Military Review

Serving Empire Romeev. Part of 2

64
Describing the moral character of Varangi, it is necessary to note the exceptional dedication of the guard to the ruling sovereign. So, when in March 1081, Alexei Comnenus, who decided to seize the throne, appeared with the army in front of Constantinople, the capital was defended only by Varanga and a detachment of German mercenaries. And the future emperor, knowing that it was impossible to bribe, convince or force the Vikings to surrender, bribed the Germans - and the latter opened the city gates.


Serving Empire Romeev. Part of 2

Alexey I Komnenos - emperor of Byzantium (1081 - 1118), founder of the Great Comneni dynasty, which ruled the empire for over 100 years. Having headed a weakened state, which was under the blow of the Normans and the Seljuks, he was able to eliminate the external threat. He conducted large-scale reforms that led to the Komninsky revival of the empire, the growth of its power. Reformer of the army and guard. He sings in "Alexiad" - the historical work of Anna's daughter. Veteran of the Battle of Dirrachia. Mosaic in the Temple of St. Sophia

The Varangians were faithful to Nicephorus III, even when the emperor decided to abdicate the throne.

Anna Komnina noted that the Ruses are loyal to the emperor, and the protection of his personages is their family tradition and sacred duty, carefully passed down from generation to generation. The princess stated that the dedication of the ruler to the sovereign was unbreakable, because in their nature there was not even a hint of a tendency to change.


Nikifor III Votaniat (ca. 1002 - 10. 12. 1081) - Emperor of Byzantium in 1078 - 1081's. Fig. - Nicephorus III receives the Book of Sermons from John Chrysostom

Travelers-Arabs noted that the loyalty of the Warangs to their master is so strong that they are ready to die with him and even allow themselves to die by his hand. I. Zonara [Zonara John, a Byzantine historian of the 12th century, a monk-theologian and author of the “Abbreviated история". Prior to the vows, he was the commander of the Imperial Guard (the Great Drugering Family of the Villa) and the First Secretary of the Imperial Chancellery (Protasikrit)] recalled that when the son of the dying Alexei, John Comnenus arrived at the palace, the warangs, taking up the defense in the guardroom, said that as long as the emperor was alive, they would not let anyone in - even the heir. Only after the death of the monarch guardsmen gave way.


John II Comnenus (13. 09. 1087 - 08. 04. 1143) - Emperor of Byzantium in 1118 — 1143. Successor Komninovsky revival of the empire. John and his son Manuel - the last basil, pursuing an aggressive policy of conquest. Implementing the principles of his father’s strategy, John actively fought with the Seljuks in Asia Minor, opposed the Pechenegs and controlled the situation in the Balkans. Mosaic in St. Sophia

Participating in the rebellion against the basil Michael V, which ended with the overthrow and dazzling of the latter, Harald Hardrada had to overcome the opposition of his former colleagues. Varanga remained faithful to Michael - despite the emperor's unpopularity. As a result, the number of guards after the riots in the capital decreased markedly: some of the Varangians were hanged by new authorities after the coup, according to M. Psellos, who was present at the time of Michael's blindness and saw those who were hanged.


Michael V Calafat (1015 - 24. 08. 1042). Fig. on a coin. Emperor (1041 - 1042) from the Macedonian dynasty. Only 4 rules of the month and was overthrown during popular unrest

Devotion to the Warang was highly valued by basilets - and this quality was especially relevant at the time of palace coups. No wonder about the last of the Comnenus said that Andronicus trusts only his dog next to the bed and the Varangian guard behind his door.


Andronic I Comnenus (1118 - 12. 09. 1185). The miniature depicts the murder of Andronicus. He is not only the last Comnenus on the Byzantine throne, but also the ancestor of the Great Comnenian dynasty (reigned in Trapezund until the 2 of the 15th century)

It is necessary to note the moral qualities of the Vikings. So, Kedrin mentioned the case when a Varang, having met a woman in a secluded place, decided to rape her. Having pulled his sword, the woman killed the Varyag. Then the co-workers of the murdered “paid honor” to this woman and gave her the property of the rapist, leaving the latter without burial. Byzantine historians point out that the German (in a broad sense) mercenaries differed from the Varangians in their corruption.




Participation of the Varangian Guard in the Constantinople events. Illustrations from work Skylitsa. On the first ill. woman kills Varyag

Finally, the vast majority of the Varangas were Christians. Konstantin Bagryanorodny noted the “baptized Russes” who were on guard during a diplomatic reception. The Rus had their own church (St. Elias) already in the 1 of the 10th century.

The first Varangian temple of special construction existed from the beginning of the 11th century, but in 1052 it was closed. The second Scandinavian temple in honor of the Mother of God and St. Olaf was built in fulfillment of the vow that was given by the emperor to the Varangas during the battle of Eski Zagra. The temple, known as Panagia Varangiotissa (Mother of God of the Varangian) was located at the western facade of the Temple of St. Sophia and in fact was the "regimental" church of the Varangians. Above the altar of the temple supposedly was attached the sword of St. Olaf.


Olaf II Saint Haraldson (995 - 1030) is the king of Norway (1015 - 1028), one of the most revered Christian saints in Scandinavia (honored in Russia) and the half brother Harald Hardrada. Fresco in swedish church

The cult of Olaf, the patron saint of warriors, travelers and merchants, was very popular in northern Europe (in the 11th and 12th centuries, the Church of St. Olaf existed in Novgorod). And Olaf was the patron of the Vikings and personally his brother Harald Hardrada. First, a chapel of St. Olaf appeared in Constantinople, then a church, and then a sword was brought. According to legend, the emperor built (or participated in the construction) church and bought the sword for the triple price (or changed the sword for 3), transferring it to the church of St. Olaf. Most likely the most likely source of the appearance of the cult of Olaf as a patron of the Varangian warriors of Byzantium was Hardrada, who, as the sagas point out, enjoyed the special patronage of the saint.

The English contingent of Varangi also visited the specially built Constantinople Basilica of Saints Nicholas and Augustine of Canterbury.

The tradition of visiting Jerusalem and the holy places. Anna Komnina recalls the name of one of these pilgrims - Peter (nickname - Kukupetr).

Celebrating Christian holidays (Christmas, Easter, etc.), one of them, the Day of the Epiphany, was elevated to the rank of a regimental holiday, from 1122, the victory day at Eski Zagra.

Christian symbols were in service and in the equipment of the warriors of Varanga. On the battlefields of the Varangian Guard, archaeologists in large numbers found wearable crosses.




crosses and talismans Varangus


Bracelets, necklaces and pendants - the result of the service of warangs and the external indicator of high social status

The image of the “Varyag Christian” was introduced and cultivated in the empire. And the service of the empire taught the Vikings to observe Christian traditions and rituals. The singing of the Trisagion was heard in the military camps in the morning and in the evening, before the battle the soldiers confessed, and the ark and the cross were carried from Constantinople. Veterans of the Varangian Guard, who learned the essence of the Christian faith and the Byzantine way of life, became the agents of Christianity in northern Europe. T. o. the civilizing mission of Byzantium was realized.

Byzantine guardsmen were actively involved in sports: wrestling, ball games, board games and others. There were also collective competitions. For example, Harald and his warriors, even during the Italian campaign, played ball - and, demonstrating contempt for the defenders of the besieged city, they staged a tournament right under the city walls. King Sigurd was a fan of the hippodrome - a source with surprise notes that one day he preferred the inspection of the imperial treasury to games at the hippodrome. But such examinations, as a rule, were accompanied by rich gifts, and Sigurd’s betrayal of his beloved spectacle is understandable.

Having fun, the Vikings participated in such events as the demonstration of Greek fire, pantomime, singing and music. The imperial couple took an active part in such events, often patronizing competing teams.

While resting, the Varangians visited the public baths (joining the favorite occupation of the Byzantines, and, accordingly, the Romanian way of life), examined the sights of Constantinople (temples, palace complexes), visited the city taverns. So, Sigurd, returning from the cross, presented 60 ships to the emperor - and at least some of them were converted into restaurants on the water. The restaurant was located in the back of the ship - and the Varyag who came to rest on the one hand recalled the specifics of the now distant homeland, and on the other hand plunged into the luxurious atmosphere of the entertainment venue of Constantinople, the then “capital of the world”.

One lizard cut inscriptions on the balustrade of Hagia Sophia, the second - on the shoulder of a stone lion in Piraeus, and the third - in the palace of Bucoleon. Probably, some soldiers were engaged in business - the Byzantine legislation did not impose severe restrictions on the military in this area. The testimonies of that time make it possible to learn that the larang were engaged in hunting and fishing - there were plenty of forests at that time close to Constantinople, and the fish that were abundantly caught in the bays of the capital were well known in Europe.


Pyraean lion with runic inscription on his shoulder

But Christianity fancifully coexisted with the remnants of Old Norse customs. Somehow Ongul came to Constantinople for service in Varang from Norway. At home, he killed a man, and the son of the deceased, Dromund, went after the murderer. The murderer and the son of the victim arrived in Constantinople almost simultaneously and were taken to Varanga. The Guard was preparing to go on the march - it was preceded by a survey of equipment and weapons. Ongul presented for inspection the sword, and he was asked: why such a beautiful sword has a notch. The murderer began to boast that he had killed a brave man - he cut the skull with this sword, which is why the notch. Dromund standing next to other warriors took this sword, as if to admire - and cut the head of Ongul. Dromund was captured - he not only killed, but also used weapons in the walls of the imperial palace. While awaiting execution or ransom, Dromund was in prison. A noble lady passing next to her, having heard the conversation of the prisoners, bought Dromunda, and secretly hid from her husband at home. And the Vikings at this time petitioned for clemency - after all, the son must avenge his father. Dromund was pardoned, distinguished himself in battles and became a friend of Harald Hardrada. He returned home after the 2 summer Byzantine service - and in his homeland the former guard became the court of King Magnus the Good. And Christian Harald Hardrada, apart from the official Russian wife (Elizaveta Yaroslavna), had a Scandinavian concubine (Torah).

Valor, courage and perseverance of the Varang helped to win many important campaigns and battles (more on that later). The Byzantine military tradition dictated the following procedure for the actions of troops after a victorious battle: thanksgiving prayer, burial of the dead, para. During the show, the soldiers who distinguished themselves in battle were rewarded (with valuables, armor, weapons, additional loot shares, insignia; commanders were promoted) and were thanked before the formation. Warriors who violated military duty were punished (flogged), and the criminals were executed - also in front of the line.

It is necessary to note such an important circumstance that if the European medieval army maintained the level of total losses (killed, wounded, captured) in 15 - 20% of the number, then Byzantine troops could withstand a more serious threshold of losses. And Varanga - the elite of the Byzantine army, withstood the losses that amounted to 70 - 80% of its composition (the battles of Montemaggiore 1041 and Dirrachia 1081). And after such terrible losses, the combat capability was quickly restored.

The sovereigns valued Varanga for loyalty, high fighting qualities and fast execution of assigned tasks. The Byzantine inhabitants respected and feared the Varangians, and they often disliked the aristocracy (in Byzantine literature they originally called "noble barbarians"). The isolation of the Varangian Guard from court and regional intrigues, religious and political parties, aristocratic groups and the local population made it an invaluable tool in the hands of the autocrat. And in the XI - XII centuries. Varangi's reputation was also an important element of the imperial ideology - in particular, the chroniclers reported the sublime legends of the Varangian Guard - the personification of the glory of the Second Rome and its sovereign. In turn, Byzantium is a model of the state for Scandinavian chroniclers. She symbolized Asgard. And it was not for nothing that the period of Harald’s service in the Varangian Guard became an important element of his future royal mythology, which made Hardrada almost the recipient of the fame of the Roman Caesars. Russian epics also set the image of Byzantium very high.

Thus, the discipline and the presence of northerner guardsmen in the relatively cultural environment of Constantinople contributed to the ennobling and development of the ruling elites of the states of northern Europe. And, importantly, the aggression of semi-barbaric and barbaric peoples in that period splashed out for the most important purposes - in the hands of emperors, Varanga became a shield that blocked Europe from the expansion of semi-nomadic and nomadic and predators - Turkish-Seljuks, Pechenegs and the like. It is impossible to dismiss such motivation as a service to the stronghold of Christianity - Orthodoxy. The socially significant aspect is obvious - the state took care of those who faithfully served it.

Suffer Varangas and noticeable flaws. The most prominent of them was drunkenness. In the XII century. residents of the capital even christened the Vikings "imperial wine kegs." About this sin Varangov went a lot of jokes. Eric of Denmark, who visited Constantinople in 1103, even called on the Varangian Guardsmen to "live a sober way of life, not giving free rein to drunkenness." Most of the Varangian crimes were drunk, such as the 1079 insurgency against Nikifor Votaniat. In a drunken stupor, the Varangians tried to break into the emperor with a weapon, wounding his secretary with him - but were thrown back by the Byzantine guards. It is significant that the valiantly defended monarch pardoned the repentant Vikings, banishing only the instigators to distant garrisons.

Another known defect of the Warang was a hot temper. The Jerusalem Chronicle gives the following indicative episode. In 1032, during the victorious oriental campaign of George Maniak after the capture of Edessa, the need for diplomatic negotiations arose. G. Maniak sent a soldier of the Varangian Guard to the enemy (with the request to coordinate the place and time of negotiations). It is difficult to say what caused this, but the varang during the negotiations went out of balance and hit the Emir Harran with an ax. The chronicle emphasizes that this person was Russian. Varyags sometimes participated in bloody altercations, both with each other and, for example, between the 4 circus parties of Constantinople.

Finally, another flaw arose from the aspirations of the Varangas for a beautiful life - to what the northerners were deprived of in their homeland. Rates on the racetrack, Greek beauties, playing cards required additional funds. And the vice has become a passion for gold, a craving for luxury. So, Harald in 1042 was accused of embezzling state funds. Perhaps the most dark spot that stained the part's immaculate honor was 1204 year. During the assault by the crusaders of Constantinople, the varangas began demanding monetary payments from the emperor — at a time when it bordered on obvious betrayal.

But sinless people do not exist and, as noted in the old film, each has its own flaws.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 10 October 2017 07: 42 New
    14
    Good stuff, thanks ...
    1. rapier
      rapier 10 October 2017 10: 05 New
      +1
      Dear forum users, I understand that the author of this series of articles took on a very heavy burden - to prove that the varangians and wrangens who served at the emperor’s palace are the ancestors of the Russians, that is, the Slavs. The author of the article essentially lies history, because if under the Byzantine emperors and the Russians served, it was the Scandinavians, not the current inhabitants of Russia, not Russians in the current sense of the word. It is certainly very prestigious to believe that your ancestors played a huge role in the military history of such a powerful state as the Eastern Roman Empire. But, alas, dear forum users, varangians or wrangs were Scandinavians and, if there were Slavs among them, it was very, very few. To confirm my words, I will give a translation of the 11th century Armenian greatest historian Aristakes Lastivertsi. I am even at a loss: in previous cycles The author, by hook or by crook, wants to prove the reality of the service of modern Russian ancestors and their huge role in the history of the Eastern Roman Empire. by himself, or in any case, one of the most successful Byzantine Emperor, the author
      1. rapier
        rapier 10 October 2017 10: 27 New
        +2
        The author of the article, telling with such enthusiasm about the great emperor Vasily the Second Bolgaroboyets, did not mention a word that the emperor was an Armenian by nationality, like the whole Macedonian dynasty on the Byzantine throne. Yes and Varda Foka, whom Vasily the Second fought so fiercely was also an Armenian, I’ll get tired of listing Armenian commanders and emperors - Armenians on the Byzantine throne. According to the testimony of your Russian historians, emperors - Armenians on the Byzantine throne were no less than emperors - Greeks. Unfortunately, all emperors - Armenians did more harm to their they helped her historical homeland with anything. I would not have written my comment if it had not been for the author of the article to have tried to present the ancestors of the present Russians as the main fighting force of the Eastern Roman Empire. He could at least have a glimpse of the nationality of at least one emperor of Armenian descent. The Russian people have a glorious military past, but you had nothing to do with the Roman Empire, excuse me I, that I am so straight.
        1. Rotmistr
          Rotmistr 10 October 2017 10: 45 New
          21
          The author of the article, talking with such enthusiasm about the great emperor Vasily the Second Bolgaroboyets

          The purpose of these articles is not the Bigger (he is only a character) - but the history of Varanga for 500 years, from 988 to 1453.
          Armenians are not only a powerful support of Byzantium (I mean not only emperors, but also officers - for example, the mentioned K. Kekavmen).
          Armenia is a loyal ally of Russia in the Caucasus.
          He could at least slip into the nationality of at least one emperor of Armenian descent.

          What for? There is a wonderful work by S. Dashkova Emperors and Byzantium and a host of other works dedicated to personalities. Then you need to write about ALL emperors mentioned in the article.
          An article about Varang - and it mainly served Russes, Scandinavians and Anglo-Saxons.
          1. rapier
            rapier 10 October 2017 12: 10 New
            +1
            As for the varanga, it was the personal guard of the Roman emperors and took little part in the hostilities due to its small size. A large Armenian historian of the 11th century, mentioned by me already by Aristakes Lastivertsi, in his main work “The Story of the Disasters of the Armenian People” in chapter 16 of his essay described the actions of a mercenary Varangian detachment during the war of the Eastern Roman Empire with the Sultan Tugril Beck in 1054. The entire composition of Lastivertsi is a series of battles and assaults of cities and it mentions the actions of the Varangians only once, and I will cite this part from the composition of Lastivertsi:
            “After these events, the next year in our calendar was the year 503 (March 8, 1054 - March 7, 1055). On the same month and on the same day that they captured the country for the first time, they burned Artsn, as well as other havars and villages , the bloodthirsty, death and death cruel beast Sultan moved with a large army, elephants, chariots and horses, wives and children, with excellent equipment ... He spread the raids in three directions, to the north - to the Akhaz stronghold, to Mount Parkhar and to at the foot of Kovkas, to the west to the Chan forests, to the south to the mountain called Simn. Having captured the whole country, they all mowed down like rural squires.
            Those who entered Tyke took possession of the country, reached a large river called Chorokh, and, crossing it, turned and went down to the country of Haltheats. Capturing prey and prisoners, they turned back and reached the Berdakalak called Baberd. There they met a detachment from the Roman army, called WRANGs, who, unexpectedly stumbling upon enemies, fought with them. By the grace of God, the Romance detachment gathered all its forces, they defeated the enemies, killed their leader, and with him and many others, they took to flight, taking their prey and prisoners, but did not dare to continue the persecution, because they were afraid to meet with significant forces. "
            Here I cited the work of Lastivertsi and I want to explain some words and geographical words - berdakalak is the city-fortress of Baberd. The Chorokh river is now the Murad River in Turkey. Tyke is one of the regions in the west of Armenia.
            1. Rotmistr
              Rotmistr 10 October 2017 12: 23 New
              17
              rapier
              As for the varanga, it was the personal guard of the Roman emperors and took little part in the hostilities due to its small number.

              It is not true
              Varanga units participated in the hostilities. And how
              For example, at Eski Zagra
              In general, the articles cite sources and literature - including Lastiverzi
        2. rapier
          rapier 10 October 2017 11: 16 New
          +2
          Dear forum users, I do not claim that all emperors of Armenian origin were like the great emperor Vasily the Second or all Armenians - the commanders in the Roman service were as talented as the Mamikonyans, but they left their mark on the history of the peoples and the Eastern Roman Empire. at Yarmouk on August 20, 636. It was a decisive battle between the Eastern Roman Empire and the gaining Arabs. The Romans lost the battle that predetermined the fate of modern Syria and Iraq for millennia ahead. The Roman commander was commanded by the Armenian commander Vagan. According to historians, the defeat was Vagan was not to blame, but the head of the rear of the Roman army. This dude was also an Armenian by nationality and fiercely jealous of Vagan to the emperor for his closeness to him. According to the testimony of historians, the head of the Roman army supply because of his black jealousy deliberately did not supply the army with everything necessary The battle of ari Yarmouk was very stubborn and lasted three days. On the third day of the battle the archers who served in the Roman army ran out of arrows and the battle was unfortunately lost. So, one can say, the intrigues between the two Roman commanders of Armenian origin determine the modern look of the Middle East. It is quite possible that history would have changed in a different way and Islam would not have became such a world religion.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland 11 October 2017 01: 29 New
            0
            Quote: rapier
            as talented as the Mamikonyans

            So the Mamikonyans, EMNIP, are not the Armenians, but the Chinese - the descendants of Prince Mamgo?
            1. Karen
              Karen 11 October 2017 14: 33 New
              0
              They are the most true carriers of the Armenians ... but there is a popular rumor that they are of Chinese roots ... A familiar kung fuist says that in China there is a whole wall with inscriptions that they regard Tigran II with Chinese roots.
              It is better to ask about the Mamikonyans from their descendants, who changed their surnames to Chilingaryans.
        3. Luga
          Luga 10 October 2017 13: 17 New
          11
          Quote: rapier
          .He could at least slip into the nationality of at least one emperor of Armenian descent.

          Calm down dear, everything is fine. All Armenians love, everyone remembers about them. And if the subject of the article was a study of the nationalities of the Byzantine emperors, the author would certainly mention that there were Armenians among them, and perhaps he would list them by name. If the subject of the article were “the glorious deeds of the Byzantine emperors of Armenian descent,” they would generally speak only about these glorious deeds. If you write such an article, I will definitely read it and thank you as an author. And today they write about the varanga, we, accordingly, read about the varanga, and I would like to discuss exactly the varanga.
      2. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 10 October 2017 12: 21 New
        18
        Dear forum users, I understand that the author of this series of articles took on a very heavy burden - to prove that the varangians and wrangens who served at the emperor’s palace are the ancestors of the Russians, that is, the Slavs. The author of the article essentially lies history, because if under the Byzantine emperors and the Russians served, it was the Scandinavians, not the current inhabitants of Russia, not Russians in the current sense of the word

        Oh my God
        Do you know how to read Russian?
        Of course, not the current inhabitants of Russia
        It's about VARYAGO-RUSA
        I’m even at a loss: in the previous series of articles, by hook or by crook, he wants to prove the reality of the service of the modern ancestors of the Russians and their huge role in the history of the Eastern Roman Empire.

        Your compatriot Katalakon Kekavmen speaks about it
        And be careful with epithets
        1. rapier
          rapier 10 October 2017 15: 32 New
          +1
          My companion Rotmister is very buggy, I have to admit that the Byzantine commander Katalakon Kekavmen has Armenian roots and that this commander left his works after him. It is necessary to read them, perhaps my opinion on the role of mercenary Varangian troops
          1. rapier
            rapier 10 October 2017 15: 37 New
            +1
            My opinion about the role of Varangian mercenary detachments as performing only security functions under the emperor is not true. Here I did not know
            1. rapier
              rapier 10 October 2017 15: 52 New
              +1
              I did not know that the Byzantine commander Katalakon Kekavmen has Armenian roots. I fully admit that I was mistaken only after reading the historian Lastivertsi, where in his main work the use of Varangian troops is mentioned only once. in more detail. In the end, Lastivertsi wrote his work on Armenia, and Varangian units could be used in other parts of Byzantium, not in the territory of historical Armenia. As long as I have not read the works of Kekavmen, I apologize for the harsh remarks to the author of the article Rotmistr. love
      3. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 10 October 2017 12: 45 New
        17
        rapier
        But, alas, respected members of the forum, the Varangians or Wrangians were Scandinavians, and if there were Slavs among them, then very, very few

        Alas, you are breaking through the open door
        In the articles of the Elite of the Army of the Second Rome in VO, the Varangians are said to be a mixture of Slavs and Scandinavians
        Very, very little - does not count
        Or do you know how much?
      4. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 10 October 2017 12: 48 New
        19
        rapier
        author by hook or by crook

        Blur something - how to drink milk
        the author of the article essentially lies the story

        We leave it to the conscience of the commentator, who does not see the sources in the text of the article.
        Or not wanting to see?
        1. rapier
          rapier 10 October 2017 16: 01 New
          +1
          Quote: Rotmistr
          rapier
          author by hook or by crook

          Blur something - how to drink milk
          the author of the article essentially lies the story

          We leave it to the conscience of the commentator, who does not see the sources in the text of the article.
          Or not wanting to see?

          Dear Rotmister, I would have long since apologized for my peremptory tone if it were not for this bad connection. I should read all the sources of information, otherwise I’ll not be able to imagine the role of the Varangian troops in the army of the Eastern Roman Empire with the knowledge of the historian Aristakes Lastivertsi. few sources and, quite possibly, I had the wrong information about the wrangs.
          1. Rotmistr
            Rotmistr 10 October 2017 16: 05 New
            17
            Dear Rotmister, I would have long since apologized for my peremptory tone, if not for this bad connection

            Yes, technology often fails - that's why technology
            drinks
      5. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 10 October 2017 12: 57 New
        18
        rapier
        wants to prove the reality of the service of modern Russian ancestors and their huge role in the history of the Eastern Roman Empire.

        И
        telling with such enthusiasm about the great emperor Vasily the Second Bolgaroboyets, he did not mention a word that the emperor was an Armenian by nationality, like the whole Macedonian dynasty on the Byzantine throne. Yes and Varda Foka, whom Vasily the Second fought so fiercely with, Armenian, I’ll get tired of listing Armenian commanders and emperors - Armenians on the Byzantine throne.

        Is the history of Byzantium the history of Armenia?
        Clear laughing
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 10 October 2017 14: 02 New
          +3
          In the previous discussion, another Armenian complained about the terrible treachery of the Byzantine emperors and it was them who accused them of taking the Armenian lands by the Turks, so everything is not easy.
          1. Rotmistr
            Rotmistr 10 October 2017 14: 32 New
            17
            Moreover, emperors, even from among the Armenians, were always ROMAN and behaved like ROMAN.
            And if we talk about pure Rus (even without the Varangian), and in a later era (after Vasily Bolgaroboytsy), then: a) the daughter of the emperor Anna Komnina said that
            that the Russians are loyal to the emperor, and the protection of his person is their tradition and sacred duty
            But this is the end of the 11th century; and b) Ruzarna, who hit the ax of Emir Harran during the negotiations, I. Skillitz also calls Russian.
            Does it hurt the Armenians that they were not in the Varangian Guard? So what - they are, after all, the pillar of the empire, since the generals and emperors were among the Armenians.
          2. Karen
            Karen 10 October 2017 16: 43 New
            0
            Michael, do not distort ... All serious scholars from history are of the opinion that it was the Byzantine-Armenian confrontation (including military actions against each other) that allowed the Turks to gain a foothold here.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon 10 October 2017 19: 00 New
              +1
              The battle of Manzikert was not lost due to conflicts with the Armenians, but as a result of betrayal and defense of the Eastern femmes was forgotten due to the struggle for the throne in Constantinople. Suppose instead of femas on the border there would be small principalities of varying degrees of subordination, after the defeat of the imperial army without help from the capital, how would they fend off the Turks?
              1. Karen
                Karen 10 October 2017 20: 09 New
                +1
                The battle of Manazkert was half a century after the fall of the kingdom of Ani, our main misfortune. From there, Pahlavuni went to punish the Byzantines in Cilicia ... we took away ... We founded the Cilician kingdom ... fought against everyone there, sometimes in alliance with the Latins, sometimes in alliance with the Arabs, sometimes in alliance with the Turks and Kurds against the Bukhara people who had been draped from there out of fear of Genghis Khan. They made friends with the Chingiz against the Turks ... The sons of Chingiz turned out to be too greedy ... Someone thought of us and the Georgians to boycott and not to send troops to the Mongols in the greatest battle of the Mamelukes against the Mongols, and the former slave Kazakh Beibars with 40t. warriors broke 200t. Manchurian army. Naturally, then he defeated Cilicia ... it's good that the guards sewed him. Then there was a century of fermentation ... When the Mongols like Timvre accepted Islam, there was no need to wait for help from them ... The last time the paddlers betrayed Cilicia a century ago to set them against the Bolsheviks with this gift to the Turks.
                1. Cartalon
                  Cartalon 10 October 2017 20: 37 New
                  0
                  Horses mixed up in a heap - the people in your comment, we went to punish, around traitors, 200 thousand against 40, the Bolsheviks suddenly, every event has objective reasons, Armenia would have no chance of surviving as an independent state, one way or another would have crushed.
                  1. Karen
                    Karen 10 October 2017 20: 55 New
                    0
                    There was an opportunity ... The Georgians showed in the 12th century, in alliance with our remnants. The words of the most famous Georgian Armenian phobe Ilya Chavchavadze (it seems that his mother is Armenian) are very indicative:
                    "The misfortunes of ancient Georgia began from those unfortunate days when Armenia fell."
                    Today we are with them as enemies, for a century, not counting the times of the USSR.
                    _______
                    By the way, in the article I read about the use of fighting elephants by the Seljuks ... Strange ... we have long shown the Persians that, using metal "hedgehogs", we could take them out of battle.
                2. Weyland
                  Weyland 11 October 2017 01: 40 New
                  0
                  Quote: Karen
                  Kazakh Baybars with 40t. warriors broke 200t. Manchurian army.

                  Probably, after all, not the Manchu, but the Mongols? Trust the movies less: in the battle of Ain Jalut, the Mongols were most likely one tyumen - so the Mamluks had a 4-fold superiority! laughing
                  Quote: Karen
                  fought against everyone there, sometimes in alliance with the Latins,

                  so sometimes that even in 1439 they organized Catholicism in an organized manner? EMNIP, 200 years ago, 75% of the population of Tiflis were Armenians, and most of them were “HBO-francs”!
                  1. Karen
                    Karen 11 October 2017 07: 43 New
                    0
                    Was Manchuria not Mongol then? I so simply indicated where they came from.
                    1439 - For almost a century, there was no Cilician kingdom. And "in time" there and government papers were written in Frankish.
                    In Tiflis, it was not our "Franks" who dominated among the Armenians ... the Anians there, and after the Karabakh kings settled them to protect the southern borders from the Turks.
                    Today in Armenia there are only a few “franc” villages.
                    1. Cartalon
                      Cartalon 11 October 2017 10: 06 New
                      0
                      The Georgian kingdom of the 12th century was completely ephemeral, the internal squabble continued, just the neighbors temporarily weakened, and then the first external blow and that’s all.
                      1. Karen
                        Karen 11 October 2017 10: 26 New
                        0
                        I once gave a list of the wars of Georgia in the 12th century - a series of brilliant victories before Halep.
                        And the Mongols already conquered them.
                    2. Weyland
                      Weyland 12 October 2017 00: 39 New
                      0
                      Quote: Karen
                      1439 - for almost a century there was no Cilician kingdom

                      Really? Bad you opinions about the endurance of their ancestors! EMNIP, the lowland Cilicia, the Turks crushed only 1515m!
                      1. Karen
                        Karen 12 October 2017 20: 38 New
                        0
                        Plain Cilicia in the enclave position could only make heroic campaigns, which, with Turkic fertility, is tantamount to a pyrrhic victory or shagreen skin. Some write about the independence of Zeytun until the middle of the 19th century, when the Ottomans took up after their friendship with Nicholas I in the 30s.
                        Plain Cilicia had no access to a non-Turkic ethnic group. The Turks on the right generally for half a century to 1515. invited the Genoese (or Venetians) and the Burgundians to attack the Ottomans together. The Ottomans, in turn, after the defeat of Bayazid, Timur generally lost statehood for a couple of years, but then became so strong that they took Constantinople half a century later ... a little later they went to Syria and Iraq. So, behind them, Plain Cilicia did not pose a danger to them.
                        _____
                        We have the song "Cilicia" ... I can not imagine a more lyrical song ...
        2. rapier
          rapier 10 October 2017 14: 27 New
          +1
          Unfortunately, the Armenians on the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire defended the interests of this empire, they spat on the interests of their homeland. I do not identify Byzantium and Armenia, just the fates of these two countries are closely intertwined. And if you think I'm proud that the Byzantine throne there are many emperors of Armenian descent, you have the wrong impression - I’m only glad that the Armenians achieve something over time, but, I repeat again, the same emperor Vasily the Second put such a “pig” on the Armenians that the consequences of his policy are also are still felt - he began to tidy up one independent Armenian principality after another with his grasping hands. Everything was done using such a simple technology - the emperor invited the Armenian prince to himself and said something like this, why do you, dear, remain in your possession
        3. 97110
          97110 11 October 2017 19: 50 New
          +1
          Quote: Rotmistr
          Is the history of Byzantium the history of Armenia?

          And the history of Scandinavia and the north of Russia is also the history of Armenia. An honest pioneer, in 1980 he saw in Petrozavodsk Armenians selling flowers, specifically red carnations. Is this not evidence of the presence of Russian-Armenian warriors in the ranks of the varanga!
          1. Karen
            Karen 12 October 2017 21: 01 New
            0
            Flowers are, of course, power. My sidekick in Krasnodar used to grow flowers in a greenhouse, and he also traded in his store. He said that the store opposite the school forced him to take his kids and return to his homeland - many girls from 10 years old offered themselves for one scarlet flower ... and the gynecologist said that he had a turn on abortion from 10-year-olds.
            1. 97110
              97110 12 October 2017 21: 51 New
              0
              Quote: Karen
              and the gynecologist said

              which only confirms the high probability of the presence of Russian-Armenian warriors in the varanga.
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 10 October 2017 08: 18 New
    19
    Varanga suffered and noticeable shortcomings. The most prominent of these was drinking. In the XII century. residents of the capital even dubbed the Varangians "imperial wine barrels"

    So fat reconstructors in the first articles of a cycle suit? laughing
    Thank you
  3. venaya
    venaya 10 October 2017 08: 36 New
    +1
    Celebrating the Christian holidays (Christmas, Easter, etc.) .. Christian symbolism was available in the armament and equipment of the warriors of Varanga. Archaeologists have found pectoral crosses in large numbers at battlefields of the Varangian Guard.

    I wonder where the author got such deep knowledge about the holidays in those days? When, in what years did they generally begin to celebrate Christmas and Easter for the first time? Much of what was completely unclear in those years, and the “Slavs” (then still skloman) with Vedic Rodnoveri also noticed amulets that closely resemble today's crosses. After all, modern Christianity came from somewhere, immediately from an empty place did not arise, and Vedic traditions have long been preserved among the people (s).
    1. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 10 October 2017 08: 54 New
      17
      Much of what was completely unclear in those years, and the “Slavs” (then still skloman) with Vedic Rodnoveri also noticed amulets that closely resemble today's crosses.

      Vedic Slavs have nothing to do with it
      We are talking about the inner life and structure of the Byzantine Empire and the Empire and the Courtyard of Vasilyevs.
      I wonder where the author got such deep knowledge about the holidays in those days? When, in what years did they generally begin to celebrate Christmas and Easter for the first time?

      This is evidenced by the BYZANTINE SOURCES - Kekavmen, Psell, Kodin and others. Also, well-known Russian Byzantine specialists (for example, academician Vasilievsky)
      1. venaya
        venaya 10 October 2017 09: 13 New
        +2
        Quote: Rotmistr
        .. Byzantine sources say this - Kekavmen, Psell, Kodin and others. Also, well-known Russian Byzantine specialists (for example, academician Vasilievsky)

        And where did such data come from, because no sources of that time even about Christianity itself were preserved, not to mention what specific holidays existed in those distant times. It is advisable to rely on documentary sources and not on the opinions of even authoritative authors, because no documents of that time were preserved, only later and inaccurate descriptions. I think that it makes sense to consider these circumstances.
        1. Rotmistr
          Rotmistr 10 October 2017 09: 40 New
          20
          They made fun ...
          They have such data, because Psell, Kekavmen and Colin lived at that time. They saw how emperors gave presents for Christmas and Easter, because they lived at that time (unlike us), being military leaders, officials, etc.
          That is why their opinion is a SOURCE, that is, a circumstance that we take into account
          1. venaya
            venaya 10 October 2017 09: 50 New
            +1
            Quote: Rotmistr
            .. their opinion is SOURCE

            Can you imagine how you made me laugh? Who listened to their opinion? Maybe this is somewhere documented? Specify, refer to more serious sources, or research on this subject. Easter (in Hebrew = outcome) was first introduced in Judaism, only at what time. And modern Christianity, over time, gathered its holidays from everywhere and for a long time and not immediately in bulk.
            1. Rotmistr
              Rotmistr 10 October 2017 10: 12 New
              18
              Can you imagine how you made me laugh? Who listened to their opinion? Maybe this is somewhere documented? Specify, refer to more serious sources, or research on this subject.

              Explore the source database on Byzantine studies. Understand - what is the source. The works of Kekavmen and M. Psell - the most important source for the era.
              for no documents of that time were preserved

              Do not confuse source bases for Russia and Byzantium. I recommend reading the Chronicle of I. Skillitsa
        2. Barcid
          Barcid 10 October 2017 10: 11 New
          18
          You venaya are not surprisingly educated. And it really should be considered
          1. venaya
            venaya 10 October 2017 12: 55 New
            +1
            You, as I understand it, are a historian, possibly a professional, unlike the director of a film studio. So here you have the flag in your hands, instead of giving estimates to others, tell the people the numbers: in which year the “Julian calendar” was introduced in Byzantium, in which year the Bible was written, the Torah (Old Testament), the Talmud and other sources on the basis of which these and similar religious holidays were held. Otherwise, all your assessments are frankly unfounded, or you simply are not a qualified specialist, but simply went out for a walk.
            1. Barcid
              Barcid 10 October 2017 13: 11 New
              18
              You would, dear venaya, not boast that you are the director of a film studio, otherwise commentators will come running and tell you everything for historical films. And then "Your brother" filmmaker takes nonsense like "Viking" neither talent nor authenticity. As for the holidays, Christmas and Easter have been celebrated since the early Christian period. Easter is generally the central Christian holiday; it cannot but be celebrated. So leave your touching ironic comments for the young ladies. I will not even comment on the Bible, the Talmud and other texts - I’ll just advise you to read the scientific literature on this subject. Maybe there will be "enlightenment" in this regard.
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon 10 October 2017 13: 59 New
                10
                Uselessly cute venaya, obviously requires a video of Easter celebrations in Constantinople during the reign of Basil the Second.
            2. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 10 October 2017 20: 17 New
              0
              The Old Testament was written gradually (various people wrote it) from the 13th century BC (Christmas). And was completed in the 2nd century BC
              Recently, in the excavations in Jerusalem, several seals of high officials under the kings were found, which are mentioned in the Old Testament. Archaeologists believe that they wrote it (immortalizing their names unobtrusively in the "holy texts.")
              1. venaya
                venaya 10 October 2017 21: 30 New
                +1
                Quote: voyaka uh
                The Old Testament was .. was completed in the 2nd century BC.

                That is the question. A man by the nickname "Barcid" is not at all aware of all these events, hence his not-so-so transcendental rudeness, as they say: "Pig at the table ..", in general, he does not face enlightenment. The question is much more complicated, in cuneiform texts of Sumer, pieces of texts are found in some places completely coinciding with the text of the Torah. The question is different, in the 2nd century BC. such a language as Hebrew did not yet exist; its predecessor was Phoenician writing. What’s the matter? By definition, no one is looking for the originals of the text at all, it’s simply and not really possible to find, hence the naturally arising questions. If we take into account that the first version of "Shulchan Aruch" was written in the 16th century, then from this time it is already possible to start the complete introduction of the Talmud, such a version has been encountered in determining the time of the beginning of religion. What’s the matter, it’s quite possible that Christianity is much older than Judaism, in particular, finds in Egypt speak of this, and the Coptic Christian Church in Egypt believes that it is 2600 years old, everything is possible. "Easter" in Judaism is determined by the lunar calendar, there is no information that in Byzantium the Julian calendar was already used, it was not yet invented, then the calendar "from the creation of the world" was used there. What version of Christianity was in Byzantium in the 10th century? Specialists call the cult of the god "Dionysus." I know little about him, it is difficult to say how it is connected with modern Christianity, but I consider it not permissible to directly translate modern holidays for that period of time. Reliable information about those times, and so the cat wept, and the opinion of even authorities does not sound very convincing, to say the least. Hence all the questions that arise.
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. Barcid
                  Barcid 11 October 2017 07: 22 New
                  16
                  You venaya pour this nonsense to someone else. Even Fomenko and Nosovsky have no such nonsense, although they try very hard.
                3. voyaka uh
                  voyaka uh 11 October 2017 13: 06 New
                  +1
                  "in the 2nd century BC, a language such as Hebrew did not exist yet, its predecessor was Phoenician writing." ////

                  There was Hebrew (became an independent language in the 7th century BC, the first records were in the 10th century BC), and Aramite, and Aramito-Phoenician writing.

                  The Talmud originated in the 1st century BC. and developed until the Middle Ages. Actually, even now Orthodox Jews supplement it.
                  1. venaya
                    venaya 11 October 2017 14: 20 New
                    +1
                    Quote: voyaka uh
                    The Talmud originated in the 1st century BC. and developed until the middle ages

                    I do not exclude the possibility that the primary basis of the Talmud, like the Torah itself, had some more ancient roots, just by studying the Talmud itself (and nobody seems to have the full text), I found that only the heads of rabbis (teachers, Babylonian sages = acads) are available for study only from Babylon. If you have any more detailed information, it would be interesting to get to know her. According to my information, only 50 volumes of the Talmud were published in the 19th century, the rest is not accessible to science, so it’s difficult to talk about the age of the first chapters of the Talmud, but this religion is not identified as the existing religious system only in the 16th century, with the release of the first version of “Shulchan Aruch” . A similar situation per se with the Avramic version of Christianity, there are also no more ancient copies than 400 years ago, although indirect evidence of the presence of certain forms of Christianity is already sufficient. The only question is: what form of Christianity existed before and whether it had an Abramic character or, more likely, had its own Vedic principle. There are many questions - answers - crumbs. Therefore, I doubted the reliability of the presence of Christian (Avramic persuasion) holidays in Byzantium of the XNUMXth century, I think that I have the right to this, and maybe not.
                    PS: "There was Hebrew (became an independent language in the 7th century BC. The first records - 10 century BC)"- I have information about the origin of" ancient Hebrew "starting from the 5th - 7th centuries. I would like to find reliable examples of this language of greater antiquity.
                    1. voyaka uh
                      voyaka uh 11 October 2017 20: 35 New
                      0
                      "and what form of Christianity existed before and whether it had an Avramic character" ////

                      I did not understand about the forms of Christianity ... In the first Talmuds, the execution of Jesus Christ was mentioned twice. And there is no doubt that such a person really existed - no. But, of course, the ancient Jews, his contemporaries did not consider Jesus to be a god. Considered a preacher. Deification came in 200-300 years.
  4. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr 10 October 2017 09: 01 New
    18
    Emperors gave gifts to their guard - precisely for Christmas and Easter
    Archeology data is also very relevant.
    1. venaya
      venaya 10 October 2017 09: 42 New
      +1
      Can you imagine the years in which such holidays as "Christmas" and Easter "appeared? Do you recall when exactly the Julian and Gregorian calendars were introduced? You see, in this" science "everything needs to be checked and double-checked, such monsters wrote it that simple words can not describe.
      1. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 10 October 2017 10: 16 New
        18
        Do you yourself imagine the years in which such holidays as "Christmas" and Easter "arose?

        The eyewitnesses who were present at such distribution of gifts (to the same Harald Hardrad) on such Holidays are more visible
  5. Barcid
    Barcid 10 October 2017 10: 14 New
    16
    Thanks for the interesting article. With pleasure, for the umpteenth time, I read the article. And again, the stories of Hardrad are impressive.
  6. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 10 October 2017 11: 34 New
    17
    Byzantine guards actively engaged in sports

    In a healthy body healthy mind!
    the lack stemmed from the desire of the Varangians for a beautiful life

    We survived poverty, we will also survive abundance
    Proverb laughing
    Interestingly good
    Super
  7. alatanas
    alatanas 10 October 2017 14: 44 New
    0
    which was given by the emperor to the Varangians during the battle of Eski Zagra

    this city was then called Beroe (now Stara Zagora, Bulgaria). After the 17 century, the Turks called Eski Zagra.
  8. Weyland
    Weyland 11 October 2017 01: 14 New
    +1
    "Participating in the rebellion against Vasileus Mikhail V, which ended in the overthrow and blinding of the latter, Harald Hardrada had to overcome the opposition of his former colleagues. The Varangian remained faithful to Mikhail - despite the emperor’s unpopularity. As a result, the number of guards after the riots in the capital was noticeably reduced: part of the Varangians was after the coup hanged by the new authorities - according to M. Psell, who was present at the blinding of Michael and saw the hanged. "
    “Overcome Resistance” - to put it mildly! In the Norwegian sagas it is said that Harald "turned things around so that there were less verings (varangians)" - i.e. in the massacre of his colleagues, he seems to have been very active!
  9. Cartalon
    Cartalon 11 October 2017 11: 35 New
    0
    Who are those victories over? Those wars did not cancel those civil wars, and until they were subjugated to the Mongols, the Georgians managed to defeat Dzhelal ad din, the Georgians were not a nation at that time, as soon as the power weakened immediately divided.
    1. Karen
      Karen 11 October 2017 14: 21 New
      0
      Mikhail, I read on the Russian Islamic sites in the list of outstanding Muslim victories and the battle of Manazkert, such as the Seljuks, thanks to this victory they created a gigantic state in the BV.
      And Georgians fought with them for more than a century, and very successfully. They, Georgians, Bagratids really transferred to a united nation. And it is always possible to lose wars ... all the more so if the internal squabble rolls over.
  10. Karen
    Karen 11 October 2017 19: 53 New
    +1
    Rotmister, if there are more articles on Byzantium ... I recommend exploring the optical "telegraph" communication system there ... for 6-7 hours, information from the border guards was transmitted to Constantinople.
  11. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 13 October 2017 12: 02 New
    13
    A wonderful and informative article. I learned a lot about the Varanga corps. The theme of Byzantium is generally not very popular in Russian historiography, so I will wait with interest for new articles of the Byzantine cycle. The author, my appreciation for the work done!