Military Review

October 4 marks sixty years of the beginning of the space age

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2017 year is rich in space anniversaries, the next of them we celebrate October 4. Exactly 60 years ago, the successful launch of the first artificial Earth satellite took place. The event that happened on October 4 1957, forever entered into history, becoming the first step of mankind on the way to the development of near-Earth space, a kind of beginning of the space age. The next sixty years have passed under the sign of space exploration, accommodating a large number of equally bright and impressive achievements, which have become the personification of the triumph of science and technology. And this event itself became a powerful inspirational factor for young people, which enabled them to attract new personnel to the rocket and space industry.


The creation of the first artificial satellite of the Earth in OKB-1, which was headed by Sergey Pavlovich Korolev, began in November 1956 of the year. The satellite was originally developed as a very simple apparatus, so it received the code designation PS-1 ("The simplest satellite - 1"). Scientists A. V. Bukhtiyarov, M. V. Keldysh, V. I. Lapko, N. S. Lidorenko, G. Maksimov, M. worked on the creation of an artificial satellite of the Earth, headed by the founder of practical cosmonautics S. P. Korolev. K. Tikhonravov, B. S. Chekunov and many other Soviet scientists and engineers.

The first artificial satellite of the Earth was a spherical container, its diameter was equal to 580 mm. The satellite hull consisted of two half-shells with docking frames interconnected with 36 bolts. The tightness of the joint was provided with a special rubber gasket. After the assembly was completed, the container was filled with dried nitrogen to a pressure of 1,3 kgf / cm2. In the upper semi-envelope of the satellite there were two antennas with a length of 3,9 meters and two - 2,4 meters, as well as a spring mechanism that spread the pins at an angle of 35 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the container. Antennas of the first artificial satellite of the Earth were developed in the laboratory of MV Krayushkin.


The upper half-shell of the satellite outside was covered with a special protective screen, and on its inner surface was a bracket designed for mounting a radio transmitter (developed by V. I. Lappo from SRI-885, chief designer M. S. Ryazan). The power supply unit, which included three batteries based on silver-zinc cells, was developed at the Institute of Current Sources under the direction of N. S. Lidorenko. In addition, the first satellite also included a thermoregulation fan, a remote switch, dual thermal switches, and control bar and thermal switches.

A radio transmitter with a power of 1 W, which was located in the satellite case, periodically emitted signals of a duration of 0,4 seconds alternately on 7,5 and 15 waves of meters. The duration of the signals changed when the temperature decreased (below 0 degrees Celsius) or increased (above 50 degrees Celsius) temperature and when the pressure dropped below 0,35 kgf / cm2, this was due to the operation of one of the control thermo or pressure switches. At the same time, the temperature inside the satellite was maintained with the help of a fan, which was triggered by a thermal relay when the temperature rose above 23 degrees. The power supplies installed on the satellite ensured its continuous operation for two weeks. The total mass of the PS-1 satellite was 83,6 kg. For docking the satellite with the launch vehicle, a specially designed transfer bay was provided. The separation system ensured a successful discharge of the head fairing, as well as the separation of the satellite from the central unit of the rocket.

The work of designers and production workers during the creation of the first artificial satellite of the Earth was carried out simultaneously, the cause was very tight deadlines. The main difficulty in creating the satellite was in the production of spherical half-shells by hydro-stretching, their subsequent welding with the frame and polishing the outer surfaces. Even the smallest scratches were not allowed on these surfaces. Welding of the seams was supposed to be hermetic, the compliance with this condition was monitored with X-rays, and the Soviet engineers checked the tightness of the assembled container with a special helium leak detector PTI-4, the official website of Roscosmos reported.


Successful launch of a satellite into orbit was impossible to imagine without a launch vehicle. It was created by Korolev on the basis of the intercontinental ballistic missile P-7 (8K71). With the help of this rocket, two PS-1 and PS-2 satellites were successfully launched into Earth orbit, respectively. The name “Satellite” for this rocket (GRAU 8K71PS index) was assigned after confirmation of the fact that the payload was removed to the earth orbit. The rocket 8K71PS arrived in Tyura-Tam (in the future Baikonur cosmodrome) 22 September 1957 of the year. Compared with the standard version, it was significantly lightened: the massive head of the ICBM was replaced by a satellite switch, one of the telemetry systems and radio control equipment was removed from the rocket, and the automatic engine shutdown was simplified. These design solutions have allowed to reduce the mass of the rocket directly to 7 tons.

The preparation of the 8K71PS rocket at the technical position was carried out under special control and supervision, with special attention being paid to monitoring the correctness of passing commands to reset the head fairing and the subsequent separation of the satellite from the rocket. At dawn 3 October 1957, the rocket was already docked with the first artificial satellite of the Earth and carefully removed from the assembly and test building of the landfill. Next to the rocket were the creators of the world's first space complex. At the launch position, using a powerful boom, the rocket was installed in an upright position, after which they began to pump fuel from rail tank cars into its tanks. Everything was ready for launch, which will forever change the history of mankind, becoming a new milestone in scientific and technological progress.

The next day, October 4 1957, from the territory of the 5-th Research Facility of the USSR Ministry of Defense, later known as the Baikonur cosmodrome, by which it is known to this day, the first successful launch of artificial Earth satellite. The launch was carried out in 22: 28 Moscow time. The launch vehicle brought the first satellite into an elliptical orbit at the apogee height of 947 kilometers, at its perigee - 288 kilometers. On the 315 second after launch, the satellite was successfully separated from the rocket, after which it began to transmit the famous “Bip ... beep ... beep” signals. At the test site, these satellite signals caught two minutes, after which it went beyond the horizon. People at the Baikonur Cosmodrome exulted, they ran out into the street and shouted “Hurray!”, Rocked the designers and the military.


Thus, PS-1 became the first artificial object in the world created by man and put into Earth orbit. For each orbit around the earth, the satellite spent 96 minutes 10,2 seconds. Already 5 October 1957 of the year in 1: 46 satellite passed over Moscow. In total, he was in orbit 92 of the day, having completed 1440 revolutions around our planet during this time and flying around this time around 60 millions of kilometers. Its radio transmitters on batteries worked for 21 days after launch, sending their signals to Earth.

Even at the first turn of the flight, a TASS report was sounded, stating that as a result of the extensive and hard work of the design bureaus and research institutes in the USSR, the world's first artificial satellite was created. After 4 October 1957, the Russian word "satellite" immediately entered the languages ​​of many peoples of our planet. In the October days of 1957, many foreign newspapers came up with headlines that reflected the full admiration for the result achieved by the USSR. People began to realize that humanity has one single home, one common planet and a goal that is able to unite the peoples of the world - the study of the Earth for the benefit of all people. Outer space became the arena of fruitful scientific cooperation between countries, which was carried out even in the midst of the Cold War, and world science was enriched with a huge amount of new truly invaluable data and knowledge.

Already in September, 1967, the International Astronautical Federation announced the date of October 4 - the Day of the Beginning of the Space Age of Humanity. In our country, the launch date of the first artificial satellite of the Earth is also the day of the Space Forces. This professional holiday was established in Russia by presidential decree in 2002. It is worth noting that it was precisely parts of the launch and control of spacecraft that launched and monitored the flight of the first satellite. In the future, the first manned flight into space and many Soviet and Russian, as well as international space programs were carried out with the direct participation of military units launching and controlling spacecraft. In connection with the constant growth of the role of space in matters of national security, by decree of the President of the Russian Federation in 2001, an independent branch of service, the Space Forces, was created in the country. Today, the Space Forces are part of the Russian Armed Forces VKS.

Layout of the first satellite at the test site

The launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth will forever remain the most important milestone in the history of mankind. The scale of this event and its value for all the inhabitants of the Earth are remembered to this day. So Rene Pishel, who is the head of the European Space Agency (ESA) in Russia, in an interview with RIA News noted that the launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, which was carried out by 60 years ago, opened up a new space age for humanity. This launch has become an inspirational factor for the youth of many countries. Even today, in the ESA you can meet people who consider the date of the beginning of their career in the space industry namely 4 October 1957.

Information sources:
https://www.roscosmos.ru/23099
https://glavportal.com/materials/60-лет-полет-нормальный
https://ria.ru/science/20171003/1506090525.html
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  1. Herculesic
    Herculesic 4 October 2017 06: 42 New
    +5
    Blah, blah, blah, I won’t shout, I want my Russia to regain forever the title of first in space exploration, and congratulate everyone involved in the holiday! !! soldier drinks hi soldier
    1. Finches
      Finches 4 October 2017 07: 05 New
      +16
      One fact has always amazed me and amazes me - the terrible destructive war literally ended! The entire European part of the country lay in ruins, a huge number of smartest heads and golden hands fell on the battlefields, but! BUT! People build Baikanur and are the first to conquer space, which the Americans, who lived on their island under a peaceful sky above their heads, where the best learned planets, the gold reserves of Europe flocked, low bow to the belt of these people! And that means not so bad was the USSR, as liberals squeal, now we’re free to eat and finish building ... That's why the West doesn’t like us, because it’s afraid! He knows that the Russian people cannot be defeated in the war, so he wanted to buy his "elite" with jeans and chewing gum and bought a little, but then, no, the country began to rise again: bad or good, but we are building a spaceport! Nobody does this in the world anymore, we are designing a manned station, a bridge to the Crimea is a unique structure, we are doing it, we are producing competitive weapons ... and I’m generally silent about Russian hackers yes ! With a holiday and a deep bow to that generation of People who made the USSR, Russia for centuries first in space!
      1. Herculesic
        Herculesic 4 October 2017 07: 21 New
        +2
        To you from me + !!!
        1. Finches
          Finches 4 October 2017 07: 24 New
          +3
          Thank you! hi And you ++ drinks
      2. Bare
        Bare 4 October 2017 08: 15 New
        +5
        The answer is simple. The basis of the Russian people is the spiritual principle, the basis of the West and the Americans is money and the thirst for profit.
        Therefore, the Russians were, are and will always be everywhere and always ahead on a dashing horse!
        Russian is not a nationality, this affiliation is also a force in this!
        1. ruskih
          ruskih 4 October 2017 10: 47 New
          +5
          The answer is simple. The basis of the Russian people is a spiritual beginning,

          You are absolutely right! good
    2. Blombir
      Blombir 4 October 2017 11: 20 New
      +2
      60 years! How fast time flies. Era. Congratulations to all on this anniversary. I am sure we will take revenge in space.
      1. NordUral
        NordUral 4 October 2017 12: 41 New
        +2
        And I'm sure! But not with these that are now in power!
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Masya masya
    Masya masya 4 October 2017 07: 41 New
    +11
    Such a baby is bright! Blinked ...
    Living seemed in the midst of the night luminaries ...
    And for the first time I experienced pride
    For my people that I embodied a fairy tale

    In real life! .. Let the rockets roar
    Let their power and type amaze!
    But people of the whole planet will remember
    The first signals from Space: "beep, beep ..."!
    1. novel66
      novel66 4 October 2017 09: 41 New
      +4
      hi Masenka! hi love and we will be the first on the moon drinks (well, if the Chinese do not get ahead crying )
    2. vovanpain
      vovanpain 4 October 2017 10: 28 New
      +6
      Quote: Masya Masya
      For my people that I embodied a fairy tale

      Marishka Vitalievna! love Greetings from the bottom of my heart. hi But what kind of people, the country only only began to recover after a terrible war, but already thought about and implemented it. Honor to them be Glory. And this future astronaut is in your collection. love hi
      1. Masya masya
        Masya masya 4 October 2017 11: 05 New
        +7
        Hello, everyone !!! love
        love
  4. Old26
    Old26 4 October 2017 07: 54 New
    +8
    Quote: Finches
    One fact has always amazed me and amazes me - the terrible destructive war literally ended! The entire European part of the country lay in ruins, a huge number of smartest heads and golden hands fell on the battlefields, but! BUT! People build Baikanur and are the first to conquer space, which the Americans, who lived on their island under a peaceful sky above their heads, where the best learned planets, gold reserves of Europe flocked, could bow to the bottom of these people!

    This is a mystery to the West. Russia was for them a "terra incognita" and most importantly it was impossible to predict its actions (by Western standards). You're right. Tens of millions died, but the Russian land never became impoverished with its minds and golden hands.
    Although now myths are already appearing sometimes. By this time, the European part was no longer in ruins (in the sense as is usually implied). For 12 years, the Soviet people have restored the vast majority of what was destroyed. Not everything, of course, could have been restored, but the ruins were gone.
    And most importantly, people. People understood that it was NECESSARY to do this. After all, any victory of the USSR, whether on the battlefields, on grain fields or in space, is an indicator of the system.
    Now you recall youth when he worked at the Design Bureau and handed over their products. in order to be delivered on time, we worked for days, slept on mattresses in the hall where the product stood behind the computer racks. And no one said that "they will not pay overtime - I will not work" ...
    And yes, everyone involved now and previously involved - with a holiday.
  5. Million
    Million 4 October 2017 08: 16 New
    +2
    And this is 12 years after the terrible war. What did the young reformers do after the collapse of the USSR? But nothing! Only trade, and some weapons, again, not revolutionary new
  6. Gardamir
    Gardamir 4 October 2017 08: 41 New
    +10
    Long live the Soviet Union!
  7. pvv113
    pvv113 4 October 2017 09: 15 New
    +3
    All with the anniversary of the space age! Glory to the Soviet people - space explorers!
  8. rocket757
    rocket757 4 October 2017 09: 47 New
    +7
    Cool, we are "terra incognito" for the west!
    I always thought that we were just RUSSIAN PEOPLE ... such as we are.
    You can be proud of your ancestors !!!
    Moreover, mine directly participated in the case.
  9. evil partisan
    evil partisan 4 October 2017 09: 51 New
    +2
    Great day. Anniversary. And on TNT and STS, etc. TV channels, ordinary shnyaga ...
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 4 October 2017 12: 21 New
      +2
      And "these" are simply not able to understand what we were then, or rather, not even we, but our grandfathers and fathers.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 4 October 2017 13: 04 New
        +6
        For shnyaga do not ... let's not talk about the sad.
        One generation has been brought up in the spirit of democracy and freedom, consider slavery of things and desires, in a simple way - BROTHERS.
        We must think about those who follow, otherwise they live in a world of computer fantasies !!! WE WORK FRIENDS !!!
  10. Catherine II
    Catherine II 4 October 2017 10: 43 New
    +3
    Great country Union of Soviet Socialist Republics!
    It does not matter who you are, Russian, Ukrainian, or representatives from the 15 republics - they had one idea.
    To the heroic people of the USSR, thanks to descendants!
  11. NordUral
    NordUral 4 October 2017 12: 18 New
    +2
    I want this time to be back for all of us!
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 4 October 2017 13: 05 New
      +5
      Itself ... nothing, it is necessary to WORK!
  12. Roust
    Roust 4 October 2017 15: 13 New
    0
    I join in the congratulations !!! Happy Holidays !!! Those who served on Majdanak Mountain will never forget the white domes of towers, huge telescopes, snow above the pillars, beautiful mountains and a clear starry sky. ... Happy Holiday !!!
  13. Andrew3000
    Andrew3000 4 October 2017 15: 46 New
    +1
    The first satellite launch by schoolchildren
  14. SpaceCom
    SpaceCom 4 October 2017 17: 58 New
    +2
    Happy holiday to all! Today is not only 60 years since the launch of 1 satellite. I also want to congratulate all the comrades-in-arms on the day of the aerospace forces (there are such military-space forces) and the 60th anniversary of the creation of the Main Testing Center (who knows). All these holidays are essentially one! Good luck friends!
  15. IQ12NHJ21az
    IQ12NHJ21az 4 October 2017 21: 16 New
    +2
    And why is the "world community" silent about this? If the Americans were the first to launch the satellite, now they would broadcast about this outstanding event from every iron!
  16. Karen
    Karen 4 October 2017 22: 32 New
    +1
    I want to once again draw attention to the fact that the launch of the first AES caught fear on a potential enemy, and they wanted to start bombing us while the rockets were still too small. Churchill dissuaded them from such a move.
    ... And here they made instruments for spacecraft. Koresh said that somehow they received an order from Moscow to continue not to use gold-plated wires ... (well, don’t spit, there was no theft :)). Prescribed to use pure gold wires only :)
    ____
    I still remember how about 40 years ago in a bus I heard a conversation between two lieutenant colonels, where they were outraged by the presence of 3 million engineer loafers in the country :)
    _________
    Happy Holiday !!!
  17. The comment was deleted.
  18. Old26
    Old26 4 October 2017 22: 52 New
    +3
    Quote: IQ12NHJ21az
    And why is the "world community" silent about this? If the Americans were the first to launch the satellite, now they would broadcast about this outstanding event from every iron!

    Yes, they would. This for them would be an indicator of the superiority of their system over ours. But alas, they were not lucky. They did not take us seriously ...

    And now, with your permission, some photos from the archive.

    Hotel "Orbit". Star town. Mid 80s


    Centrifuge building. Star town. Late 90s


    DC building in Star City



    Colleagues on the delivery of the simulator


    Another Salute. Star town


    Already the "World". There


    Leninsk. Monument of the Soyuz launch vehicle, which the locals usually called "They didn’t take it ..."


    So rested when the time came. Leninsk


    And at such stands we spent the night when we handed over the product and was running out of time
    1. Finches
      Finches 4 October 2017 23: 31 New
      +1
      Vladimir! hi My respect! Happy Holiday! drinks
  19. Old26
    Old26 4 October 2017 23: 34 New
    0
    Quote: Finches
    Vladimir! hi My respect! Happy Holiday! drinks

    Thank. Mutually
  20. Old26
    Old26 4 October 2017 23: 51 New
    +1
    Quote: Karen
    Prescribed to use pure gold wires only :)

    Honestly for the first time I hear about wires made of pure gold. Gold as a conductor is cool ...
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 5 October 2017 08: 05 New
      +4
      Cool, when gold wires were replaced with aluminum !!! For weight loss ??? Saving ??? Manufacturability ??? - ha ha ha ... but it was NOT FUNNY for us, the equipment BROKEN faster than the product flew !!!
  21. Karen
    Karen 5 October 2017 00: 40 New
    0
    Quote: Old26
    Quote: Karen
    Prescribed to use pure gold wires only :)

    Honestly for the first time I hear about wires made of pure gold. Gold as a conductor is cool ...

    Why for the first time. In another enterprise, this was also the case: in microcircuits, connections from contact pads on a chip to ext. conclusions "legs"
  22. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 5 October 2017 06: 12 New
    0
    None of the people born before the satellite in a terrible dream could have imagined that even 60 years later all the same locomotives would fly into space - disposable, chemical and terribly expensive. sad - It doesn’t matter if it’s the authoritarian Protons or the liberal Falcons.
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 5 October 2017 08: 09 New
      +4
      Well, after reading fiction ... you can dream about starships on photon, gravitational, etc. movers ... life is more prosaic, we have what we can !!!
  23. Old26
    Old26 5 October 2017 18: 59 New
    0
    Centrifuge building. Star town. Late 90s

    I apologize for the misrepresentation.
    This is a photograph of a hydrolaboratory building

    The centrifuge building CF-18 in the photo below
  24. Old26
    Old26 5 October 2017 19: 05 New
    +1
    Quote: Gormengast
    None of the people born before the satellite in a terrible dream could have imagined that even 60 years later all the same locomotives would fly into space - disposable, chemical and terribly expensive. sad - It doesn’t matter if it’s the authoritarian Protons or the liberal Falcons.

    But to imagine that we will fly on photon starships - too. This became clear in the early 70s. Although, of course, if you look at the same Tech-Youth magazines of the late 50s, then yes. Dome cities or needle cities (pyramids), drop-shaped machines, ionic and nuclear planes. All this was supposed to be in the 60s and 90s. But after 10 years it became clear that all this is just fantastic
  25. Karen
    Karen 5 October 2017 20: 23 New
    0
    one designer of rocket engines from Voronezh told interesting things about his work. I remembered for a long time the following case of the cause of the accident ...
    The turner, making bolts for some cameras, re-sharpened ... And since it was too lazy to grind the correct ones, he gave the galvanizers "build up." Here is the reason for the explosion during the factory "break-in" :(