Officially, special-purpose police units were created in the Soviet Union on October 3 1988. The increasingly complex operational situation, the increase in the number of street demonstrations, clashes on national grounds, incidents of hostage-taking by terrorists dictated the leadership of the Soviet Union and the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs the need to create such police units that could respond to these challenges as efficiently as possible. Ordinary militia units like the patrol and inspection service were not suitable for such purposes. Qualitatively new units were needed, staffed by the fighters most prepared for solving such problems. And the exit was found. First of all, they decided to use the experience of the capital (Moscow and Leningrad) operational units of the patrol and inspection service of the police. As it is known, even forty years before the official creation of the riot police, operational units were created as part of the police in Moscow and Leningrad. In Moscow, in 1946, they began to create a reserve regiment of militia, to which they recruited war veterans who were the most physically fit and fit for such a service. The regiment was stationed in Ivanteevka, and in the 1954 year it was renamed the Operational Regiment of the Police. In 1981, he became the 2 patrol regiment of Moscow. The main task of the regiment remained the protection of public order at public events, including, for example, the Olympics-80. 23 in October 1987 was created on the basis of the regiment a separate special-purpose police detachment, 3 in October 1988, transformed into a special-purpose police detachment of the Main Internal Affairs Directorate of Moscow. This is how the Moscow riot police appeared - the oldest in the Soviet Union and in Russia.
The Leningrad riot police became an exemplary peer of the Moscow riot police. The operational police regiment in Leningrad appeared 12 February 1948, and included in its membership 4 police division, cavalry squadron and training division. Then, in 1951, the regiment divided into operational 2, 1 convoy and 1 automobile divisions, and in 1980 the division of protection of state and party institutions and foreign missions was added. As in Moscow, the Leningrad riot police was created on the basis of the operational police regiment.
In total, special purpose police units were created in 1988 cities of the Soviet Union in the year of 19. In the first place, riot police were supposed to have the largest cities - million of the Soviet Union, as well as strategically important cities. Fourteen of the nineteen riot police were stationed on the territory of the RSFSR, the rest in Ukraine, the Baltic states, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. It was the Riga and Vilnius riot police that subsequently became widely known because their fighters and commanders did not betray the oath to the Soviet Union and refused to serve as sovereign Latvia and Lithuania.
At an early stage in the existence of special forces, there was an acute question about their recruitment and training of fighters. This is now a system of recruitment, selection of the most promising candidates for service in the detachments, training and advanced training in the Russian riot police, has been carefully built and is at a high level. Then, back in 1988, everything had to be mastered “from scratch”. Of course, first of all, age and medical restrictions were put. A riot police officer could be a man aged 20-32, who served in the Soviet Army or the Navy navy and suitable for health reasons for service in such units (category “A”). They tried to select riot police in the first place, the most trained and suitable in terms of physical and psychological characteristics, policemen from other units — the patrol service, private security, criminal investigation, and secondly, young people demobilized from the SA and Navy, with particular emphasis on the guys who served in special forces, in the Airborne Forces, the Marine Corps, the Border Troops of the KGB of the USSR and the Internal Troops of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. When the reduction in the size of the army began, many cadre officers of the armed forces with a military education found themselves in the riot police - nevertheless, this unit, according to the conditions of service, most of all was reminiscent of the army among other police units.
For example, the Murmansk riot police was created in 1993 on the basis of a special forces company of the patrol and police service, and in November 1993 was headed by police major (then police colonel) Sergei Albertovich Stolz, who commanded the Murmansk riot police for seven years until October 2000. Sergei Stolz was a professional military man, twenty-one years old, from 1972 to 1993, he served in the army, starting service as a private and ending as deputy commander of the special purpose unit of the Leningrad Military District and the Murmansk garrison.
The first three years after the creation of the riot police "took the first steps," although the time was very tense. The beginning of the 1990s, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing political destabilization led to the involvement of the special police forces in a political confrontation between the authorities and the opposition. Already in 1992-1993. in the opposition press, riot police were served exclusively as punitive formations of the Yeltsin authorities, while the dispersal of rallies and demonstrations at that time were only one-off episodes in the riot police. At the same time, riot policemen took part in the fight against an incredible wave of crime that swept the post-Soviet space. Bandit squabbles, "shooters", mass brawls - all this required prompt and tough intervention by riot police. And where the officers of ordinary militia units turned out to be powerless, the soldiers of the special forces entered into the matter.
The riot police in the North Caucasus became a real test of strength. Since the beginning of the 1990's. and up to the present, OMON fighters are sent on missions to troubled republics to ensure the protection of public order, participate in counter-terrorism measures, capture operations and eliminate members of illegal gangs. The two Chechen wars brought a lot of blood to the Russian riot police. The losses of the riot police increased sharply - after all, they had to participate in hostilities, fall into ambushes of militants. A huge number of Russian riot policemen passed through Chechnya and Dagestan, in some units the proportion of veterans of hot spots exceeded at various times 80% of personnel. The Chechen campaign gave the Russian riot police a large number of heroes and order bearers. Riot policemen participated in a variety of military operations against illegal armed formations, in the capture or destruction of underground leaders.
Each unit of the Russian riot police has its heroes and its heroic pages. stories. In particular, the Murmansk riot policemen participated in the liberation of Novogroznensky, Suvorov-Yurt, Verkhniy Suvorov-Yurt, Koshkeldy and Gerzel-aul from militants. The commander of the riot police in the Murmansk region Colonel Sergei Stoltz received two Orders of Courage. It is surprising that the Murmansk riot police managed to go through the First Chechen war without a single loss. However, there were still no casualties - 29 November 1998, 6 riot policemen in an UAZ car were ambushed. As a result of the quick battle, the 5 fighters of the detachment were killed and only one, the militia ensign Arthur Berezovsky, managed to survive, having been seriously injured. Two fighters of the Murmansk riot police killed 9 on May 2003 of the year during a monstrous explosion on the stands of the Grozny stadium, where the Victory Parade was held.
As always, on the OMON Day, it is impossible not to recall the fighters and commanders of special-purpose police detachments who died heroically in the performance of their duties - both in “hot spots” and in “peaceful” cities of Russia, on the cutting edge of the fight against crime and terrorism. Not so few among the riot police those who were awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. For example, police captain Viktor Adamishin (1962-1995). He died 22 a year ago, a very young 33-year-old officer. With 1982, Mr. Victor Adamishin, a native of Murmansk, worked in the Moscow police, rose to the rank of deputy commander of the 1 th company of the 2 th operational battalion of riot police of the Main Department of Internal Affairs of Moscow. Police captain Viktor Adamishin was sent to Chechnya as part of the riot squad of riot police 1 on April 1995, and already on 7 on April 1995 of the year he died, covering his comrades ’departure from the battlefield. Posthumously, Viktor Adamishin was awarded the high title of Hero of the Russian Federation. Although 22 has passed since the death of Viktor Adamishin, his colleagues still remember him. Thus, in 2016, a postage stamp was issued in memory of police captain Adamishin.
A typical action for an OMON is to remove a wounded comrade from the battlefield. For this you can even sacrifice your own life. The senior police lieutenant Dmitry Evgenevich Gorshkov (1971-1999) was just 28 years old. He graduated from eight classes of school, then Tula Electromechanical College, served in the army, and after demobilization he got a job as a communications specialist at one of the Tula ATPs. In the autumn of 1993, he entered the service in the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, in the OMON, where he became a communications engineer and special equipment. 10 September 1999, Senior Lieutenant Gorshkov, acted as part of the 17 Special Forces Detachment during the battle for the village of Chabanmakhi, Buynaksky District of Dagestan. Here, under enemy fire, he carried out a wounded colleague from the battlefield and was fatally wounded by a sniper's bullet.
Police ensign Pavel Anatolyevich Shevchenko (born 1964) was more fortunate. In the 1993 year, he began serving in the riot police of the Volga Region Internal Affairs Directorate on transport in the city of Saratov, repeatedly visited the “hot spots” on business trips. On the night of December 2 1999, the combined detachment of the OMO of the Volga UVDT engaged the militants at Naurskaya station. Ensign Shevchenko, firing a machine gun, managed to suppress several enemy firing points, including the machine-gun crew of the militants, was wounded, but continued to fire until the attack was completely repelled. In this battle, the riot police of the Volga UVDT did not lose a single person. For their courage, Ensign Shevchenko was awarded the high title of Hero of the Russian Federation. He returned home safe and sound, graduated from the Saratov Law Institute, received officer shoulder straps and worked for a long time in the Saratov police, rising to the head of the personal security department of the line ATS at Saratov station, and then retired.
For one more Hero of Russia from the riot police, police captain Sergey Vladimirovich Zyablov, a business trip to Chechnya was not the first “hot spot”. Back in 1975, Mr. Sergey Zyablov was called up to serve in the Border Troops of the KGB of the USSR, and in 1977, he remained in emergency service, took part in the Afghan war. In the 1982 year, after demobilization, Sergey joined the police of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, inspector of road patrol service, junior criminal investigative officer, then returned to military service in the border troops and served as a senior border guard technician in the Far East. In December, 1992 Zyablov returned to his native Zlatoust and entered the service in the riot police. He commanded a rapid reaction platoon, then was appointed assistant commander for logistic support. Behind the officer - six military missions to the Chechen Republic during the first and second campaigns. In December 1999, a police detachment, including 42-year-old Sergey Zyablov, was ambushed by militants. Zyablov managed to get out undetected from the shelling, make his way to the village where the federal troops were located and return to the battlefield, accompanied by an armored group of three tanks and 1 BMP. The militants were put to flight, and the detachment that was ambushed was rescued. For courage and heroism, police captain Sergei Zyablov was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation on December 30, 1999.
5 on April 2016, the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, by decree No. 157, included units of Mobile Special Purpose Units (OMON) in the newly formed power structure - the Federal Service of National Guard Forces (FISNG). But the main transformations are waiting for riot police in the upcoming 2018 year. It is by this time that the commanders and fighters of mobile units of special purpose should be accepted into military service in the National Guard Forces with the assignment of military ranks.
Despite numerous reorganizations and renames, the Russian riot police remain riot police. For nearly thirty years, his fighters carry out their difficult and very dangerous service, protecting the peace and tranquility of Russian citizens from bandits and terrorists. Today, on the Day of the Special Police Force, “Military Review” congratulates the fighters, commanders and veterans - riot policemen, their families on the holiday. Health and long life now living and eternal memory of the departed riot police.