Military Review

Castles of the Czech Republic: Castle Hluboka (part three)

28
People and castle


Any castle is ... an “artificial cave” for more or less civilized people, since the uncivilized lived in natural caves. But any house is, first of all, people living in it. These are their characters, their actions, their история. For example, I always notice the balconies in the houses in the Czech Republic, as well as in Poland, in Spain, in the south of France and even in Cyprus and in ours. We have a balcony in 80% of cases, the warehouse of the old junk, which for some reason must be saved. There is a place where flowers are planted in boxes and where in the “worst case” there is a light table on openwork legs and the same two chairs. Or a fence near a private residential building. There is a fence! We again have a warehouse of old, often already rotten boards, some boxes, and God knows what else. Why and why? Is it really “expensive as a memory” and laid according to the principle “in the household and the rope will fit”? But what can this "rotten" and "crooked"? However, we must pay tribute to our balcony owners. Recently, we have more and more empty balconies, as well as those on which flowers grow. Perhaps this is from the growing general impoverishment ...

However, this is nothing more than "thinking at the main entrance," inspired by what he saw. Perhaps more important, it seems to me, it is necessary to emphasize in any case the role of His Majesty the Case. Examples of the role played by the case in our lives, "a million and a small truck", and, by the way, the same castle Hluboka nad Vltavoy is another confirmation of this. After all, he could not get to the Schwarzenberg family. Because the son of Prince Adam Schwarzenberg, who bought it from the descendants of Don Marradas in 1661, was born second and, according to family tradition, had to be ordained in knightly times. Moreover, he studied at the Royal Academy in Paris, where he communicated with Cardinal de Richelieu himself and was even accepted by his personal request in 1635 in the Order of Johannite. And then his older brother suddenly dies, and Jan-Adolf I refuses the dignity prepared for him and goes to serve at the court of the emperor. In 1650, he was awarded the Order of the "Golden Fleece", in 1670, he became an imperial earl, the following year he was given the privilege to mint his own coins and even the right to produce people of low origin to a noble title. Distinguished by his economic abilities, he looked out for Hluboka Castle and managed to buy it fairly cheaply, but if it had not happened all this, his older brother could not have bought it and today he would belong to a different genus, and he could have looked completely different!


People at the castle is always a lot. Even in the early morning.

On the other hand, Fate is merciless to noblemen in the same way as to the last of the poor. What is also seen in the Schwarzenberg family. For example, when one of the representatives of this clan Adam-Franz accompanied the emperor Charles VI in 1732 during his journey through the Czech Republic, and one of the hunts became fatal for him. With an unfortunate shot, he was killed, and his wife, Princess Eleanor-Amalia, who amazed the entire Vienna court with her beauty, then locked herself in her estate, focusing all her attention on raising her son.

The marriage of Prince Joseph Schwarzenberg with the Belgian Princess Paulina was also quite happy. After the wedding in 1794, and before 1810, she bore him nine children (and she gave birth ten times, one child died during childbirth!) And was very proud of her pregnancies, followed field work, kept housekeeping, but also found time to paint and even published two notebooks of her etchings with views of Czech landscapes in 1806 -1809.

Castles of the Czech Republic: Castle Hluboka (part three)

Reconstruction of the appearance of the castle Hluboka in the Baroque style.

And when 1 July, 1810, Princess Paulina with her husband and two daughters attended a ball at the Austrian embassy in Paris on the occasion of the marriage of Emperor Napoleon with the Habsburg Duchess Maria-Louise in a wooden pavilion specially built for him, covered with beautiful draperies, she was worn out of the way, and she was wed by the rest of the party. .


View of the castle before its restructuring. Watercolor by J. Gerstmeyer 1832.

Princess Paulina and her daughter Eleonora together with the imperial couple were among the first to be brought out. But not seeing her second daughter, she rushed after her into the burning room ... They only found her the next day and only identified her by her jewels. Moreover, her second daughter was saved, although she received severe burns to her back. On examination of the body, it turned out that the princess was in the second month of pregnancy, so it is rightly said that "the rich also cry."


And here he appears already rebuilt and in the schedule.

But the future builder of Hluboka Castle, Jan-Adolf II, when he traveled to England on behalf of the emperor, was engaged not only in dancing at balls and admiring English castles, but also studied the British method of processing iron, visited the Stonbridge steel factory, was interested in new steam and textile machines. Upon his return, he not only started rebuilding his castle, but also built an English project on his estate in Turrach ... a blast furnace, which in 1841, began to produce iron and steel four times more than the old one.


Karl Philipp Schwarzenberg, Field Marshal, commanding the Allied forces in the “Battle of the Nations” at Leipzig.

He also began planting rapeseed and sugar beet on his lands, which made it possible to establish the first princely sugar factory in 1852. He also ordered to bring the first land reclamation machines from England, and again, following the English model, improved the dairy production. Schwarzenberg cheeses began to win at agricultural exhibitions, breweries brewed excellent beer, the new chemical laboratory in Lovositsy analyzed the soil and the products themselves, which further helped to improve their quality, popularity and ... income. The attitude to forestry and pond farming was radically changed. So in the end, nothing remained on the estate of Schwarzenbergen from the old feudal economy.


And this is the same unfortunate Paulina, burned by the artist Jan Lumpy, which was painted after her death, as hinted at the drawing supplies scattered at her feet and the fallen bust.

Well, and his wife - Eleonora, a princess from Liechtenstein (1812 - 1873), the marriage with which he took place in 1830 in Vienna, a blonde with transparent delicate skin, was a very talented and charming creature. More than 20 for years, she then set the tone at court, and at balls, and at all celebrations, she was always in the center of attention of Viennese society. Like many representatives of the nobility of the time, she painted beautifully. Her teacher was court painter Ferdinand Ruck Schwarzenberg. The princess is not enough to write watercolors, she also mastered the technique of etching and began to depict their landscapes on plates, and then she painted them herself. When the reconstruction of the castle began, she literally penetrated into all its details: how to put upholstery on the walls, how to choose a parquet flooring pattern, gave instructions on the alteration of antique furniture, interior design, even the marking of park alleys - and that is her merit. But was she happy in marriage?


Portrait of Eleonora Schwarzenberg. Artist Josef Krihuber. Watercolor. 1842 year.

Most likely ... not very. For her husband, she gave birth to three children, and her older son Walter was somehow brought up separately from his mother and did not even live to be two years old: in some strange way he fell out of his baby carriage and so unfortunate that ... he died to death. It is not clear why he is absent from the Schwarzenberg family tree. For what to the unfortunate little one such disfavour was shown? Most likely it was her illegitimate child, and that's how it could happen to her, we will never know. However, as we said in Russia - “Foolish business is not cunning” ...


Another portrait of Princess Eleonora by the artist Josef Krihuber.

All, however, note that the princess was a strong woman, resolute and ... resourceful, and few men like these next to him. For example, once the famous Viennese portrait painter Hans Makar, who painted her portrait directly to the castle, was so carried away by the work (or princess) that he forgot about the intended audience with the emperor and missed the regular train to Vienna. But the princess took advantage of the telegraph in the house and ordered a special train for him, which delivered the artist to Vienna on time. Naturally, this required money and not small ones, and the princess’s husband hardly reacted to this spending with enthusiasm. After all, he was not interested in either the "novelties from Paris", which Eleanor wrote out, or the collection of paintings and tapestries. Therefore, according to the memories that have come down to us, quarrels often occurred in the house, and they usually happened every time she wanted to buy or buy some new novelty. Well, she also died not “just like that,” but after a serious illness in 1873, she didn’t see the end of the restructuring of her favorite castle. Jan Adolph II survived her for 15 years, saw the results of his and her labors and died quietly here. True, his son got not only the castle and the enterprises flourishing with him, but also huge debts.

It is known that learning is light, not learning is darkness. And as for the children of the castle owners, they understood it very well and tried to give their children a very good education. For example, in the castle next to the children's rooms, in addition to the babysitting room, there was also a study room, where a specially hired teacher was engaged in teaching children. In particular, with small Jan-Adolph II, German-speaking Emerich-Thomas Gogler was engaged in, who aroused interest in agriculture and forestry in the boy. And after all, he carried him through his entire adult life, he did not become either a weigh-in, a womanizer or a moto. It was not for nothing that when he traveled around England, he wrote down in a diary information about the device of kennels, the size of parks, the age of trees and new agricultural machines. His son Adolf-Josef went his father's way and became, one might say, hereditary entrepreneur. He built a new Schwarzenberg brewery, and the old distillery modernized. He also collected natural formations and minerals, and as an amateur archaeologist he conducted archaeological excavations, studying the prehistoric monuments of the Czech Republic.


And another portrait of Eleanor from the castle of Hluboka by the artist Shrotsberg.

However, not only the gentlemen themselves studied. In the 19th century, support for public education became a tradition of the Schwarzenberg family. The family participated in the creation of the National Museum, supported artists, various schools, and ladies, in addition, also charity. Representatives of culture were invited to the castle, concerts were held, and schools and houses for orphans were taken under guardianship. Sometimes this kind of stock looked pretty funny. For example, in 1931, Princess Hilda became the “godmother” of a new fire hydrant, which the prince couple bought for a team of volunteer firefighters in Gordeyovitsy. In winter, from December to Easter, schoolchildren from poor families were cooked with nutritious soup at the expense of the family. Total for the period 1938-1939. Children received 9087 servings and 280 adults.


The wife of Princess Eleanor, Jan-Adolph II, in the ceremonial attire of a gentleman of the Golden Fleece of the artist Franz Shrotsberg. In the open window on the right, the artist depicted a flag completed by perestroika and a flag flying over its main tower - a sign that the sovereign prince is in the castle.

Well, the last of the owners of the castle, Dr. Adolph and his wife Hilda, were engaged in hunting and research expeditions to Africa. In 1931, they brought from the Congo a large collection of beetles, butterflies and other insects, which they donated to the National Museum in Prague. In 1933, they bought a plot of land of 1500 hectares near Nairobi, where in subsequent years they spent most of the winter. Shortly before the outbreak of World War II, they left the country and never returned to it, and died in a foreign land.

As you can see, a great wealth of happiness does not guarantee, but can help both its people and their country. You probably shouldn't give them the last shirt, nobody will appreciate it anyway, but to support talented young people, to patronize science and the arts, and the same African beetles to collect and send them to collections in museums of their native country is probably quite well-off people feasible.

To be continued ...
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 11 October 2017 07: 23 New
    20
    Continuation of the beautiful cycle
    Nevertheless, the country was still stunning - Austria-Hungary - the country of the Viennese waltz, ancient castles and white uniforms
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 11 October 2017 07: 32 New
    +1
    However, not only the gentlemen themselves studied. In the XIX century, the tradition of the Schwarzenberg clan became support for public education. The family participated in the creation of the National Museum, supported artists, various schools, and ladies, in addition, with charity.

    Very interesting and informative story. I learned a lot about the owners of this castle.
    This quotation from one of the works of Lisa Kleipas can serve as the essence of this chapter, as well as the one you use "The rich also cry.
    “From all that you have heard enough at work,” he said, “you should understand that rich people can be as unhappy as poor people.” Sometimes even more so than the poor.
    “I try to arouse my compassion for them,” I replied dryly. “But I think there is a big difference between real problems and far-fetched ones.”
    1. kalibr
      11 October 2017 07: 36 New
      +6
      There will be more about castles ...
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 11 October 2017 07: 46 New
    +6
    a fire broke out from a fallen candle
    ... Candles fell on the carpet, and he burned like a fire, the weather was windy - and the castle burned to the ground ..
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 11 October 2017 07: 52 New
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      , the weather was windy - and the castle burned to the ground ..

      At they were loafers. Once my lighter exploded, the carpet flared up, so I quickly put out it.
      1. kalibr
        11 October 2017 08: 02 New
        +5
        The fabrics were natural, and even the curtains were saturated with ski shoes, and the ladies in muslin dresses ...
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 11 October 2017 08: 09 New
          +5
          Quote: kalibr
          The fabrics were natural

          So I also have a natural carpet. There were no ladies, one was. laughing
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 11 October 2017 09: 10 New
            +5
            So I also have a natural carpet.

            just yesterday, the Doctor about safety precautions recalled! wink
            from the point of view of historical accuracy V.S. Pikul should not be trusted, but he wrote beautifully.
            The garden and the pavilion were lit with lampions, Schwarzenberg ordered the fireworks to be launched into the sky when Napoleon arrived; the music began to play, and from one lousy candle that fell out of the candelabra, the fabric upholstery flashed at once. Metternich shouted:
            - Save our pride of Europe! - and hurriedly ran away, following the emperor and Maria-Louise ...
            The walls of the pavilion were covered by a canvas painted with oil painting, and it flared up - with a whistle, like gunpowder. Daredevils with their hands tore the upholstery off the walls, trampled the flame with their feet, but everything was in vain. Flames, violently roaring, instantly swept the entire pavilion, panic began. A human screaming herd rushed to the entrance to the garden. But in the only doors of the pavilion the crowd could not push through. The most obedient gentlemen have become bastards! They pushed women with their fists, cut off the train of dresses for them. And the Russian ambassador (A.B. Kurakin - note Mikado) retained innate politeness, almost unthinkable in these conditions ...
            It’s even hard to believe what a well-mannered man who respects women is capable of! Kurakin considered it necessary not only to let the ladies in front of him, but also to honor every ceremonial bow. Already engulfed in flames, the ambassador of Russia in this bestial mess was the only knight. Many women jumped out into the street naked - dresses on them burned down. An eyewitness to this disaster (Ambassador Alexei Kurakin’s brother) informed friends in St. Petersburg that the building had collapsed in two minutes. “Today, the body of Princess Polina Schwarzenberg was taken out of the dust ... she tried to save the children; so disfigured that it was recognized only by its necklace and rings. And Mrs. Labenskaya (wife of the Russian consul - approx. Mikado) at death's door…"
            Kurakina was saved by chance. The ceiling was already collapsing while he bowed there, but then some young animals, eager for salvation, rushed forward, dragging the ambassador along with them. Smoking and blazing fire, Kurakin brought down the railing, he was seized by his legs, dragged into the garden ... Napoleon asked:
            - Who is it? Is the Russian ambassador really? Water, water ...
            There was no water. Gold embroidery on the ambassador's caftan melted, forming a kind of red-hot carapace around the body, and when people tried to tear off the clothes from the prince, they burned - it was so hot, like a frying pan, Kurakina was saved by diamonds! Until all the threads burned out, until the diamonds showered from him, he still carried out the flame, well armored with a layer of diamonds. But he suffered severely: the ambassador’s ears were burned, his skin was peeling off like a glove, besides, the ambassador was well crushed in a crush ... The next day, Paris watched Kurakin leave for the country house in Nelya: in front was a legion of cooks and footmen, doctors and artists, orchestras played, dozens of footmen carried a golden palanquin, in which Kurakin, all bandaged, was located, and embassy members followed him, with them a cheerful colonel Chernyshev ...
            “Stupid people,” Kurakin said to the artist Roy, who was making a portrait from a charred ambassador. - Everyone asks me how much the diamonds lost in the fire cost me, and no one has yet asked: “Sasha, I suppose you were hot? ..”

            V.S. Pikul, "To each his own."
            1. Curious
              Curious 11 October 2017 09: 36 New
              +3
              The fire and rescue service is organizationally part of the French Ministry of Internal Affairs, but there are two exceptions: in Marseilles, firefighters belong to the Navy, and in Paris to the armed forces.
              So the “Paris exception” is a consequence of the fire just described here.
              The fire claimed the lives of 20 people, including the ambassador, and nearly killed the emperor himself.

              Initially, a small ignition quickly gained a gigantic scale, mainly because at that time in history firefighters were civil servants and did not obey the orders of the commander.
              Enraged by the "cowardice" of the fire-fighters, Napoleon immediately issued a decree that henceforth cowardice will be treated with epaulets. Since then, Paris firefighters have become professionals and military all rolled into one.
              A company of guards sappers-firefighters appeared according to Napoleon's decree of July 10, 1810. She was recruited from the army engineering troops. For the first time, sappers of the Imperial Guard paraded in front of Bonopart on the Field of Mars in Paris on November 28, 1811, sitting on fire pipes. The company commander was Captain Provence, reporting directly to the brigadier general, commander of the guard engineering forces, Colonel Kirgener, Baron La Planta.
              Bonopart ordered that, while staying in one of the official imperial residences, half of the company with 4 fire pipes be constantly on duty there. When the emperor went on a campaign, he was to be accompanied by almost the entire personnel of the company with 6 out of eight pipes, which were in service.
              As for the Schwarzenberg clan, they left a noticeable mark in history. Perhaps it makes sense to end the cycle with an article on the Schwarzenbergs.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 11 October 2017 09: 41 New
                +5
                Enraged by the "cowardice" of the fire-fighters, Napoleon immediately issued a decree that henceforth cowardice will be treated with epaulets. Since then, Paris firefighters have become professionals and military all rolled into one.

                the logical decision of a professional military, you can’t do anything. hi
                Perhaps it makes sense to end the cycle with an article on the Schwarzenbergs.

                now, for the sake of interest, I read briefly about Karl Philippe. As I understand it, he was not an outstanding strategist, but he cannot be called a sworn mediocrity and a loser either.
        2. San Sanych
          San Sanych 11 October 2017 19: 03 New
          0
          Quote: kalibr
          The fabrics were natural, and even the curtains were saturated with ski shoes, and the ladies in muslin dresses ...

          and another crunch of French rolls, louder than in Penza, and the grass is greener laughing
  4. Vard
    Vard 11 October 2017 10: 37 New
    +3
    From the memoirs ... On arrival, we were immediately taken to a tavern located above the river ... the end of April and it was pretty cold ... everyone was wrapped in blankets and we ate soup from round bread loaves, it was burning hot, and everyone was warm ... Then for a beer and only then we were taken on a tour ... prices for souvenirs in the castle itself and at the bus stop three times ...
  5. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 11 October 2017 11: 15 New
    17
    "Artificial cave"

    But chic
    Yes, we ourselves are sitting in artificial caves - cavemen are still
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 October 2017 15: 21 New
    +1
    Quote: kalibr
    There will be more about castles ...

    I hope also interesting
    1. kalibr
      11 October 2017 17: 52 New
      +1
      Well, if you liked the three previous articles, then why would the 4th be bad? As well as the fifth, about the castle ... and the sixth about the castle ... All of them are written in one way, equipped with beautiful photos. So I hope you enjoy them too.
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 October 2017 16: 24 New
    +2
    The Schwarzenberg dynasty stands out from other noble families who could only boast about the merits of their ancestors:
    Which Rome once owed its salvation "
    And Schwarzenberg Jan Adolf had the privilege of minting his money and granted the nobility that not all counts could. Jan-Adolph2 could have spoiled his father’s inheritance, and he got down to business. And his wives are also not single: Paulina drew etchings with great landscapes, showed herself to be the Mother with a capital letter. Another in her place could throw tantrums, and she threw herself into the fire to save her daughter.
    Eleanor also had an artistic taste. Agree that this does not happen to everyone.
    "The support of public education has become a tradition of the Schwarzenberg family," which not every dynasty has
    It may be a mistake, but now I can only remember our Stroganov dynasty. Of course there were other dynasties, but now I only remembered the Stroganovs
  8. igor67
    igor67 11 October 2017 16: 25 New
    +2
    here is a fortress in a cave. as local Arabs told me, Salah Din lived there
  9. ruskih
    ruskih 11 October 2017 16: 30 New
    +4
    Thanks for the fascinating journey and story. love I looked at photographs with pleasure.
  10. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 11 October 2017 17: 15 New
    +1
    You are wrong, Vyacheslav Olegovich, oh, how wrong! And on the subject of littered balconies with us, and at the expense of rotten fences from them. And so, the article and the cycle are wonderful, however, as always, if you are not trying to provoke the audience. Well, and we are not students.
    1. kalibr
      11 October 2017 17: 50 New
      +1
      To present you a photo shoot with balconies full of anything ... Yes, there are less of them. Smaller! And I write about it, by the way. And the "fences of everything at hand" were reduced significantly. Previously, as you travel by train to the Crimea, it’s immediately noticeable how you ended up in Ukraine - by fences. Now there are many good ones, one material, one color. And garbage on the side of the road clean !!! Yes. But there is still room to grow. There is!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 11 October 2017 18: 24 New
        +1
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, have you been traveling in Europe for a long time by train or in a car?
        1. kalibr
          11 October 2017 20: 12 New
          +1
          On the bus and walked. Month ago.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 October 2017 02: 49 New
            +1
            I had to ride on the peripheral railway in Catalonia. I was surprised that the stunted beds behind the rickety tyun were in smaller numbers, but exactly like ours. I did not see the balconies littered with trash in Blanes, due to the lack of balconies (in our understanding) in residential buildings, but I observed cluttered roofs.
            1. kalibr
              12 October 2017 06: 54 New
              +2
              Oh, you and I traveled in the same places. Blanes - Marimurtri park, St. John’s castle over the city ... But there were balconies there! Although many, yes, do not perform much. As well as in Malgrad de Mar, where I just lived. And on most, the flags of Catalonia and ... flowers. And another pot at the front door with a flower.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 12 October 2017 19: 26 New
                +1
                Yes, you already mentioned Malgrad, that’s why I can talk about Catalonia with you on equal terms. As for the balconies, well, when the depth of the balcony is less than the width of the parapet on the embankment, then this is not a "square", but an encumbrance.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 11 October 2017 18: 32 New
        +1
        For professional work, you need a computer, the Internet and a personal library, but I have three cube tools, and where to store it? By the way, your daughter, where does the seasonal “rubber” contain?
        1. kalibr
          11 October 2017 20: 14 New
          +1
          I honestly don’t know. But not on the balcony, that's for sure, even though it is glazed. From 2 cars I would have noticed rubber ...
  11. kalibr
    12 October 2017 07: 29 New
    +1
    Quote: San Sanych
    The fabrics were natural, and even the curtains were saturated with ski shoes, and the ladies in muslin dresses ...
    and another crunch of French rolls, louder than in Penza, and the grass is greener

    And there is square and sour - they can also be compared. Interesting, right?