Military Review

Riot day

43
Not only the conduct of special operations against bandits and terrorists, but also the protection of public events, the dispersal of riots and even patrolling the streets - all this was included in the competence of the riot police. Riot policemen “curse” that they disperse opposition rallies and demonstrations, but this is only a minimal, although very raspiarennaya, part of their activities. Most of what these sturdy guys do to protect the state and the rule of law remains “behind the scenes”.


Riot day


Officially, special-purpose police units were created in the Soviet Union on October 3 1988. The increasingly complex operational situation, the increase in the number of street demonstrations, clashes on national grounds, incidents of hostage-taking by terrorists dictated the leadership of the Soviet Union and the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs the need to create such police units that could respond to these challenges as efficiently as possible. Ordinary militia units like the patrol and inspection service were not suitable for such purposes. Qualitatively new units were needed, staffed by the fighters most prepared for solving such problems. And the exit was found. First of all, they decided to use the experience of the capital (Moscow and Leningrad) operational units of the patrol and inspection service of the police. As it is known, even forty years before the official creation of the riot police, operational units were created as part of the police in Moscow and Leningrad. In Moscow, in 1946, they began to create a reserve regiment of militia, to which they recruited war veterans who were the most physically fit and fit for such a service. The regiment was stationed in Ivanteevka, and in the 1954 year it was renamed the Operational Regiment of the Police. In 1981, he became the 2 patrol regiment of Moscow. The main task of the regiment remained the protection of public order at public events, including, for example, the Olympics-80. 23 in October 1987 was created on the basis of the regiment a separate special-purpose police detachment, 3 in October 1988, transformed into a special-purpose police detachment of the Main Internal Affairs Directorate of Moscow. This is how the Moscow riot police appeared - the oldest in the Soviet Union and in Russia.

The Leningrad riot police became an exemplary peer of the Moscow riot police. The operational police regiment in Leningrad appeared 12 February 1948, and included in its membership 4 police division, cavalry squadron and training division. Then, in 1951, the regiment divided into operational 2, 1 convoy and 1 automobile divisions, and in 1980 the division of protection of state and party institutions and foreign missions was added. As in Moscow, the Leningrad riot police was created on the basis of the operational police regiment.

In total, special purpose police units were created in 1988 cities of the Soviet Union in the year of 19. In the first place, riot police were supposed to have the largest cities - million of the Soviet Union, as well as strategically important cities. Fourteen of the nineteen riot police were stationed on the territory of the RSFSR, the rest in Ukraine, the Baltic states, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. It was the Riga and Vilnius riot police that subsequently became widely known because their fighters and commanders did not betray the oath to the Soviet Union and refused to serve as sovereign Latvia and Lithuania.



At an early stage in the existence of special forces, there was an acute question about their recruitment and training of fighters. This is now a system of recruitment, selection of the most promising candidates for service in the detachments, training and advanced training in the Russian riot police, has been carefully built and is at a high level. Then, back in 1988, everything had to be mastered “from scratch”. Of course, first of all, age and medical restrictions were put. A riot police officer could be a man aged 20-32, who served in the Soviet Army or the Navy navy and suitable for health reasons for service in such units (category “A”). They tried to select riot police in the first place, the most trained and suitable in terms of physical and psychological characteristics, policemen from other units — the patrol service, private security, criminal investigation, and secondly, young people demobilized from the SA and Navy, with particular emphasis on the guys who served in special forces, in the Airborne Forces, the Marine Corps, the Border Troops of the KGB of the USSR and the Internal Troops of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. When the reduction in the size of the army began, many cadre officers of the armed forces with a military education found themselves in the riot police - nevertheless, this unit, according to the conditions of service, most of all was reminiscent of the army among other police units.

For example, the Murmansk riot police was created in 1993 on the basis of a special forces company of the patrol and police service, and in November 1993 was headed by police major (then police colonel) Sergei Albertovich Stolz, who commanded the Murmansk riot police for seven years until October 2000. Sergei Stolz was a professional military man, twenty-one years old, from 1972 to 1993, he served in the army, starting service as a private and ending as deputy commander of the special purpose unit of the Leningrad Military District and the Murmansk garrison.

The first three years after the creation of the riot police "took the first steps," although the time was very tense. The beginning of the 1990s, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing political destabilization led to the involvement of the special police forces in a political confrontation between the authorities and the opposition. Already in 1992-1993. in the opposition press, riot police were served exclusively as punitive formations of the Yeltsin authorities, while the dispersal of rallies and demonstrations at that time were only one-off episodes in the riot police. At the same time, riot policemen took part in the fight against an incredible wave of crime that swept the post-Soviet space. Bandit squabbles, "shooters", mass brawls - all this required prompt and tough intervention by riot police. And where the officers of ordinary militia units turned out to be powerless, the soldiers of the special forces entered into the matter.

The riot police in the North Caucasus became a real test of strength. Since the beginning of the 1990's. and up to the present, OMON fighters are sent on missions to troubled republics to ensure the protection of public order, participate in counter-terrorism measures, capture operations and eliminate members of illegal gangs. The two Chechen wars brought a lot of blood to the Russian riot police. The losses of the riot police increased sharply - after all, they had to participate in hostilities, fall into ambushes of militants. A huge number of Russian riot policemen passed through Chechnya and Dagestan, in some units the proportion of veterans of hot spots exceeded at various times 80% of personnel. The Chechen campaign gave the Russian riot police a large number of heroes and order bearers. Riot policemen participated in a variety of military operations against illegal armed formations, in the capture or destruction of underground leaders.

Each unit of the Russian riot police has its heroes and its heroic pages. stories. In particular, the Murmansk riot policemen participated in the liberation of Novogroznensky, Suvorov-Yurt, Verkhniy Suvorov-Yurt, Koshkeldy and Gerzel-aul from militants. The commander of the riot police in the Murmansk region Colonel Sergei Stoltz received two Orders of Courage. It is surprising that the Murmansk riot police managed to go through the First Chechen war without a single loss. However, there were still no casualties - 29 November 1998, 6 riot policemen in an UAZ car were ambushed. As a result of the quick battle, the 5 fighters of the detachment were killed and only one, the militia ensign Arthur Berezovsky, managed to survive, having been seriously injured. Two fighters of the Murmansk riot police killed 9 on May 2003 of the year during a monstrous explosion on the stands of the Grozny stadium, where the Victory Parade was held.

As always, on the OMON Day, it is impossible not to recall the fighters and commanders of special-purpose police detachments who died heroically in the performance of their duties - both in “hot spots” and in “peaceful” cities of Russia, on the cutting edge of the fight against crime and terrorism. Not so few among the riot police those who were awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. For example, police captain Viktor Adamishin (1962-1995). He died 22 a year ago, a very young 33-year-old officer. With 1982, Mr. Victor Adamishin, a native of Murmansk, worked in the Moscow police, rose to the rank of deputy commander of the 1 th company of the 2 th operational battalion of riot police of the Main Department of Internal Affairs of Moscow. Police captain Viktor Adamishin was sent to Chechnya as part of the riot squad of riot police 1 on April 1995, and already on 7 on April 1995 of the year he died, covering his comrades ’departure from the battlefield. Posthumously, Viktor Adamishin was awarded the high title of Hero of the Russian Federation. Although 22 has passed since the death of Viktor Adamishin, his colleagues still remember him. Thus, in 2016, a postage stamp was issued in memory of police captain Adamishin.

A typical action for an OMON is to remove a wounded comrade from the battlefield. For this you can even sacrifice your own life. The senior police lieutenant Dmitry Evgenevich Gorshkov (1971-1999) was just 28 years old. He graduated from eight classes of school, then Tula Electromechanical College, served in the army, and after demobilization he got a job as a communications specialist at one of the Tula ATPs. In the autumn of 1993, he entered the service in the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, in the OMON, where he became a communications engineer and special equipment. 10 September 1999, Senior Lieutenant Gorshkov, acted as part of the 17 Special Forces Detachment during the battle for the village of Chabanmakhi, Buynaksky District of Dagestan. Here, under enemy fire, he carried out a wounded colleague from the battlefield and was fatally wounded by a sniper's bullet.

Police ensign Pavel Anatolyevich Shevchenko (born 1964) was more fortunate. In the 1993 year, he began serving in the riot police of the Volga Region Internal Affairs Directorate on transport in the city of Saratov, repeatedly visited the “hot spots” on business trips. On the night of December 2 1999, the combined detachment of the OMO of the Volga UVDT engaged the militants at Naurskaya station. Ensign Shevchenko, firing a machine gun, managed to suppress several enemy firing points, including the machine-gun crew of the militants, was wounded, but continued to fire until the attack was completely repelled. In this battle, the riot police of the Volga UVDT did not lose a single person. For their courage, Ensign Shevchenko was awarded the high title of Hero of the Russian Federation. He returned home safe and sound, graduated from the Saratov Law Institute, received officer shoulder straps and worked for a long time in the Saratov police, rising to the head of the personal security department of the line ATS at Saratov station, and then retired.

For one more Hero of Russia from the riot police, police captain Sergey Vladimirovich Zyablov, a business trip to Chechnya was not the first “hot spot”. Back in 1975, Mr. Sergey Zyablov was called up to serve in the Border Troops of the KGB of the USSR, and in 1977, he remained in emergency service, took part in the Afghan war. In the 1982 year, after demobilization, Sergey joined the police of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, inspector of road patrol service, junior criminal investigative officer, then returned to military service in the border troops and served as a senior border guard technician in the Far East. In December, 1992 Zyablov returned to his native Zlatoust and entered the service in the riot police. He commanded a rapid reaction platoon, then was appointed assistant commander for logistic support. Behind the officer - six military missions to the Chechen Republic during the first and second campaigns. In December 1999, a police detachment, including 42-year-old Sergey Zyablov, was ambushed by militants. Zyablov managed to get out undetected from the shelling, make his way to the village where the federal troops were located and return to the battlefield, accompanied by an armored group of three tanks and 1 BMP. The militants were put to flight, and the detachment that was ambushed was rescued. For courage and heroism, police captain Sergei Zyablov was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation on December 30, 1999.

5 on April 2016, the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, by decree No. 157, included units of Mobile Special Purpose Units (OMON) in the newly formed power structure - the Federal Service of National Guard Forces (FISNG). But the main transformations are waiting for riot police in the upcoming 2018 year. It is by this time that the commanders and fighters of mobile units of special purpose should be accepted into military service in the National Guard Forces with the assignment of military ranks.

Despite numerous reorganizations and renames, the Russian riot police remain riot police. For nearly thirty years, his fighters carry out their difficult and very dangerous service, protecting the peace and tranquility of Russian citizens from bandits and terrorists. Today, on the Day of the Special Police Force, “Military Review” congratulates the fighters, commanders and veterans - riot policemen, their families on the holiday. Health and long life now living and eternal memory of the departed riot police.
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  1. 210ox
    210ox 3 October 2017 06: 32 New
    14
    Happy holiday you guys hi Work, brothers!
    1. Crowe
      Crowe 3 October 2017 06: 51 New
      +3
      Quote: 210ox
      Work, brothers!

      Desirable, away from us!
      1. 210ox
        210ox 3 October 2017 16: 47 New
        +2
        Do you have anything to be afraid of?
        Quote: Crowe
        Quote: 210ox
        Work, brothers!

        Desirable, away from us!
    2. Blombir
      Blombir 3 October 2017 08: 39 New
      +8
      Congratulations on your professional holiday.
    3. vlad66
      vlad66 3 October 2017 09: 13 New
      10
      Happy holidays, you guys! To all those who died at the military post, eternal memory.
      1. bouncyhunter
        bouncyhunter 3 October 2017 09: 56 New
        +6
        I join all the congratulations and wishes! Happy holiday, men! drinks
    4. ID90
      ID90 3 October 2017 09: 44 New
      +6
      garbage, eat garbage.
      the war in the Caucasus cleared their ranks, slag became many times less.
      and many showed themselves worthy men there.
      and now they are turning back into bogonykateli and chain dogs of power.

      hero however.
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 3 October 2017 18: 25 New
        +3
        Quote: ID90
        hero however.

        Have you ever attended rallies of opposition youth? Have you heard their slurred slogans? And how do they behave in relation to the riot police? For the most part, they get what they asked for, and I think the picture is no exception. Or do you think that they are "children"? Then look at the chronicles of Maidan in Kiev.hi
        1. Rastas
          Rastas 3 October 2017 19: 27 New
          +2
          And in October of the 93rd, how can the actions of the riot police be evaluated? Why did they support the Yeltsin coup? Incidentally, a coincidence, but today is the anniversary of the execution of Ostankino. It would be better if the dead patriots were remembered.
          1. Ingvar 72
            Ingvar 72 3 October 2017 20: 05 New
            0
            Quote: Rastas
            Why did they support the Yeltsin coup?

            "Fathers commanders" ordered. The mess began in the minds at the same time as the mess in the country. Everyone wanted a change, but everyone was different. Like a civilian. So do not blame the performers. request
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. ID90
              ID90 3 October 2017 22: 00 New
              +2
              Quote: Ingvar 72
              Quote: Rastas
              Why did they support the Yeltsin coup?

              "Fathers commanders" ordered. The mess began in the minds at the same time as the mess in the country. Everyone wanted a change, but everyone was different. Like a civilian. So do not blame the performers. request

              What’s your head for? to eat there?
              They shot people, and Borka them to Chechnya. Karma overtook many executioners there.
        2. ID90
          ID90 3 October 2017 22: 04 New
          0
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Quote: ID90
          hero however.

          Have you ever attended rallies of opposition youth? Have you heard their slurred slogans? And how do they behave in relation to the riot police? For the most part, they get what they asked for, and I think the picture is no exception. Or do you think that they are "children"? Then look at the chronicles of Maidan in Kiev.hi

          talked to people from the Sevastopol Berkut a year after joining.
          and to the question: “will you, if they order to beat the townspeople who were for you with all their souls while you were on the Maidan?”
          not one did not answer in the negative.
      2. Dart2027
        Dart2027 3 October 2017 21: 32 New
        +1
        Quote: ID90
        hero however

        Are they the kids? We know, we know ...
        1. ID90
          ID90 3 October 2017 21: 58 New
          0
          Quote: Dart2027
          Quote: ID90
          hero however

          Are they the kids? We know, we know ...

          I don’t know anything, then I’ll go to the riot police.
          1. Dart2027
            Dart2027 3 October 2017 23: 02 New
            0
            Quote: ID90
            I can not do anything

            Do not be discouraged, first graduate from school.
            1. 79807420129
              79807420129 4 October 2017 00: 21 New
              +5
              [quote = Dart2027] Do not be discouraged, first graduate from school. [/ quote]
              Well why. [Quote] [ID90 October 2, 2017 09:21 for those who consciously go to the army this is more than enough. They either have not been brainwashed or even have seen anything in their life. / Quote] [quote] ID90 October 1, 2017 10:45 we never went in formation. I work for myself and give people work [/ quote]
              He didn’t need to go to school, so that it would calmly work for itself and give people work, that’s someone who was building and walking. But in general, this is reincarnation, it was here such Leto. Then he regained a couple of times. yes
              1. ID90
                ID90 4 October 2017 15: 57 New
                0
                [quote = 79807420129] [quote = Dart2027] Do not be discouraged, first graduate from school. [/ quote]
                Well why. [Quote] [ID90 October 2, 2017 09:21 for those who consciously go to the army this is more than enough. They either have not been brainwashed or even have seen anything in their life. / Quote] [quote] ID90 October 1, 2017 10:45 we never went in formation. I work for myself and give people work [/ quote]
                He didn’t need to go to school, so that it would calmly work for itself and give people work, that’s someone who was building and walking. But in general, this is reincarnation, it was here such Leto. Then he regained a couple of times. yes[/ Quote]
                hi to military pensioners.
            2. ID90
              ID90 4 October 2017 15: 49 New
              0
              Quote: Dart2027
              Quote: ID90
              I can not do anything

              Do not be discouraged, first graduate from school.

              I wouldn’t be able to, I went to garbage or to contract soldiers.
              1. Dart2027
                Dart2027 4 October 2017 19: 32 New
                0
                So you haven’t finished school yet?
                1. ID90
                  ID90 6 October 2017 17: 12 New
                  0
                  Quote: Dart2027
                  So you haven’t finished school yet?

                  I entered the third grade.
                  1. Dart2027
                    Dart2027 6 October 2017 18: 54 New
                    0
                    It can be seen.
      3. shaman1602
        shaman1602 4 October 2017 18: 25 New
        0
        did the riot police officer offend you too? dear liberalist, he fell down!
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 3 October 2017 06: 42 New
    +5
    With the holiday of current employees and veterans, the eternal memory of the fallen. drinks
  3. Herculesic
    Herculesic 3 October 2017 07: 21 New
    +4
    I have a couple of good friends in this structure of employees, from them I know what they feel! soldier Therefore, I sincerely congratulate the riot police on the holiday, I wish you life and health! !! soldier hi soldier
  4. Oznob
    Oznob 3 October 2017 07: 25 New
    +2
    When I hear the word OMON, the brain automatically adds the word "Posadsky." It was necessary to nakosyachit so (Podolsky riot police nakosyachil).
  5. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 3 October 2017 07: 58 New
    13
    Happy holiday of the living, and eternal memory to the fallen!
    Tolyattinets Peliksanov Fedor Alekseevich
    (1.02.1964 - 09.01.2000/XNUMX/XNUMX). He died, having run into an ambush near Argun.
  6. Retvizan 8
    Retvizan 8 3 October 2017 08: 31 New
    +3
    Happy holiday Brothers!
  7. Borgeze
    Borgeze 3 October 2017 08: 56 New
    +2
    Happy holiday, life and housing!
  8. vasilev
    vasilev 3 October 2017 09: 11 New
    +3
    The actions of the Riga OMON can be compared with the Ukrainian Golden Eagle.
  9. Masya masya
    Masya masya 3 October 2017 09: 29 New
    +6
    Happy Holidays! love
    1. ID90
      ID90 3 October 2017 09: 56 New
      +4

      so closer to the truth.
      and it looks like the original.
      1. LAWNER
        LAWNER 3 October 2017 16: 59 New
        +2
        Each riot police on a holiday by an oppositionist-masochist !!!!
        1. ID90
          ID90 6 October 2017 17: 13 New
          0
          Quote: LAWNER
          Each riot police on a holiday by an oppositionist-masochist !!!!

          brains would be better for them.
  10. basmach
    basmach 3 October 2017 10: 29 New
    +3
    Those guys listed in the article are of Soviet hardening. But what is the big question for the current
  11. Corsair0304
    Corsair0304 3 October 2017 10: 39 New
    +4
    It must be remembered that in the thunderous 90s it was the riot police for the most part that stood in the way of the "brotherhood" outrage, dispersed thieves' gatherings, and covered the operatives.
    And there’s probably nothing to add about the OMON’s combat path: as it went with the first Chechen one, it still continues.

    Good luck, you guys!
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 3 October 2017 19: 22 New
      +3
      Often acting on the order of some brothers against others. And the "fighting" path of the riot police in October 93rd is known. Chain dogs then faithfully served Yeltsin.
  12. shmelik45
    shmelik45 3 October 2017 11: 02 New
    +2
    Happy holiday men drinks
  13. Nyrobsky
    Nyrobsky 3 October 2017 12: 18 New
    +2
    Happy holiday! The main thing is that the number of fighters at the end of any operation would be equal to the number of fighters involved in its beginning in good health!
  14. g1v2
    g1v2 3 October 2017 15: 33 New
    +2
    Now more than ever, a lot depends on guys. When the enemy cannot break us from the outside, he always begins to break us from the inside. And now is just such a moment. Therefore, I hope the guys do not flinch if that. Happy holiday! soldier
  15. Cadet
    Cadet 3 October 2017 15: 34 New
    +1
    Riot police on a holiday, especially the Tyumen riot police, health to you guys and good luck.
    1. raketosss
      raketosss 3 October 2017 19: 35 New
      0
      Tyumen, especially as the legal successor of Riga .... That the police, that the police, that the OMON, that the SWAT: the real men of Russia ... Health, happiness, good luck,
  16. Karen
    Karen 3 October 2017 21: 31 New
    +2
    I recall the Moscow realities of the 90s.
    Riot police surround the drug lord's mansion, and from there a Chekist general comes out and orders the obscene lexicon to get out.
    And today's realities.
    Riot policemen are calling on Armenian merchants to sell fake vodka to unfasten them as well. But the FSB men are already ordering ... and he is returning to Yerevan.

    Well, honest in riot police - my sincere congratulations !!!
  17. Dart2027
    Dart2027 3 October 2017 21: 31 New
    +1
    Happy holiday.
  18. Belarus is Russia
    Belarus is Russia 4 October 2017 03: 20 New
    0
    Happy Holidays, our Defenders! God bless you.