40 years ago, 7 October 1977, the last Constitution of the USSR - “Brezhnev” - was adopted. October 8 new USSR Constitution was published in all newspapers of the country.
The first Constitution in Russia was adopted in 1918 in connection with the formation of the RSFSR (Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic). After the establishment of the Soviet system, the control functions, in accordance with the principle “All power to the Soviets!”, Were concentrated in the highest organ of the Soviet power. The Constitution of the RSFSR 1918 of the year established that the All-Russian Congress of Soviets is the supreme authority in the country, and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (All-Russian Central Executive Committee) in the period between the congresses. It differed in that by giving civil liberties to the working class and the peasantry, it deprived the freedoms of all those who had unearned incomes or used wage labor. In fact, the dictatorship of the proletariat was consolidated by the basic law of the state, strengthening the position of the Bolshevik party in the class struggle.
The second Constitution (the first in the USSR) was adopted in the final version by the II Congress of the Soviets of the USSR 31 on January 1924, in connection with the formation of the Soviet Union. The Congress of the Soviets of the USSR became the supreme body of state power, in the period between congresses the Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the USSR, and between the sessions of the CEC of the USSR - the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR. The CEC of the USSR had the right to cancel and suspend the acts of any government bodies on the territory of the USSR (with the exception of the higher level - the Congress of Soviets). The Presidium of the CEC had the right to suspend and repeal the decisions of the CPC and individual people's commissariats of the USSR, the CEC and the CPC of the Union republics.
December 5 1936 in the USSR adopted the second Constitution of the USSR, which was included in history under the name "Stalin". As in the USSR Constitution of 1924, it was said here that the existence of the state is a merit of the working class and the result of the achievements of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The document pointed to the domination of state property, and also recognized the existence of cooperative-collective-farm property. However, this did not mean, however, that the state denies the existence of private property. The existence of a small private farm in the countryside and handicraft activities was allowed, but without the use of hired labor. The right of citizens to personal property, as well as its inheritance, was protected by the state. In contrast to the previous basic law, now rights and freedoms became equal for all citizens of the country, regardless of belonging to a particular social class, and also regardless of what rights and freedoms we are talking about. The period of sharp struggle was over.
At the XXII Congress of the CPSU in 1961, it was noted that the Soviet state from the state of the dictatorship of the proletariat grew into the whole people, and proletarian democracy became the whole people. The congress recognized the need to consolidate the new qualitative state of Soviet society and the state in the Basic Law. 7 October 1977 The USSR Supreme Soviet unanimously approved the USSR Constitution. She was divided into a preamble, 21 chapter, 9 sections and contained 174 articles.
For the first time in Soviet constitutional history, the preamble became an integral part of the Basic Law. It traced the historical path of Soviet society, as a result of which the construction of a developed socialist state was considered. The preamble gave a description of the main features of this society. In Art. 1 talked about the Soviet state as a socialist and nation-wide, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intellectuals; working people of all nations and nationalities of the country. As a political basis, the Soviets of People’s Deputies were consolidated.
The economic basis was socialist ownership of the means of production in the form of state (nationwide) and collective-farm-cooperative ownership. The constitution provided for the personal property of citizens, which could contain household items, personal consumption, convenience, and ancillary households, a dwelling house, and labor savings. In the use of citizens could be plots of land provided for the conduct of subsidiary farming, gardening and horticulture, as well as for individual housing construction.
The Constitution details the political system of the Soviet Union. The supreme legislative body was the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which consisted of two chambers: the Council of the Union and the Council of Nationalities. The chambers were equal (Art. 109), consisted of an equal number of deputies. The Council of the Union was elected in constituencies, the Council of Nationalities was elected according to the norm: 32 deputy from each union republic, 11 - autonomous, 5 - autonomous region and one deputy - autonomous region (Art. 110). Sessions of the Supreme Council were convened twice a year. The law was considered adopted if in each of the chambers a majority of the total number of deputies of the chamber voted for it (Art. 114). The highest executive and administrative body was the Council of Ministers of the USSR, which was formed by the Supreme Council. The highest judicial power belonged to the Supreme Court, he was also elected by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
The strength of the Brezhnev Constitution was the protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens. Indeed, the time of L. I. Brezhnev in some respects was the “golden age” of the Soviet Union. This is a time of breakthroughs in space and military affairs, respect for the Soviet superpower in the international arena, stable development of the national economy, security felt by all Soviet citizens, consistent improvement in the lives of the majority of the population, etc. However, most of the inhabitants of the Soviet Union understood this only after the collapse THE USSR. When they felt all the charms of “early capitalism” on themselves, and in some places neo-feudalism and other archaic people (especially in the republics of Central Asia).
The Constitution of 1977 of the year significantly expanded the rights and freedoms of citizens. To the previously established rights were now added the right to health protection, housing, the use of cultural wealth, the right to participate in managing state and public affairs, to make proposals to state bodies, to criticize shortcomings in their work. For the first time, the right of citizens to appeal against the actions of any officials in court (Art. 58) was provided for. True, the mechanism for exercising this right was not established, which could not but reflect on the reality of its exercise. The constitution enshrines the new forms of direct democracy: a nationwide discussion and a referendum (Art. 5).
A detailed interpretation was given to the following duties of citizens: to observe the Constitution and the laws; respect the rules of socialist dormitory; with dignity to carry the high rank of a citizen of the USSR; conscientiously work and observe labor discipline; protect and strengthen socialist property; protect the interests of the Soviet state and help strengthen its power, take care of the socialist Fatherland; combat waste and promote policing.
Thus, the Constitution of the USSR 1977 g. Secured the victory of developed socialism and significantly expanded the rights of citizens. Many of its foundations would be useful in modern Russia, in need of restoring social justice.