Military Review

PR strategies in the federal electoral process in Russia (1993 - 2012)

102
On the pages of VO, we have repeatedly written about how strong weapon represents PR with its skillful use. And to whom, if not to us, to write about him, since we teach him from 1995 onwards, and not only teach, but also practically apply in life and work in the department of “Philosophy and Social Communications” of the Penza State University. And now it is time to talk about political PR no longer on the examples of “old gray-haired” and foreign experience, but on the basis of our own, Russian reality, literally yesterday. Well, knowledge of the past has always helped at least somehow foresee or understand the future.
IN. Shpakovsky



In 2018, Russia will face regular elections. However, the low level of electoral activity of Russians in elections is a constant of the current stage of development of civil society institutions. The percentage of citizens who have an active electoral right and who have used it during the conduct of a single voting day is not more than 46,25% of the total number of citizens who have an active electoral right from year to year. At the same time, there is a paradox in Russian society based on a disagreement on the significance of elections in a democratic society and the real level of participation in the electoral process. This statement is illustrated by the results of a survey conducted by Levada Center before the single voting day of 14 September 2014: 63% of citizens consider the popular elections of deputies and governors to be a necessary political process, but the actual turnout at the polling stations was less than 50%.


“All to the polls!” The best information is comparative. Let's look at the posters before the 1991 of the year and those that appeared after.

Elections of deputies of the State Duma in 2016, unlike the previous elections of 2011, were neither scandalous, nor sensational by results, or the ability to radically change the socio-economic situation in Russia. But they demonstrated a new model of behavior of voters that has become a reality for Russia, that is, a model of electoral behavior. We will call it the term "model of electoral impotence."

PR strategies in the federal electoral process in Russia (1993 - 2012)


A deliberate refusal to implement the active electoral right by the electorate and a low voter turnout is currently a pan-European trend, and the Russian Federation is no exception. This situation may be due to various reasons, but we will turn to one aspect: the implementation of electoral PR strategies by the main parties over the past 20 years.



The types and types of PR strategies used by the parties in electoral periods underwent significant changes based on the actual political situation. In the strategies of the parties of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the LDPR in 1990, one can see an emphasis on the social type, an appeal to various categories of citizens, to social problems. In 2000, these same parties at various times relied on the image of the leader and on the mass character of the campaign material. However, as a result, they failed to exceed their own 1990 rating. On the other hand, the United Russia party, assembled piecemeal from the warring blocs of the end of 1990, has surprisingly quickly become the ruling party, and its position is not inferior even now. Given this fact, we can conclude that the electoral PR strategy of the party is victorious. The basis of this strategy is an administrative resource, but this does not mean that it is the only means by which a party can achieve leading positions. On the one hand, imperceptible, on the other - the continuous PR campaign of “United Russia” operates not only during electoral periods, but goes far beyond their limits, which causes a significant cumulative effect. The all-Russian United Russia party has been evolving since the beginning of 2000 within the framework of two strategic approaches. 2003 year - social approach, solution of social problems (Chechen war), 2007 year - the electorate votes for the president, not the party (“image strategy”), 2011 year - again image strategy dominates (“reliability and stability”). It is noteworthy that, despite the expansion of the means and forms of PR influence, United Russia highlights the most significant aspects of the work and partially ignores the opportunities presented by the state for campaigning, and also ignores pre-election communication with other election participants.



If we look at the cross-analysis of the presidential elections in the Russian Federation, then the evolution of strategies in generalized terms will take the following form.

Evolution of presidential election PR strategies in the Russian Federation
(1991- 2012)

Election Year B.N. Yeltsin
1991 Social (image of "savior")
1996 Social (activization of the youth electorate)
V.V.Putin
2000 Image (image "hero", "savior")
2004 Socio-Economic
D.A.Medvedev
2008 Weak-social (baseline - continuity)
V.V.Putin
2012 Image ("a person who knows what to do")



As a result of the analysis, we summarize that during the electoral periods of 1991-2012, the general evolution of presidential PR strategies has taken place, from the dominant social strategy to the combination of all elements of all kinds of image-based strategies. In the presidential election of the 20 years under study, a single line of succession can be traced. The system of transfer of power from the current president to his successor (Yeltsin - Putin, Putin - Medvedev) and the support of the candidate approved by the electorate became widespread in the Russian election system.



Victory presidential campaigns, as a rule, used an image strategy, relying on the personality of the candidate and the attitude of the electorate towards him. Program statements and other rational characteristics had little influence on the decisions taken by voters, which reveals an analysis of promises during campaigning and the results of real political activity. However, the evolution of individual strategic elements is clearly visible here. In 1996, it is difficult to say that B. Yeltsin won thanks to the image formed - “screen”; in this campaign, the emphasis was placed on raising the inactive electorate and grouping the electoral core from the youth. Thus, in the absence of a direct appeal to the image of the candidate, but within the framework of the image strategy, all three of the current presidents have a dynamic of supporting points of PR - support (social groups and their interests).



The second component of PR planning during the period of electoral communication, which we singled out earlier, is the definition of a PR campaign model based on an assessment of the resource potential. Analyzing the electoral process in the Russian Federation from 1991 to 2012, it is possible to identify the following used models: market model (“Democratic Choice of Russia”), administrative-command model (“United Russia”), organizational-party model (KPRF, LDPR), complex model (presidential campaign of B. Yeltsin). The most pronounced and stable model in the dynamics of its components from 2003 to 2011 in the elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation is demonstrated by the United Russia party during three electoral periods. Having won elections to the State Duma in 2003 by actively using the media, correctly building and using the image of the main party leader, with extensive involvement of the administrative resource, United Russia during the next two elections (2007 and 2011) only adjusted its strategy, aimed primarily at maintaining the parliamentary status of their party.

Electoral models in the PR strategy of the United Russia party (2003 - 2011)

Election year Model campaign Image leader Basic ideology
2003 Party model with market elements
Image of the leader V. Putin - the image of the "Savior", is built using the method of detuning
Centrism

2007 Administrative Team Model, Soft Method
Image of the leader V. Putin - image of the “Leader”, “father of the people”
State stance, opposing oneself to more radical parties

2011 Administrative Team Model, Rigid Method
Image of the leaders: D. Medvedev - a responsive statesman, V. Putin personifies strong power
Conservative modernism



In general, it can be said that the evolution of the party’s electoral strategy was situational in nature — the party’s programs changed, the image was adjusted, but the basic principles for building the 2003 election campaign were maintained. Its main resource is real power. This model is characterized by high pre-election activity. The success of the party is achieved through interest in the victory of the power vertical, conducting propaganda activities, with the support of these events with financial resources.

The third component of planning a PR campaign and forming a PR strategy is an information interaction strategy. It can be noted that if the increase in the effectiveness of mediated electoral communication in stable democracies was associated with changes in communication technologies, then there are almost no institutional barriers in the transitional systems for communication electoral impact. Weak political parties and undeveloped civil society structures are not able to provide equal access to media for competitors during election campaigns. The danger of the monopolization of the main media channels by the elites that came to power is quite real. It is obvious that this kind of influence of the media on the mass consciousness is carried out in a non-competitive environment. As foreign and domestic studies, including regional ones, show, in the long run, such media policy undermines voters' trust in messages of mass communication channels even more than negative political advertising in stable democracies.



We also note that the cumulative effect takes place in the informational influence on the mass political consciousness: the influence of the media becomes more noticeable if it is multichannel and long-lasting. These sociological studies of national and regional election campaigns 1999 - 2003. suggest that, in general, about two thirds of the respondents fixed one or another impact of the media on their electoral behavior, and 10 - 20% - recognized it as decisive. Based on these and a number of other trends in Russian electoral practice, it is possible to conclude that when explaining electoral behavior, those theoretical PR models that are based on studies of the effects of mediated mass communication look most convincing. Moreover, media technologies have begun to be considered today as one of the main mechanisms for the reproduction of the existing socio-political system. Since the influence of the media has a cumulative effect, their prolonged and multi-channel impact determines not only the corresponding activity vector of the electorate, but also the legitimization of the existing political order as a whole. And this, in turn, is connected with the trust or distrust of voters in relation to the media. Studies show that the formation of media effects during the election campaigns in the Russian Federation is influenced by a number of features. First, a significant degree of monopolization of the Russian media. Secondly, a high level of public confidence (in the mass) in information reported through official channels. According to research conducted by VTsIOM (2013 year), there are two sources of information leading in terms of public confidence: television (60% of respondents trust information received through this channel) and the Internet (22%). Thirdly, the state-owned electronic mass media that dominate in their coverage remain for voters almost the only channel of electoral information, which, given the level of public confidence in them, gives a significant advantage to candidates and parties "from power", especially when using the resources of the administrative-command model communications. Fourthly, there is a clear bias in the activities of the Russian media in the direction of manipulation, as a last resort, of informing and there is no motivation of the electorate to raise consciousness and competence, the formation of an “inclusive potential” - conditions for conscious and active electoral action.



Proper definition of the strategy of interaction with the media will allow the candidate to pursue a rational information policy with minimal financial costs.

In this aspect, a number of activities can be distinguished:
- the formation of ideological dominants;
- identification of preferred channels of information communication;
- formation of its own information flow;
- overlap of the information flow of competitors;
- formation of a journalistic pool.



If we refer to the results achieved by the parties in the period under consideration, we can come to a number of conclusions. Due to the special situation in the election period of the last 10 years, the United Russia party has achieved the greatest success in terms of information about the efficient and effective use of PR. A personal information flow was formed, defining the image, the “face” of the party in the eyes of the electorate. When submitting information, the most common in political PR reception of SCP is used - a unique political proposal, which is based on the fact that most of the arguments are not for reason, but for feelings (in this case, a sense of respect and trust for the leaders and supporters of the party). The party in question has reached the highest level in establishing an information partnership, a priority supply of information to the mass media — the citation in the United Russia press is more than twice as good as the other parties. Television defines the main communication tool in the United Russia election race, which is an obvious preference from the point of view of exposure audience. The election results of the decade are a pronounced manifestation of the previously described cumulative effect associated with the monopolization of the media in the state. However, by 2012 the media rating of United Russia is noticeably reduced, the greatest failure is noted in the field of Internet communication.



For the Communist Party, the most frequently used venues are Interfax, AiF, International Press Club, and Mir News”, Central House of Journalists. However, all these are mainly private entities that do not have a state share in the authorized capital. As for the state-controlled information platforms, the situation here is not the best: ITAR-TASS and RIA-Novosti took a principled stand in relation to the Communist Party, refusing to invite party representatives as newsmakers. For the Communist Party there are both "friendly" media (these usually include patriotic publications: the newspapers "Pravda", "Soviet Russia", "Tomorrow", as well as part of the regional press.), And they are clearly hostile. The “main party newspaper” of the Communist Party is the Pravda newspaper, the party’s official journal is Political Education. Other close communists are considered to be the publication "Soviet Russia", which, however, calls itself an "independent national newspaper." In addition, the Communist Party has its own print media in each regional branch of the party. Now the Communist Party has a kind of information kit for campaigning: its own website, with constantly updated content; accounts in social networks; photo, video and printed material; promotional products; own print media; regular coverage of online media. However, the use of these funds does not provide the party with the necessary results of increasing the electorate, which is recorded by the election results with approximately the same percentage of voters for the Communist Party.



LDPR as the most effective form of agitation uses videos. According to research by the Levada Center of the LDPR, along with United Russia, viewers are leaders: almost half of Russians (by 47%) saw them. Also the second place of the Liberal Democratic Party retains the attractiveness and approval of video materials (27%). The party has accounts in all popular social networks in Russia (Facebook, Odnoklassniki, Vkontakte, Mail.ru, Twitter). In 2011 under the patronage of the party, the LDPR-tube Internet project was created and is being successfully implemented.

Thus, over the 20 years of uninterrupted activity of political consultants in PR campaigns, one can clearly trace the dynamics of the strategies and tactics chosen to promote a particular political entity.



If at the beginning of 1990, both the parties and the presidential candidates tried to express their exclusivity, the difference from the existing, the newness of their views and approaches, the image of the future, in 2000 the main emphasis is on stability, confidence, reliability, and verification. The types and types of PR strategies used by the parties in electoral periods have undergone significant changes based on a plastic social, political, informational reality. In the strategies of the parties of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the LDPR in 1990, one can see an emphasis on the social type, an appeal to various categories of citizens, to social problems. In 2000, the United Russia party consolidated its position by conducting inter-electoral information campaigns, displacing competitors from the political information field, ignoring political debates during the active electoral period, using the resources of the administrative-command model. However, despite the competent and professional use of PR technologies, which provide sustainable intangible capital in the form of the reputation and trust of the electorate, this resource is not unlimited. The 2011-2013 years showed a rapid decline in the ratings of United Russia and its leader Dmitry Medvedev. According to research conducted by VTsIOM, FOM, the RAGS social center, under the president, the level of trust in it varies within 39-40%, and anti-rating reaches 44%. Let's see what will happen in Russia this time!
Author:
102 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 10 October 2017 07: 46
    +6
    I liked the posters! Although I have a lot of different options at home, there are none!
    Well, about today I don’t think, neighing over some.
    1. kalibr
      10 October 2017 08: 05
      +5
      Laughter prolongs life!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 10 October 2017 10: 28
        +3
        yes, it remains to laugh at modern posters. what A young man who looks like Lenin is a tricky move! good
        As foreign and domestic studies, including regional ones, show that in the long run, such a media policy undermines the confidence of voters in messages of mass communication channels

        that is, monotony is harmful. request A reference to the "party line", one party. If anyone is offended by my words, I ask you not to throw anger, I'm not talking specifically about the Communists, but about a psychological phenomenon. stop
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 10 October 2017 12: 07
          +3
          Somehow, someone, not only did the rich on the poster boast without shame (and where did he have this wealth?) And why should people believe?
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 10 October 2017 12: 18
            +3
            Somehow, someone, not only does the rich on the poster boast not ashamed

            one such idiotic poster can "bury" the entire election campaign. The poster, to put it mildly, is not very smart. what "From the great to the ridiculous - one step" (N. Bonaparte). hi
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 10 October 2017 14: 14
              +5
              But the coolest poster ---- on the background of the CIRCUS !!!!!!!! The circus left, the clowns remained!
              They don’t require simplicity from an acrobat ---- his business ---- to break. Short
              Do you smell the circus, George? ..... the distinct smell of the feces of a wild animal ..... The smell of the basement. S. King
              Our life ----- this is far from a theater. It is a solid circus, and we are in the role of the main clowns. A. Sviyash.
              Let go of idiots and clowns from your life, the CIRCUS must tour !!!!!! Faina Grigoryevna Ranevskaya.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 10 October 2017 14: 54
                +4
                Let go of idiots and clowns from your life, the CIRCUS must tour !!!!!! Faina Grigoryevna Ranevskaya.

                Dmitry, you have a wonderful command of quotes. drinks Would you like to write an article with your thoughts on the statements of great people? I speak absolutely seriously! hi
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 10 October 2017 15: 23
                  +1
                  Yes, Nikolai, this is my favorite. I was sometimes upset because of events at work. And as I read these words of Ranevskaya, I, like a stone, fell from my soul. There is a mess --- letting go of myself. Everything is somehow getting better. Good mood
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 10 October 2017 15: 26
                    +3
                    famous quotes are useful to remember. Yes, you are right, it helps to live. hi like a motto, sometimes.
              2. kalibr
                10 October 2017 17: 00
                +2
                Bravo, Dmitry, bravo! By the way, our respected Mikado is absolutely right about the article.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 10 October 2017 17: 09
                  +2
                  if Dmitry has hobbies, and he is well versed in the topic, why not? hi good Dmitry, make a selection of what lies on your soul and describe it in your own words! soldier
            2. Ehanatone
              Ehanatone 23 March 2019 13: 47
              0
              It seemed to me that it looks a lot like a pathos rapper ...
              Why pushed them into the hands of all pageroff, and the hours are ugly glamorous ..
        2. kalibr
          10 October 2017 17: 02
          +2
          Tricky but not professional. Why besides the emblem on the chest there is also a scarf with emblems. Symbols (saints!) Never are applied on the soft foundation according to the canons of heraldry. They are completely superfluous here. In addition, the guy has too sloping shoulders ... subconsciously he is effeminate.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 10 October 2017 17: 08
            +2
            subconsciously he is effeminate.

            indeed, some kind of glamorous communist metrosexual what Thank God, even though the girl is not like Krupskaya. lol
            Symbols .. and then what to apply? only the inscription remains? request
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 10 October 2017 17: 53
              +1
              I thought it was wrong with the poster. The girl is stronger than the guy, her emblem is harder and stronger. The guy pushes her. The past is stronger than the advertised party .... Accessories, again ..... But the red color obscures all the flaws at first. Probably who by blat draws these posters?
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 10 October 2017 18: 01
                +4
                I’ll tell you something about Lenin: I have an uncle (God grant him health!) I taught most of my adult life at the Popov School in Peterhof, a cautorang. About five years ago we were driving in a car together, he says - in the 80s they shot some kind of educational-political-documentary film (as far as I understand, local craftsmen from the school shot request ). About Lenin. lol And they chose him, uncle, so that he depicted Ilyich in the frame. The guy really looks like: of medium height, wide forehead, the line of the chin is the same. yes Grit, transported to the Spill (where the famous hut laughing ), he is there sat on a stone with a distant gaze, portraying a clever idea on his face. what True, the fate of the film does not know. request And the joke itself: my uncle’s name is ... Vladimir Ilyich! good No, friends, the true truth is that I bought it, I sold it! soldier drinks
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 11 October 2017 12: 33
      +2
      Dima, you're right: old posters are made at a high artistic level, as well as greeting cards. Posters and postcards of 40-50 years are executed at a high artistic level, when I look at posters or postcards of that time my eyes rest, and then frank degradation
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 10 October 2017 07: 50
    +5
    A deliberate refusal to exercise active suffrage by the electorate and a low turnout at the polls is currently a pan-European trend, and Russia is no exception.
    ... Drawn to Europe, finally ... wink
    Let's see what will happen in Russia this time!
    .. Everything will continue as before .. From several evils, we will choose the lesser ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 10 October 2017 08: 31
      +2
      In this regard, we can recall the article by Vyacheslav "" UNITED RUSSIA "" --- WHITE GUARD ARMOR TRAIN "". I sometimes reread it and do not understand the meaning of that PR. Although everything that concerns armored trains as such is very pleasant, and before this article I somehow did not think about any topics.
      1. kalibr
        10 October 2017 12: 27
        +3
        Dear Dmitry! There was an idea to connect the article with advertising ... of my novel "Pareto Law", where the United Russia armored train also operates. As you can see, everything is simple. But he is very dear. For the price of a select few. Therefore, I did not do this. But now there were companies that posted it on the network and it can be downloaded. Of course, this is piracy and violation of the rights of publishers. But, the laws - ay, where are you? But you and other VO readers can now download and read them!
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 10 October 2017 12: 42
          +1
          I assumed that sooner or later this will happen, Vyacheslav! German agency !!! Where is it and where are we !!! I am satisfied !!! I hope other books come from there. There was about Egypt. Are there any illustrations? Still, I’m not immediately ready for 35. On the one hand, it’s clear that the author suffers from this free. But ...... Only the necessary and the valuable are stolen.
          I will ask a question about PR in that article later, because I'm not at home, I am not comfortable reading a long article. again.
    2. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 10 October 2017 09: 08
      19
      But lesser evil is still evil
      Yes, and which one is smaller? Often what we consider to be good is evil
      That's the trouble of Russia, that you have to choose from evil)
      It is a pity that the count against all canceled)
      Interesting article
      Richly illustrated
    3. Anatole Klim
      Anatole Klim 10 October 2017 12: 29
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      Let's see what will happen in Russia this time!
      .. Everything will continue as before .. From several evils, we will choose the lesser ...

      I don’t want this anymore, and I really hope that this will not happen again in Russia.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 10 October 2017 15: 34
        +2
        Here I somehow suddenly remembered that there was a time, someone (I do not remember who) was elected by LABOR TEAMS !!!!!!!! And they also could withdraw if it did not correspond !!!!!! We must read about everything again! Probably, the opponents of Stalin changed this, did it territorially. And do not recall now! The last century of the USSR, RI is more difficult for me than Ancient Egypt or Mayan Civilization.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 11 October 2017 07: 12
          0
          Good morning everyone! I read an article about White armored train “United Russia.” In general, I wonder how many people, our contemporaries knew about this armored train, which participated in battles against the Bolsheviks? The article was published before the elections. Of course, it is not by chance, dear Vyacheslav Olegovich. Oh, it is not by chance !!!!! For example, those who dream of a white project will read, be glad and vote? ------ Did I understand that? And those who have pro-Soviet sentiments, learn about the name and don’t vote? They say: "" We thought they were good, but who are they? White armored train? "" That's how I understand that article. And there cannot be such random coincidences. Like, I don’t know, I don’t know.
          For the first time I thought about the scale of the battles of that time after this article. And how all these battles of armored trains took place. And the Reds defeated.
      2. free
        free 15 March 2018 07: 21
        +1
        Quote: Anatole Klim
        Quote: parusnik
        Let's see what will happen in Russia this time!
        .. Everything will continue as before .. From several evils, we will choose the lesser ...

        I don’t want this anymore, and I really hope that this will not happen again in Russia.

        So nothing has changed since then.
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 10 October 2017 08: 12
    18
    Very interesting
    And the technologies that influence the psychology of the masses have remained since the times of the Roman Empire
    Thank you
    1. kalibr
      10 October 2017 08: 14
      +4
      Now in the magistracy on PR and advertising there is even the subject of "Public Opinion Management".
  4. tasha
    tasha 10 October 2017 08: 35
    +3
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, here you are engaged in PR-technologies for a long time. Tell me, have you remembered cases when public opinion management specialists refused to promote any project based on personal convictions? For example, their conscience prevented them from making the best person to make that candidate?
    1. kalibr
      10 October 2017 09: 03
      +2
      Interest Ask! Since 1995, I’ve been doing this and I can say that ... I don’t know people who refused to “work” in good conscience. But on the other hand, I don’t know that very bad people were “promoted” by PR people I knew. So-so people ... but who is not so-so?
      1. tasha
        tasha 10 October 2017 09: 11
        +2
        Thank you for the honest answer.
        I invite all future PR-schiki, as well as lawyers, to show the films "Devil's Advocate" and "Cheating" in the first lesson ...
        1. kalibr
          10 October 2017 12: 21
          +1
          "Cheating or tail ..." is included in the mandatory review with writing reviews. Then another series, "Absolute Power"
      2. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 10 October 2017 18: 07
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        Interest Ask! ?

        Actually the question is naive. Each has its own measure of good and bad. Which suits one ---- does not fit the others. Someone's plans are right, someone's not. And then, there is an advertisement for a product that does not suit everyone. The voter chooses. Here in the store I was offered to put programs that SAMSUNG considers unnecessary from the word at all. He refused. The choice is up to the person. Election humpback, drunk, sow ..... must teach.
    2. Curious
      Curious 10 October 2017 09: 10
      +4
      If you have a conscience, you have nothing to do with PR technology, since these are completely incompatible concepts.
      I am interested in another question - the mechanism of action of all these technologies for ... dusting and deformation of the brain. This is indeed a phenomenon worthy of a detailed article. Every new election, the electorate, as in the tale of Niels, goes to the polls. True, the percentage of those going on is gradually decreasing and will never be compared with the Soviet stop-turnout at the polls, but still there are more than 40% of voters.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 10 October 2017 10: 36
        +3
        Every new election, the electorate, as in the tale of Niels, goes to the polls. True, the proportion of people walking is gradually decreasing

        people stop believing .. hi Not interested. This is probably wrong. recourse After that unprincipled ... (intestinal contents), slap on the knee that I read, finding in the mailbox last year .. no, they even have columns in campaign newspapers humor were .. only it was impossible to read them negative some primitive that PIAR moves that design! stop
      2. kalibr
        10 October 2017 16: 54
        +1
        I wrote, it seems, about the "Zhirinovsky phenomenon", how he was always with the electorate. But the topic is interesting, really. I’ll write it for sure. Moreover, I am currently working on the book "PR Design and PR Promotion" (using examples of my own experience and in general). I promise that it will be.
  5. SMP
    SMP 10 October 2017 10: 32
    +6
    Quote: Reptiloid
    I liked the posters! Although I have a lot of different options at home, there are none!
    Well, about today I don’t think, neighing over some.


    This is not rzhach, for in fact it is ridiculous to try to motivate workers in the USSR not to be distracted at the workplace and to increase labor productivity.


    laughing After these posters, you understand that gay parades are impossible even in the long run, in the distant future.
    Particularly pleasing to the old posters of the fight against alcoholism. laughing
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 10 October 2017 12: 23
      +3
      And how not to laugh, the rich that eh to share their wealth.? Yes, charity happens, but this is another article.
      I have posters about space, about Stalin, about workers, schoolchildren, the Second World War. But ---- modern editions, from small calendars to ~ 1/4 of a full size. But here about drunkenness ---- either. WHY? Somehow I don’t understand them and there are a lot of them somehow ... And it turns out that they drank straight or something, or something. I accidentally saw an advertisement, I went in, and then in the shoe shop, or something, you can order a life size . BUT, for some reason, only against drinking. Horror! You can’t bring home. A very vile green serpent and drunkards too.
    2. Curious
      Curious 10 October 2017 12: 28
      +4
      Only you forgot to indicate that the poster in your comment is an example of a pin-up artist Valery Barykin, created after the collapse of the Union. And then people will think that in the USSR they painted such posters.
      Pin-up art originated in America in the middle of the XNUMXth century and quickly gained popularity around the world. Pin-up (eng. To pin up - to pin, that is, a poster pinned to the wall) is a poster with the image of a beautiful girl with seductive shapes, often half-naked. The artist Valery Barykin got the idea to combine pin-up aesthetics and Soviet-themed posters.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 10 October 2017 12: 45
        +4
        The artist Valery Barykin got the idea to combine pin-up aesthetics and Soviet-themed posters.

        there is creativity and "vice versa." There is one contemporary artist depicting popular characters of the 20th century .. in the popular style! fellow
        and so, yes, funny, especially the collective farmers in the truck cab. good immediately the article of the esteemed Caliber about "potatoes" was remembered wink I would go to such! drinks
        1. Curious
          Curious 10 October 2017 13: 34
          +5
          "... immediately the article of the esteemed Caliber about the" potato "was remembered, I would go to such!"
          The natives with dracoli very calmingly influenced the raging libido of the coming "Don Juans" and quickly directed their energy to peaceful purposes.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 10 October 2017 13: 54
            +5
            Aborigines with a dragonfly

            Somewhere I already saw it ..what Apparently, the Doctor was “on the potato” who gained the basic values ​​of his (now no longer “good” and not “sweet”) worldview. wink Otherwise, where does his formula come from: "hard work and good monk stick".. request laughing
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 10 October 2017 16: 43
              +3
              "My army, you are always on guard, you are my love and destiny!"
              Being, Comrade Sergeant, it means, not only this formula to understand and appreciate wink laughing
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 10 October 2017 16: 49
                +1
                Being, Comrade Sergeant, it means, not only this formula is understood and appreciated wink laughing

                and I thought, on the potatoes, the monks beat with a stick! But it’s like that .. drinks Then this is for you! drinks

                in general, an interesting master. That's where the PR! Put it Pin-Up on your product - there will be no hang-up from buyers! good By the way, he has about Doctors .. wink drinks
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. avva2012
                  avva2012 10 October 2017 16: 58
                  +2
                  Thank! Soviet, therefore, high-quality! wink
                  1. kalibr
                    10 October 2017 18: 07
                    +1
                    Or iron! I had a familiar graduate student from Astrakhan, the institute of the fishing industry. She told how the Vietnamese and Thai people who studied with us all left with ... our refrigerators! "You have the Japanese!" So they are plastic, over - threw it away! And it soldered and work again! Karasho!
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 10 October 2017 18: 17
                      +3
                      So they are plastic, over - threw it away! And it soldered and work again! Karasho!

                      I heard another version, only about domestic TVs. Allegedly, the Japanese took out the insides from them, and used the received boxes instead of the stand-stands for their TVs. As far as the truth, I don’t know, perhaps from the category of tales. request I ask you not to hit hard (to the Doctor) wink
                      Or iron!

                      a couple of years ago I read in Geo about some American plant, where the bulb of the beginning of the 20th century still burns. Then the manufacturers realized that producing a long-lasting unprofitable .. hi
                      1. avva2012
                        avva2012 10 October 2017 18: 48
                        +2
                        Yes, these anti-Soviet banks, a dime a dozen. The most famous, it is about the fact that the Japanese bought CNC machines from us because there were a lot of cast iron. Many believed and still believe.
        2. kalibr
          10 October 2017 16: 50
          +2
          Nikolay, how not ashamed! I didn’t go to them at all - glued a galleon and wrote a dissertation, and Lazarus - peace be upon him, only told them about the sacraments of the Kama Sutra, but did not even touch anyone, just admired the reddening!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 10 October 2017 17: 04
            +3
            Nikolay, how not ashamed

            Vyacheslav Olegovich, yes, I am ashamed .. recourse their thoughts, but vivid fantasies .. repeat . True, the esteemed Viktor Nikolayevich quickly “knocked my thoughts” with hairy, vicious “natives with a dragonfly” what
            Notice how this artist found his niche! good indeed, all ingenious is simple! Take the style, transfer it to our reality, add fantasy - voila hi
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 10 October 2017 17: 19
              +2
              It's a shame it is visible to anyone wink And the artist, well done! Although, why, these are beautiful women PR laughing themselves can.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 10 October 2017 17: 25
                +3
                And the artist, well done!

                indeed, especially when one waitress and a nurse can be drawn. No, he really occupied his niche!

                Although, why, it’s beautiful women who can PR themselves laughing.

                And how! our hairy-bearded man’s destiny .. to admire them and indulge their desires! hi
                1. avva2012
                  avva2012 10 October 2017 18: 01
                  +3
                  And don’t talk! There are studies that have been carried out in German hospices. So, when replacing those who looked after the dying with sisters, such as in the picture, life expectancy increased slightly. hi
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 10 October 2017 18: 06
                    +2
                    as in the picture, sisters, life expectancy increased slightly.

                    the word "bribed mesome". Thinly you said, Doctor! wink good I always said that talking with a beautiful girl is much more pleasant than with a bearded man! laughing that's why he grew a beard so that they would not pester on trifles request
                    1. avva2012
                      avva2012 10 October 2017 18: 54
                      +2
                      "... I met a young man on a bridge and accidentally pricked his beard. Oh, the water turned out to be cold! Summed me up, my beard." Remember, Nikolay about the rules of TB!
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 10 October 2017 19: 05
                        +2
                        Remember Nikolay about the rules of TB!

                        it's holy! soldier easier to be safe than not to be safe. Errors due to frivolity are painfully expensive. stop True .. on them and the basic experience is gained .. what
      2. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 10 October 2017 13: 12
        +1
        Quote: Curious
        Only you forgot to indicate that the poster in your comment is an example of a pin-up artist Valery Barykin, created after the collapse of the Union. And then people will think that in the USSR they painted such posters.
        I thought so, but decided that it was already under Gorbachev. And the plumber directly looks like ours. CAN relatives?
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 10 October 2017 13: 17
          +4
          I thought so, but decided that it was already under Gorbachev. And the plumber directly looks like ours. CAN relatives?

          Situation - Afoni's Dream wink laughing
      3. The comment was deleted.
  6. Looking for
    Looking for 10 October 2017 16: 24
    +1
    I liked the poster, “Success of Altai, a rich governor.” The next, I think, will be, “Success of Altai, a dumb herd.”
  7. kalibr
    10 October 2017 16: 55
    +1
    Quote: Curious
    If you have a conscience, you have nothing to do with PR technology, since these are completely incompatible concepts.
    I am interested in another question - the mechanism of action of all these technologies for ... dusting and deformation of the brain. This is indeed a phenomenon worthy of a detailed article. Every new election, the electorate, as in the tale of Niels, goes to the polls. True, the percentage of those going on is gradually decreasing and will never be compared with the Soviet stop-turnout at the polls, but still there are more than 40% of voters.

    You are wrong, PR professionals do not lie. And do not lie, then ... then there is a conscience. No - this is when the Threes!
    1. Curious
      Curious 10 October 2017 17: 38
      +4
      "... PR professionals do not lie." Did I write somewhere that they are lying? Of course they don’t lie, they carefully circumvent the truth, they don’t tell it. This is a kind of informational prejudice, when through various verbal manipulations the object is distracted from the essence and a distorted image of the desired individual is formed in his brain.
      PR-technology is very suitable for the definition of "theft on trust." “Theft of another’s property or acquisition of the right to another’s property through abuse of trust” (part 1 of article 159 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).
      The property in this process are the votes of voters.
      1. kalibr
        10 October 2017 18: 03
        +1
        I was at a pre-election meeting of one of our deputies (candidates), a businessman, a doctor of law, professor (!), A member of the academic council (!). People say: put the cemetery in order. He - yes, we will. And then everything was overgrown with trees! But not everyone knows (!) How to plant a tree on a grave, so oncology is immediately in the family. Have you heard about this Viktor Viktorovich? Me not! It’s a pity there is no doctor, he must know, or at least hear about it. I wanted to ask him. And if self-seeding ... but decided not to touch ... Is that how? No PR is needed, huh?
        1. Curious
          Curious 10 October 2017 18: 24
          +3
          “Many things are incomprehensible to us, not because our concepts are weak, but because these things are not included in the circle of our concepts.”
          Kozma Prutkov
          This is about trees. As for your candidate, he obviously, either out of greed or arrogance (judging by his degrees and titles), refused the services of PR specialists. They would have presented all this in such a way that as a result of the personal contribution of the candidate, a number of measures had been taken to reduce the level of cancer.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 10 October 2017 19: 16
            +2
            They would have presented all this in such a way that as a result of the personal contribution of the candidate, a number of measures had been taken to reduce the level of cancer.

            "where you turn, it happened." It’s like Anton (3x3save) aptly said - if Ivan the Terrible ordered to chop off the head of a flying slave, the “patriots” can confidently say that he did not slow down the development of aviation in Russia, but invented domestic air defense.
            The screamer was a brilliant speaker, and when he happened to prove something more complicated, he used to jump from side to side and quickly twist his tail, which for some reason was especially convincing. They said of a screamer: he can very well prove that black is white. (J. Orwell, "Farmyard"). This is from the category of Goebbels, but still ..
            1. kalibr
              11 October 2017 07: 32
              +1
              You read another story by J. London, "The Strength of the Strong." He is in our program!
              1. Curious
                Curious 11 October 2017 13: 27
                +1
                Reading sometimes about those books that are included in your program, one gets the impression of some infantility or something. Well, the girls "Little mistress of a big house" was recommended. All these books are for senior school age, but not for people who are preparing to manipulate the mass consciousness from day to day. Or what kind of consciousness, such and manipulators?
                1. ruskih
                  ruskih 11 October 2017 16: 04
                  +3
                  Or what kind of consciousness, such and manipulators?

                  You're right. What they wanted, they got it.
                2. kalibr
                  13 October 2017 11: 23
                  0
                  We don’t give the little mistress ... We give "Lady’s happiness" and "Money changers", and also "1984", "451 Fahrenheit", "And trees like horsemen", "Predatory things of the century" and "Death of the 31st department". ..
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 13 October 2017 12: 41
                    0
                    Easy ways go. But what about the classics? The Bible, Marcus Aurelius. And Maxwell, Ann Lindbergh finally.
                    1. kalibr
                      16 October 2017 12: 59
                      0
                      Excess knowledge is harmful as well as lack thereof. We give what serves successful work, why unnecessary? The criterion is practice. Since 1995! At the lecture, I even know when to hear laughter and where to withstand a dramatic pause.
                      1. Curious
                        Curious 16 October 2017 13: 24
                        0
                        It turns out pure handicraft.
        2. ruskih
          ruskih 10 October 2017 20: 58
          +5
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, I want to ask for a long time. Do your students have such a discipline as critical thinking and how much time is devoted to it?
          1. Curious
            Curious 10 October 2017 21: 45
            +3
            In our school, the basics of critical thinking began to take place in grades 10-11. I don’t know if it will help or not.
            1. ruskih
              ruskih 10 October 2017 22: 50
              +4
              Victor Nikolaevich, "hope dies last." In principle, "what the hell is not joking," and suddenly it will help! As I would like to see it during our lifetime.
          2. kalibr
            10 October 2017 21: 53
            +2
            There is no such discipline. You can go to the website of Penza State University, recruit the department of PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS and see all of our disciplines and even work programs with the COMPETENCIES they teach. My discipline MASTERS (not bachelors!) Is called "Public Opinion Management Technologies." But we certainly teach them all the time. For example, I always tell them that in order not to become a victim of propaganda, one must seek and find comparative information, and most importantly rush to conclusions, because the truth has the property of "surfacing." They use dissertations, scientific articles. They are regularly given examples of propaganda and agitation, and examples of counter-propaganda. So critical thinking develops along the way.
            1. Curious
              Curious 10 October 2017 22: 16
              +4
              It is also advisable for them to talk about the psychology of thinking, mental traps, irrationality, analysis of arguments, deductive and inductive logic, scientific methods in real life, probabilities, principles of decision making and problem solving. Then they will be familiar with the basics of critical thinking.
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 10 October 2017 23: 22
                +5
                Quote: Curious
                It is also advisable for them to talk about the psychology of thinking, mental traps, irrationality, analysis of arguments, deductive and inductive logic, scientific methods in real life, probabilities, principles of decision making and problem solving. Then they will be familiar with the basics of critical thinking.

                Dear Colleague! hi Is there literature on these issues?
                It would be interesting to read.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 10 October 2017 23: 30
                  +3
                  Check out Volkov’s list (https://evolkov.net/critic.think/bibliography/bi
                  bliogr.crit.think.html). There are literature of various levels.
                  If you know the enemy language - Diane F Halpern. Thought and Knowledge. An Introduction to Critical Thinking. 5 ed. 2014. But it’s unlikely to be found on the net for free.
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter 10 October 2017 23: 34
                    +6
                    Thank! It is very interesting to compare with what I once knew and with my own thoughts.
            2. ruskih
              ruskih 10 October 2017 22: 45
              +4
              For some reason I was sure that this discipline exists, but I did not see it there, therefore I asked. All the same, sorry. To tell students this is one thing and it is precisely “developing along the way”, I wonder why it is still not a basic discipline?
              1. Curious
                Curious 10 October 2017 23: 02
                +3
                From it will be obvious harm. Half will understand that they went the wrong way. The second half, having mastered the skills, tortures teachers with criticism. No one is interested in such critical thinking.
                1. ruskih
                  ruskih 10 October 2017 23: 08
                  +4
                  Such a result is quite possible, depending on how they teach. Any criticism must be reasoned.
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 10 October 2017 23: 23
                    +4
                    Here, it’s still important not only how, but who. According to the idea of ​​PR specialists, a teacher with a philosophical education will not work, as he will have a tendency towards formal logic, which is inevitable for philosophers.
                    They need a psychologist who will focus specifically on the psychology of thinking, rationality, irrationality. I'm afraid that with these tensions in universities.
                    1. ruskih
                      ruskih 10 October 2017 23: 53
                      +4
                      Here it is still important not only how, but who.

                      Yes, 100% agree with you, in most cases it is really more important who will teach. How many times was convinced from my own experience.
                    2. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter 11 October 2017 00: 04
                      +6
                      Quote: Curious
                      Here it’s still important not only how, but who. According to the idea of ​​PR specialists, a teacher with a philosophical education will not work

                      I agree, this is pure psychology. PR is manipulation of consciousness, this is clearly an area of ​​psychology.
                      But not philosophy at all.
                      1. avva2012
                        avva2012 11 October 2017 05: 50
                        +2
                        It would not be bad, for starters, to return, as an object to schools, logic.
                    3. kalibr
                      11 October 2017 07: 30
                      +2
                      That is why it is mandatory to have EXACTING professional teachers. For example, we have two "firma" people giving courses, and there are two practices, that is, those who worked or are working.
                2. kalibr
                  11 October 2017 07: 27
                  +2
                  Yes you are right. Even in the 2nd year, techie students come up to me and admit that they would like to study with us, that they have come to the wrong place. Others - which is definitely not there, but study here because of ... the availability of budget places. And the critics of the teachers - yes enough and there will only be more. Imagine a person never had his own magazine, but talks about the sociology of mass communication. It’s ridiculous. Another did not even have a flower shop, but he reads logistics.
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 11 October 2017 08: 37
                    +4
                    The third, playing a pot of airplanes, leads the aviation complex. Everything in the spirit of the times
  8. kalibr
    10 October 2017 16: 58
    +2
    Quote: Reptiloid
    On the one hand, it is clear that the author suffers from this free. But ...... Only the necessary and the valuable are stolen.

    So I think so too. Somehow I will survive these lost euros. In the end, you can’t get all the money. But then you have to read for a long time - 3 books, 6 volumes.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 10 October 2017 18: 30
      +1
      Quote: kalibr
      . Somehow I will survive these lost euros. .

      I think you haven’t lost anything yet, it’s just that the book has become available for those who could not buy. But the next step may be a printed book bypassing you.
  9. Bastinda
    Bastinda 10 October 2017 16: 59
    +5
    The main achievements of democracy: 1. Removed (not shown) real candidates. 2. Exit to the arena of clowns (Zhirik, Zyuggy) distract part of the audience. 3. The candidate “against all” was removed; 4. The minimum turnout was removed. 5. Voted dependent (marginal) regions, Chechnya and Dagestan.
    And so! A miracle happened! The power is again the great fighter against corruption, and the restorer of Russia ,,, GDP!
  10. ingenera
    ingenera 10 October 2017 17: 29
    +2
    Quote: Seeker
    I liked the poster, “Success of Altai, a rich governor.” The next, I think, will be, “Success of Altai, a dumb herd.”

    Steeper only: "Chelyabinsk without plants!" That is, "For 100% unemployment in the city"
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 10 October 2017 18: 22
      +2
      Quote: ingenera

      Steeper only: "Chelyabinsk without plants!" That is, "For 100% unemployment in the city"
      The word circus is written 2 times ---- amplification.
      Against the background of the madhouse, it’s possible.
  11. kalibr
    10 October 2017 21: 45
    +1
    avva2012,
    A specific person from a particular institution, why should she lie to her ...
  12. kalibr
    10 October 2017 21: 47
    +3
    Quote: Reptiloid
    the next step may be a printed book bypassing you.

    This is out of the question. Now with this strictly. Court, fast and big suit. One must dream of such a thing! I only had one such case in the 90s. It’s still nice to remember how I ...
  13. kalibr
    10 October 2017 21: 55
    +3
    Quote: Curious
    refused PR services

    You correctly noticed!
  14. Skay
    Skay 11 October 2017 09: 19
    0
    Summary of the article: how to hang noodles on your ears.

  15. ruskih
    ruskih 11 October 2017 16: 10
    +5
    avva2012,
    It would not be bad, for starters, to return, as an object to schools, logic.

    Well. what do you. Well this is now not relevant. It is easier to control a mass that does not know how to think logically. And then they will ask uncomfortable questions, is it necessary?
    And if without jokes, then all this is very sad to watch.
    1. kalibr
      14 October 2017 14: 00
      +1
      Logic is taught now at universities. And why is it sad? But the ox does not experience an inferiority complex from the fact that he is an ox? Well, ox, and thank God. There is bread, there are spectacles. Again, the cow wife is nearby. Things are good! And with exceptions, life is difficult, they all learn to strain the brain, they think about some sense of life. And here he is: he raised the loot, pushed himself with ... drank well, had a good bite ... In their own way these are happy. They pity you!
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 15 October 2017 00: 09
        +2
        laughing Vyacheslav Olegovich, maybe the ox is already and anyway. They didn’t ask him. But what is it like for a wife - a cow next to .... to put it mildly, an inferior husband to live?
        (an ox is a castrated bull) Yes, and they say after the procedure, growth of horns is observed. wink
        1. kalibr
          15 October 2017 22: 50
          +1
          I somehow didn’t think about it ... about the ox. You reminded me well of the features ... of his anatomy!