indignant.
Pans and gentry handed over their estates at the mercy of the tenants, squeezing all the juice out of the peasants, and lived in strong castles that protect against Tatar arrows. Mihalon Lytvyn left curious descriptions of the master's life - the nobility spent time in drinking and drinking, while the Tatars tied people around the villages and drove them to the Crimea. 
During the first half of 16 c. materials materials ON constantly record the collection of the Horde tribute. Smolensk burghers from “silver” and “Horde and any other” payments are exempt only once, in 1502.  From the 1501, the “painting of the Horde” was preserved ON. The number of ON cities obliged to pay tribute to the Crimean Khanate, besides Juchiev’s ulus of Smolensk, Vladimir-Volynsky, and others, recognized such purely Lithuanian cities as Troki, Vilna, which were not originally dependent on the Horde lands. 
Now the tribute-Horde region is regularly going to the treasury of the Grand Duke of Lithuania now also from territories that, according to preserved sources, in the 13-14 centuries, the Orda did not pay tribute to it at all. So the obligation to pay the "Horde" from the land of the Vilnius in accordance with the "long-standing custom" is noted in the acts under 1537. 
Moreover, the Polish-Lithuanian authorities returned "servants" to the Tatars, escaped or taken out by the Cossacks, with punishment of the guilty, somehow ordered by the orders of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander and King Sigismund I. And after the Polish-Lithuanian union 1569, the number of orders of the authorities of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the cruel punishment of the “slaves” only increased; Cossacks, greatly disturbed the Tatar or Turkish authorities, indulged in execution. Somehow it was with the Cossack leader Ivan Podkova at the beginning of the reign of Stefan Batory. 
The last time the Grand Duke of Lithuania and the Polish King received a label for reigning from Khan through 130 years after Moscow did (1432). 
Horde raids and Horde tribute were superimposed on the oppression brought to the population of South-Western Russia by the Lithuanian conquerors, and then the Polish gentlemen. The latter have made a huge contribution to the creation of political Russophobian Ukrainians, reforming the worldview and historical memory of a significant part of the population in the former South-Western Russia.
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