Code of Manesa - as an illustrative source on the history of knightly equipment of the beginning of the XIV century

64
O knights, stand up, the hour has come!
Shields, steel helmets and armor you have.
Ready for the faith to fight your dedicated sword.
Give me strength too, oh my god, for the new glorious sech.
I will take a rich booty there.
I do not need gold and land to anything,
But maybe I will, singer, mentor, warrior,
Heavenly bliss forever honored.
In the city of God across the sea, through the trees and ditches!
I would sing joy again and did not sigh: alas!
No, never: alas!

(Walter von der Vogelweide. Translation by V. Levik)




To begin with, we begin by noting that the so-called “Codex of Manes” is one of the most famous illustrated manuscripts of the Middle Ages and the most valuable historical The source of our information regarding the knight's equipment of the first decades of the XIV century. It is called “Maneski” because it was compiled by order of a noble knight from the Maness family, Rüdiger von Maness the Elder, a member of the city council of the Swiss city of Zurich.


The Codex Manesk in the exposition of the Český Krumlov castle.

In Zurich, it began to create somewhere around 1300 - 1315. The text was written in Middle High German, but in its content it is nothing but a collection of secular poetry of that time. The manuscript is executed in a beautiful Gothic font, and there are practically no punctuation marks in it. But there are beautiful capital letters at the beginning of each paragraph.

The codex verses were collected immediately 110 medieval poets, ranked by their social status. Then verses of more 30 authors were added to it. However, the collection was never completed, and not all the materials in it were streamlined. In particular, there are still a few blank pages in the text.

Code of Manesa - as an illustrative source on the history of knightly equipment of the beginning of the XIV century

The “Mannes Codex” page with poems by Walter von der Vogelweide.

All in all, in this 426 manuscript, parchment sheets having 35,5 dimensions on 25 cm and 138 miniatures that depict medieval poets mentioned in it. And these miniatures are the main value of this Code. It is hardly an exaggeration to call them the masterpieces of medieval book miniatures. They depict the feudal nobility in clothes of heraldic colors, battles, various courtly and hunting scenes, that is, the whole life of that time.

True, this manuscript was completed a hundred years after the death of some of the minnesinger poets (the German equivalent of French truwer or troubadour), whose poems were placed in it. That is, the reliability of a number of heraldic information of this manuscript cannot be established with absolute certainty, because the coats of arms often changed, and even for one generation, and for a hundred years it is the life of three generations, and even then four.


The library building of the University of Heidelberg.

The “Codex Codex” is kept in the library of the University of Heidelberg in the city of Heidelberg in Germany. However, there are several copies made later. One of them is located in the castle of Cesky Krumlov, only it lies there under glass and it is, alas, impossible to see it, even for scientific purposes.

Well, for now we’ll just take a close look at some of his illustrations and see what information we can get from them.


On this miniature we see Wolfram von Eschenbach in full knightly gear. And here the question immediately arises: what is it on his helmet? Horns? Does not look like it. Sekira? Also seemingly not. One thing is clear - these are heraldic figures, since they are depicted both on the shield and on the pennant.


The miniature with the image of Walter von der Vogelweide is interesting in that the coat of arms depicts a nightingale in a gilded cage and ... the same figure was adorned on his helmet. Original, is not it?


The image of Walter von Metz shows us a typical knight of this era. Heraldic clothing, including a surcoat and a blanket, so to speak, from head to toe, but on the helmet there is an ornament with a coat of arms not connected!


Minnesinger Hartmann von Aue is depicted in practically the same position. But he came more consistently to the question of identifying his personality, so that his helmet also adorns the image of the head of a predatory bird.


Well, this is Ulrich von Liechtenstein known to all - the most odious knight of his time. The one about which I already had my material on and who had cut his lip, and lived with lepers, and was tied by the hand under the window of the tower and that was all ... for the grace of his lady's heart, which was not at all young and not at all beautiful By the way, in the presence of a much younger wife, who, however, did not have anything against such a ministry. He flaunted in women's dresses, but the church looked at it through his fingers. Here and on this miniature he is depicted in the coat of arms of surcoat, but ... with the figure of the pagan goddess Venus on the helmet!


Schenk von Limburg was truly a dandy and original. There are feathered horns on the helmet, a surcoat of one color, a blanket of another, a coat of arms on the shield - three maces. Well, that's how he wanted ...


This miniature shows a curious reception of the then armed struggle. Riders seek to clasp each other by the neck and only after that strike with a sword. Original, do not say anything! Although this is not a real fight, but a tournament!


The helmet of the winner of the tournament match, Walter von Klingen, is decorated with feathered axes, although on his shield there is a lion-ramp. Interestingly, he struck his opponent with a spear into the helmet with such force that it pierced him with blood!


Another knightly fight, with splashes of blood from the elbow cut by the sword. Well, and here the knight’s right shield is interesting. It means they were still used, despite the fact that it was iron shields that were in fashion.


In this miniature with the poet knight Heinrich von Frauenberg, the fight went without blood, but it is interesting how the manuscript shows the position of the riders relative to each other. They jump, having an adversary to their right, that is, the force of the strike of the spear during a collision is maximum. It was only then that they were separated by a barrier and set so that the movement relative to each other was left-hand. In this case, the spear hit the shield at an angle of 25 degrees, and the force of impact was significantly weakened. The creators of the film “History of the Knight” should all remember this!


Kristan von Luppin fights with some Asian. For some reason, he is wearing only a balaclava basement, and there is no horse blanket.


This miniature shows us the effectiveness of the then knightly sword. With a good hit, they could completely cut the tophelm helmet completely closed!


And it was possible both on horseback and on foot! True, it is known that the helmets were then made of iron and were not subjected to any special hardening. So nothing surprising in the fact that there is drawn, no. Yes, and it is unlikely that an artist for such a wealthy customer would draw something really non-existent. This would simply no one allowed. Such was the time then, although ... yes, there were also fictional characters on the pages of medieval manuscripts, and absolutely fantastic beasts, which no one forbade depicting. Only this one was a fantasy, always separated from the truth.


But the miniature on the page of the manuscript is clearly with the scene of God's judgment, since no armor on the conquerors is worn. And they use bakler-shields, that is, at that time they already existed and were used.


On this miniature we see the scene of the hunt. Noble gentlemen gathered to hunt, but the cows blocked their way. True, the knights who set off for her are still wearing chain mail armor and helmets, hemispherical-shaped basquets. In the hands of two rattles with wide tips and a crossbar immediately behind them, that is, the hunt is clearly serious. Crossbows are very well depicted, especially the one on the left. It can be seen and mount the bow, and a long trigger.


Here, crossbowmen in long mail shirts, worn over vertically quilted gambizons, are shooting at the besieged castle. Defenders also shoot from crossbows and throw stones on their heads, not only men, but also women. An arrow pierced the back of the warrior who smashes the gate with an ax, but he apparently does not notice it. Guarding the gates are no longer ordinary warriors, but a noble knight. On the shield he has golden fish and ... horns on a helmet of two golden fish, in addition also decorated with feathers.


Well, this scene breathes peacefulness and care for your neighbor: a tire is applied to a broken leg.

Is not it true, considering the miniatures from this manuscript, we as if plunge into medieval life, and are transferred to that far and now incomprehensible time for us ...
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  1. +2
    5 October 2017 07: 08
    True, this manuscript was completed a hundred years after the death of some of the Minnesing poets (the German analogue of the French Truver or Troubadour), whose verses were placed in it. That is, the reliability of a number of heraldic information of this manuscript cannot be established with absolute certainty, because the coats of arms often changed,

    Why not? By comparing this information with other later information, you can trace the changes that have occurred.
    1. +5
      5 October 2017 11: 14
      I agree.
      Thanks to the author for great illustrative material!
      1. +2
        5 October 2017 11: 40
        I just remember the paintings of classical painting of the 16-17th century, especially the image of various heroes. Everything is entirely in underwear (or tunics), and the armor is represented by elaborate helmets; to the extent that the hero is biblical, and the helmet in the picture is similar to the European morion, well, or something like that. request That is, in spite of the manner of depicting medieval miniatures, the material of historical significance they provide is huge and reliable! hi drinks
  2. +7
    5 October 2017 08: 04
    Looking at the illustrations, I recall Eisenstein’s film “Alexander Nevsky”, apparently costume designers, drew their inspiration from the Manes code or other document ...
    1. +4
      5 October 2017 09: 57
      I remembered Vyacheslav Olegovich in the articles on this film published drawings of Eisenstein. On one of them, in the center right, we can clearly see Reptiloid. laughing

      so, okay, I haven’t cheated on myself, joked, and drinks article is colorful! Indeed, many of the little things we sometimes can not notice, if not peer into the details! hi
      1. +6
        5 October 2017 13: 19
        Indeed, many of the little things we sometimes can not notice, if not peer into the details!

        You are right, we don’t notice much. I do not touch the headdresses of “lovely ladies”. And hairstyles! Given the influence of the church in the Middle Ages and its relation to the female appearance .... The length and color of the hair all matter, because it is no coincidence that they are owners of light curls. Judging by the thumbnails presented here, only girls are depicted, not married ladies.
        The same Walter Von Vogelweide has long blonde hair, the rest to the shoulders, because this is also not accidental. wink
  3. +8
    5 October 2017 09: 31
    In fairness, it was probably worth paying a little more attention to the minnesang, since the Codex of Manes, in fact, is a medieval songbook and is for literary scholars a source of information about the art of minnesang.
    Moreover, most of the minnesingers were of the knightly class. So, knights with miniatures are also poets.

    This is minnesinger Dietmar von Aist.
    Below is his verse from the Codex of Manes.
    Winter would be good
    And not afraid of any blizzards.
    Whenever body and soul
    Not eager for an affectionate friend.
    Why shiver from the cold
    Under the howl of a blizzard
    When I could lie with you
    My love, in the same bed.
    And waiting for love
    Sad lady lonely:
    "Call me to your place!
    In your pride there is little use!
    To be alone in this cold
    What else is worse in the world?
    I hug you tight.
    Together we will not notice the cold. "
    In general, it is still relevant today.
    As for cutting the helmet with a sword, it is quite possible. Chemical analysis of bascinets around that time showed the presence of carbon of 0,06%. According to modern classification - this is steel 1, one of the lowest quality. Due to its low carbon content, it does not harden.
    1. +5
      5 October 2017 10: 10
      According to modern classification - this is steel 1, one of the lowest quality. Due to its low carbon content, it does not harden.

      well, on this you definitely "ate the dog." hi or maybe you or Vyacheslav Olegovich and write about minnesingers? wink
      1. +2
        5 October 2017 11: 29
        It will not be logical, if a mechanical engineer, and not a literary critic, writes about the love lyrics of the Middle Ages.
        And the topic is really interesting.
        The same Walter von Vogelweide, which is mentioned in the article, is an outstanding person for his time and deserves a separate article.
        A brave warrior, a great poet, courtier and philosopher, he became famous during his lifetime, which does not happen so often.
        It was in Walter's verses that the concept of Die deutsche Nation ("German nation") appeared. This is more than six hundred years before the reunification of Germany.
        Although I did not forget to write about love.

        I wandered silently
        Off-road
        Until I met a friend.
        He hugged, blazing,
        Mother of God!
        He embraced - and the soul became light.
        How many times?
        But who will consider ?!
        1. +5
          5 October 2017 11: 36
          It will not be logical, if a mechanical engineer, and not a literary critic, writes about the love lyrics of the Middle Ages.

          with yours, Viktor Nikolaevich, the educational level and ability to use information, I think there will be no problems. hi You even wrote about wild monkeys interestingly wink therefore we gathered, saturated with interest and desire to write, created a good emotional background - and go! drinks
          1. +3
            5 October 2017 12: 32
            You see, practice shows that even the highest educational level does not guarantee from "drifts" when invading adjacent areas of knowledge.
            There are many examples of this. Fomenko, a mathematician, specialist in the field of multivariate calculus of variations, differential geometry and topology, the theory of groups and Lie algebras, symplectic and computer geometry, the theory of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. You understand that a person with a weak intellect does not deal with such things. And so he "went down in history." And the result was a "new chronology."
            An example of the second is Klesov (God forbid, Venia appears). Doctor of chemical sciences, professor. Well then you know. Do not remember famously. Examples can go on. Of course, I cannot put myself on a par with the aforementioned figures, but the techie is nevertheless alien to the lyrics.
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          2. +4
            5 October 2017 12: 34
            I will only support Nikolai. After all, there is not only the "love lyrics of the Middle Ages" found there by Walter von Vogelweide and this:
            ***
            Wealth baffled the rich man
            Worse than any failures;
            Great wealth is harmful to man;
            Even more unhappy is one who is too poor.
            Once upon a time, it was so customary in the world:
            Wealth blinds people
            Whereas poverty dulls;
            Both are not good ....
            Translation by V. Mikushevich.
            And given the number of poems on the site, it would be appropriate to see an article about it.
            1. +4
              5 October 2017 12: 56
              I, Elena, will support you too. love let VN not be shy. Some do not hesitate to show everyone their level, multiplied by arrogance, and he .. hi
              1. +6
                5 October 2017 13: 03
                Some do not hesitate to show everyone their level, multiplied by arrogance, and he .. hi

                This is precisely noticed. Yes
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                    2. +2
                      5 October 2017 17: 52
                      Elena love, I am mentally with you! There, in the pictures, in general, what the hell laughing Judging by the horns, the knights were rarely at home. The leg is sick, not broken, where is the board for the tire? The patient is held with both hands, perhaps this is a reduction in dislocation? The clothes of the “doctor” do not correspond to the time, and physio, too, is painfully noble. Let me remind you that barbers were engaged in surgery at that time, and this profession was despised by the noble. So, most likely, this is the same, brother knight, a relative who provides first aid. Somehow it caught my eye. love
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                      2. +1
                        5 October 2017 18: 03
                        For some reason, no one paid attention to the coat of arms: the upper third is gold, the two lower third are worms. On it the Andreev cross covered with blue overturned squirrel fur. Just amazing! And the helmet decoration is the oblique cross of squirrel fur, decorated with peacock feathers! I’m even at a loss to explain it.
                      3. +3
                        5 October 2017 23: 11
                        Alexander love, Thanks for the clarification. Unfortunately what Asked question deleted.
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  4. +18
    5 October 2017 09: 31
    Interesting, clear and informative
    History in color
    Thank you
  5. +3
    5 October 2017 11: 05
    This miniature depicts a curious reception of the then armed struggle. Riders strive to clasp each other's neck and after that smash with a sword.

    Falling out of the saddle usually meant defeat, and pulling the rider off was often a more than effective way to win.
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  7. +18
    5 October 2017 14: 16
    Article - time machine
    looking at the miniatures from this manuscript, we are as if plunging into medieval life, and transported to that distant and already little understood time for us

    And to the author - thanks
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  10. +1
    5 October 2017 18: 27
    kalibr,
    For some reason, no one paid attention to the coat of arms: the upper third is gold, the two lower third are worms.

    I am not good at heraldry, but it seemed to me that gold was in the arms .. used by people related to royal blood? what
  11. +4
    5 October 2017 18: 36
    kalibr,
    I paid attention to von Luppin. The European lady number one is clearly aiming at him with cobblestones, and the number two lady seems to not understand how, tossing at an Asian? I did not understand the plot, in short. recourse
    1. +1
      5 October 2017 18: 45
      European lady

      what then does the European lady do in the castle, where the evil eastern warrior escapes? what
      1. +2
        5 October 2017 18: 52
        In general, on the engravings of that time, there are a lot of conventions. It is possible that all these horns, cages, birds on helmets in precisely this proportion denoted something, but were not copied from life. So ladies, these are some stylized vices, maybe?
        1. +2
          5 October 2017 19: 24
          But for this there are effigii and ... helmet ornaments that have reached us (very few, but have come!). I will have an article about this and my photo will be in it ... And it is obvious that everything that painted, that was. There were also descriptions of knights, that is, what they saw, then painted. So here it is not a matter of conventions.
          1. +2
            5 October 2017 19: 42
            All is nothing, but it is not possible to fight with such constructions on the head. Maybe where all these cells clung to the parade, but even for a tournament, it's overkill.
      2. +4
        5 October 2017 18: 52
        Quote: Mikado
        what then does the European lady do in the castle, where the evil eastern warrior escapes?

        So I do not understand. Kind lady No. 1 kind of shows the other with a finger that it is necessary to decorate the background with cobblestones ... request
        1. +3
          5 October 2017 18: 59
          So I do not understand. Kind lady No. 1 seems to be showing the other with my finger that you need to decorate the background with cobblestones ... request

          I thought only the Doctors are kind, and then some wink drinks
          It captivates me, as the intersecting glances of the Good Ladies depicted good Yes, they are advising, and clearly about the "background". Yes And he will throw it! fellow
    2. +2
      5 October 2017 19: 21
      The artist might not know how Asian women are dressed.
      1. +2
        5 October 2017 19: 43
        yes, but the feeling that they painted helmets on their heads. The gray color is the same for the "background". On the lady on the left is a clear chaplain. what
        1. +2
          5 October 2017 23: 06
          Are you sure these are ladies? lol Pay attention to short hairstyles. Ladies at the time did not wear such. Most likely these are individuals wink male.
      2. +4
        5 October 2017 19: 58
        On the Internet about this picture I found only that, perhaps, this is propaganda ...
        1. +2
          5 October 2017 21: 08
          propaganda against what? East? what
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        1. +2
          5 October 2017 19: 45
          Bend that does not bend, if bends laughing And, what do you think, why the hell are all these designs on the heads of the poor knights?
          1. +2
            5 October 2017 19: 50
            but God knows him. For decoration and recognition, apparently. Judging by the number of medieval miniatures depicting a similar one, the feeling that this is hardly an artist’s fantasy. No. Rather, on the contrary, the artist, even in such a manner of depiction (the Renaissance has not yet come), but tries to transfer the information in the most detail! hi By the way, it’s also a word about psychology of art! Yes Why in the late Middle Ages painting is already following other canons? This means that in the Renaissance, people started to have imagination. Why did it work? what Apparently, the moral oppression of the church, which forbids drawing some things, has weakened! request
            1. +2
              5 October 2017 20: 01
              So on one of the engravings, the knight is clearly disproportionate. Maybe it’s like in modern comics, where little letters fly out from behind the mouth, there is such an emblem, also talking about something? A knight of gigantic growth, and even with a colossal ornament on his head, reported that there was a whole squad of such a count or duke, and besides, did contemporaries understand how many of them were?
              1. +2
                5 October 2017 20: 10
                the knight is clearly disproportionate.

                I think no. I think the passion for allegories also woke up in the Renaissance. At that moment (the 14th century) they depicted how they could. You will portray not that - you will go to the fire, and all short-lived! request
                1. +2
                  5 October 2017 20: 17
                  That is, on the head to drag "Venus", you can not burn belay , but allegory is impossible, black crows will fly? laughing
                  1. +2
                    5 October 2017 20: 30
                    Flaunted in women's dresses, but the church looked at it through her fingers. Here and in this miniature he is depicted in the coat of arms surko, but ... with the figure of the pagan goddess Venus on a helmet!

                    the main canon of the image, it seems, was then - the veracity of the description. But this knight was a great original! It’s strange that the church didn’t pay attention to him, it seems that he’s definitely had “hairy hands” hi
                2. +2
                  5 October 2017 20: 36
                  In the 14th century, in order to get on the fire, it was necessary to try.
                  1. +2
                    5 October 2017 20: 38
                    In the 14th century, in order to get on the fire, it was necessary to try.

                    as I understand it, it was enough to be a homosexual. wink
                    1. +2
                      5 October 2017 20: 45
                      If, I’m not mistaken, they were treated differently there. Nevertheless, auto-da-fé is for heretics, satanists and other informals of that time. In addition, the main bonfires were lit a little later in Germany and Sweden, and were not related to the Inquisition.
                      1. +2
                        5 October 2017 20: 57
                        In addition, the main bonfires were lit a little later in Germany and Sweden, and were not related to the Inquisition.

                        but bonfires began in the 13th century, if I’m not mistaken. Moreover, it was also a way of dealing with objectionable ones - remember the Templars and the Cathars, who began to want too much, "the edges lost."
                    2. +2
                      5 October 2017 21: 01
                      No, it wasn’t enough, one had to be stubborn in their “errors”, whether it was homosexuality or heliocentrism, repeatedly convicted and unrepentant. Then - a bonfire.
                      1. +2
                        5 October 2017 21: 03
                        EMNIP, autodafe - this is just a ceremony. what After it, the unrepentant were given to the secular authorities, who committed the burning, and the church said, they say, "we wash our hands, beat, fight, educate, re-educate, we can’t do anything about the hard-headed" request
                      2. +2
                        5 October 2017 21: 14
                        Heliocentrism was known since antiquity and for this they did not drag it to the fire. Interestingly, from the "Soviet project", the most tenacious remained atheistic propaganda. D. Bruno, was just a homosexual, and a persistent Satanist, and a spy. And they didn’t burn Copernicus, though, he even promoted antique ideas about who revolves around whom.
                    3. +1
                      6 October 2017 15: 06
                      I specifically gave a picture of the tourniquet of a knight who had fallen into sin with a squire. Burned the only way! And the Hyuuga Dispensir, who “incited the king to shame”, was scuttled, cut, guts removed and burned before his eyes, then quartered !!!
                      1. +2
                        6 October 2017 18: 39
                        The fact that they were burned is a fact, but not the fact of what It is. Sexual offenses were not within the competence of the Inquisition. They were condemned, imposed penance, but the bonfire was for heretics, sorcerers and sorceresses, as well as persons convicted in relations with the devil. Since sadomia is an unnatural act, they were engaged in, say, black masses. The custom has survived to this day, but, unlike those times, unbaptized babies and virgins are not sacrificed.
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  14. +1
    5 October 2017 20: 17
    kalibr,
    Maybe we are not so strong in heraldry. What exactly is surprising, please explain?
    1. 0
      6 October 2017 15: 02
      Everything is amazing! Why is gold above and a worm below, when courage was considered the main virtue of a knight, why is the cross “shaggy”, why should it?
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  16. +2
    5 October 2017 21: 09
    Mikado,
    Cathars, those were still shy. The top of them, deserved it. Read, there is information on the Internet. A very dangerous sect. Europe would have spilled blood if it were not for the decisive actions of the church. The creation of the Inquisition was a sensible step. True, then the excesses went, but then.
    1. +3
      5 October 2017 21: 11
      A very dangerous sect.

      with a claim to power! at least regional. hi
      1. +2
        5 October 2017 21: 19
        If. They had big plans. At the heart of the Manichean ideas are superimposed on Christianity, which everything that was black did white. Betray, destroy yourself and others, because Peace is a product of the devil. Now, if they won? hi
        1. +2
          5 October 2017 21: 21
          oh, read a long time .. what I even bought a book, "The Holy Grail and the Third Reich." Say, the Cathars knew about the Grail. And I would read this pseudo-historical book if it weren’t so boring written! No. say, the Nazi scientist Otto Ran examined Monsegur, and knew something about the Grail!
      2. +2
        5 October 2017 21: 31
        Figasse, regional! France was smaller than the area hit by Qatari heresy!
        1. +2
          5 October 2017 22: 21
          I don’t know about this. As I understand it, Languedoc was the main center in France. Again, if you take the Albiguian wars - the topic for the article. Now I stumbled upon the figure of a million dead. It is also interesting, it was, in fact, the intra-European Crusade.
          1. +1
            6 October 2017 15: 00
            There was the material "Crusaders against the Cathars."
  17. +2
    5 October 2017 21: 23
    avva2012,
    So Copernicus repented, and Bruno persisted.
    1. 0
      6 October 2017 05: 25
      Perhaps you are right, but surely Copernicus, not Galileo?
  18. +5
    5 October 2017 22: 23
    A very good article. Many thanks to the author for finding a topic where they stopped writing nasty things to each other in the comments (possibly due to the lack of particularly “gifted” commentators).
    1. +5
      5 October 2017 22: 52
      I agree completely with you.
      (possibly due to the lack of particularly “gifted” commentators).

      Very accurate remark.
      Sorry did not have time to read deleted comments.
      1. +4
        5 October 2017 23: 53
        Do not worry. Curious comments on articles by this author are not removed. Mostly cherish Samsonov and the like. Although it’s a sin to hide, VN is fond of homophobia is here (this time it worked out).
        1. +2
          6 October 2017 09: 33
          it's my fault.. recourse wrote too much on abstract topics. You arrived late! hi
  19. +1
    23 July 2018 14: 12
    Yes, great stuff! This Codex is indeed one of the Bibles of the Military-Historical Reconstructors! wink

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev Lev; Ponomarev Ilya; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; Mikhail Kasyanov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"