Military Review

770 yo Ice Battle

36
I. Where?

Until now, historians have been arguing not only about the number of warriors who participated on both sides in the April 5 1242 battle, but also about the place of this battle. It’s not at all a fact that the Ice Slaughter took place, as many textbooks on stories, on Lake Peipsi. In versions of historians there are references to both Chudsky and Pskov lakes, as well as to Warm Lake (in the 13th century it was called Uzmen'e - a bottleneck, the strait that connects Pskov and Chudskoye lakes).

A quote from the book by Alexander Shirokorad “Peter the Great's Baltic mine” (M .: AST, 2008): “Of the ten historians who dealt with this issue (Kostomarov, Vasilyev, Trusman, Lurie, Porfiridov, Bunin, Belyaev, Tikhomirov, Paklar, Kozachenko) only Estonian Paklar made special surveys on the spot, while others tried to find a solution in the quiet of their offices. As a result, the alleged battlegrounds are scattered over a stretch of about a hundred kilometers! ”

Nazaruk V.M. "Battle of the Ice", 1984 year


In fact, he traveled to the site with three expeditions of enthusiasts and G. N. Karaev (1959, 1960, 1962) plus a reconnaissance survey conducted by him in 1961, but about that later.

Archaeological investigations aimed at finding evidence of the battle of 1242 of the year did not lead to any result. First, if the battle really happened on the ice of the lake, then part of the armor and weapons could drown. Secondly, swords, shields, helmets, chain mail had a high cost in the XIII century - and it is not surprising that what did not drown was tidied up.

The Novgorod first chronicle of the senior izvod points to Lake Peipsi: “Having seen Prince Oleksandr and Novgorod, put a regiment on Lake Chudsky, on Uzmeni, at Voronya Kameni; and nahasha on the Nemtsy and Chud regiment and a pig through the polk ... ”(cited from the publication: Novgorod first chronicle of the elder and younger izvodov. M .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1950, p. 78; quotation adapted).

The Novgorod first chronicle of the younger izvod also speaks about Lake Peipsi: “Having seen Prince Alexander and Novgorod, put a regiment on Lake Chudsky, on Uzmen, at Voronya Kameni; and advancing Lake Chyudskoye: there are a lot of bieshe of both of them ”(p. 295-296 decree ist.).

Let us look into the Lavrentiev chronicle: “Grand Prince Yaroslav, ambassador of his son Andrea to Novgorod Veliky, to help Oleksandrovi on Nemtsi, and I am victorious for Pleskov on the lake, and full of captivity, and return to Andrew to his father with honor” (quoted by : The Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles. Volume I. Lavrentievskaya and Troitskaya Chronicles. St. Petersburg, 1846. C. 201. If the chronicler said “beyond the Pleskov,” that is, beyond Pskov, then he probably meant the Pskov Lake.

An excerpt from the Life of Alexander Nevsky (manuscript of the mid-16th century by the Grebenshchikov Old Believer community in the city of Riga. In the book: Proceedings of the Old Russian Literature Department / Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House); Ed. V. P Adrianova-Peretz. - M .; L .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1947. V. V. S. 190-191):

“As for the victory of Oleksandr, the defeated 3 ship, and in the winter time and go to the German land in the power of greatness, do not boast more successes: reproving the Slovene language. Below him, take the grave of Plesk and Tia by planting them, the same prince Oleksandro is withdrawn, the city of Pleskov is free from captivity, and he took their land and burn them from the bottom.

But they proudly mated and solved: let's go [and] win Oleksandr, having him with our hands. When approaching, and the oleksandrone guard, the prince, Oleksandro, turned up against him and went against the sea, advancing on the sea of ​​chyd, many of them were beshch: his father, Yaroslav, sent him to help his brother, Andrew, in a reminder of mine, ”. So, here is “the sea of ​​chyudskoe”.

N. M. Karamzin did not say anything about the “meeting place”: “The Livonian Chronicler says that 70 of courageous Knights laid their heads there and that Prince Novogorodsky, capturing 6 officials, ordered them to be killed. The winner entered Livonia, and when our soldiers scattered for the assembly of food supplies, the enemy was defeated by a small forward detachment Novogorodsky. Here Alexander rendered the art of a prudent Military Leader: knowing the strength of the Germans, he stepped back, looked for a favorable place and started on Lake Chudsky [5 April 1242]] ”(“ History of the Russian State ”, volume IV). As we see, Karamzin - which was repeatedly noted by Russian historians - avoids indicating the exact location of the battle. "... I was looking for a favorable place and became on Lake Peipsi," - and the point.

N.I. Kostomarov: “Alexander sat in Pskov; Forward in the German Land were sent troops for the news. Alexander was expecting a new war; she had to follow from the Germans. Indeed, he soon heard that the German force had attacked the detachments sent to German Land, broke them and marched on Pskov. Meister Valk and the bishops went with confidence that things would get better on their side. German militia went on the ice across Lake Peipsi, with the aim of reaching Pskov with ice. But Alexander led the way of the enemies, and he made his way from Pskov on the ice with Novgorod and Pskov. Alexander set his troops in battle formation on the lake, near the Voroniy Kamen rock, on Uzmen, at the turn from Lake Pskov to Chudskoye. This place is so named because there are really crows constantly circling "(" Russian Republic. Northern Russian People's Rights during the Age and Species of the Veche Order. History of Novgorod, Pskov and Vyatka "). So, here is a turn from a lake to a lake, that is, the place is probably near the village of Pnevo — Uzmen, or Warm Lake.

S.Molovyov: “Arriving in Novgorod in 1241, Alexander immediately went to Koporye on the Germans, took up the fortress, brought the German garrison to Novgorod, part of it was released, only the traitors to the traitors and hung them up. But it was impossible to release Pskov so soon; Only next year, 1242, having traveled to the Horde, Alexander marched to Pskov and took him, with seventy knights killed with a lot of simple warriors, six knights taken prisoner and tortured, as the German chronicler says. After that, Alexander entered the land of Peipsi, in the possession of the Order; the army of the latter met one of the Russian detachments and smashed him utterly; when the fugitives brought Alexander the news of this defeat, he retreated to Lake Pskov and began to wait for the enemy on his ice, which was still strong on April 5. On the sun-rising, the famous battle began, known in our annals as the Battle of the Ice ”(“ History of Russia since ancient times ”, volume 3). Thus, according to Solovyov, the massacre took place on the ice of the Pskov lake.

Lev Gumilev had no doubt that the battlefield was Lake Peipsi: “In the winter of 1242, Alexander Nevsky with his Suzdal, or, as they said,“ Nizov ”ones, attacked the Germans and Pskov with the support of Novgorod and the German detachment. Freeing Pskov, he moved to the main forces of the Livonians, who were retreating, bypassing Lake Peipsi. On the western shore of the lake, by the Voronogo stone, the Germans had to take the fight "(" From Russia to Russia ").

Take a modern history textbook. Everything is simple: “The Knights broke the vanguard of Alexander and drove the prince to Lake Peipsi. Here, on April 5, one of the biggest battles in the battle for the lands of the Eastern Baltic States took place. Alexander's talent as a commander allowed him to defeat the Crusaders. ” (Pavlenko N.I., Andreev I.L., Fedorov V.A. History of Russia from ancient times to 1861 year. Ed. 3-e., Revised. / Edited by N. I. Pavlenko. M .: Higher School, 2004. C. 79.)

I see no reason to further cite different points of view on the question of exactly where the Ice Battle took place. Those wishing to get acquainted with the historiography of this confusing question refer to article by V. Potresovcontaining the maps and the book: The Battle on the Ice 1242. Proceedings of a complex expedition to clarify the location of the Battle on the Ice / Ed. ed. G.N. Karaev. Moscow - Leningrad: Science, 1966. 241 with. Historiographic materials from this publication on the Internet can be found [url = http: //] here [/ url]. Written sources, Western and Russian, - here or here.

I would like to make special mention of G. N. Karayev, a well-known investigator of the place of the Ice Battle. Here is what he writes about him and his expedition. Vladimir Potresov:

“Studies that would help clarify the events of seven centuries ago were undertaken by the military historian, specialist in the Middle Ages, Major General G. N. Karayev. Today it is not so indiscriminately scolding everything that was in Soviet times. Because it became, with what to compare. That expedition, which G.N. Karayev headed and successfully conducted on a voluntary basis, would be simply impossible to organize now. So, for a number of years, from 1956 to 1963, the expedition during holidays, vacations, and student practical classes dozens of people of various specialties worked absolutely free of charge: archaeologists, hydrologists, toponyms, geologists, and others. The military districts put at their disposal the most modern technology for those years: airplanes, helicopters, special boats. Scuba divers and divers surveyed the bottom of the lake, and groups of tourists in canoes found waterways that Alexander Nevsky could fundamentally move. ”

Expeditions, carried out by a team of G. N. Karayev, came to the following conclusions:

1) The warm lake - the chronicle Uzmen - in the northern part in the XIII century was blocked by a peninsula, of which only Meža Island (Piirissar) remained.

2) Voroniy Kamen is now the remnant of a “dome-shaped structure, represented by red-brown sandstone. The height of this hill was obviously not less than the dome of the village. Kallaste, currently reaching the height of 12 m. Voroniy Kamen, located on the northwestern tip of. Crow, which in those days was the right bank of the r. The idiots at its confluence with Uzmen, towering over the rest of the country on 12-15 m, served as an excellent guide and watchpoint. "

G.N. Karaev notes: “At this time, the otmezhevanny tubercle could still be found and mapped, but not much time would pass, and it would disappear completely, the remains of the Voronii Stone would undergo further destruction, and, finally, a time would come when only the historical the monument erected as a result of the research work of Soviet historians will remind the descendants of the place of the great battle of the Raven Stone, this silent witness to the feat accomplished by our ancestors. ”

Interpretation of the site of the massacre by G. N. Karaev:

Under the chronicle Uzmenyu refers to the channel connecting the Pskov and Peipsi Lake and now bears the name of the Warm Lake. Between the northern tip of Cape Sigovets, Stanok Island and the western tip of Gorodets Island, in early April, the ice was too weak (“sigovitsa”). But between Cape Sigovets in the north and the village of Pnevo in the south, in early April the ice was quite strong and allowed to be shipped through Uzmen. Moreover, Karayev writes, “on the eastern coast of Uzmeni there was a wide strip of shallow water, on which the water froze through to the bottom in winter. As hydrological surveys have shown, barely covered with water were formed on this strip. Such shoals, usually overgrown with reeds, are a frequent occurrence at the present time. In winter, when the water freezes, on an icy surface they remain stuck out from under the snow, like grassy islands, overgrown with reeds. ” District of the northeastern part of Uzmen in the 13th century was located at the crossroads of trade routes, was fortified (especially in the region of the mouth of the river Bile) and was densely populated. Here "there were, apparently, vast lands on which, from ancient times, they were harvesting fish, hay and other agricultural products." All this was convenient for the location of the troops.

Karaev writes:

“If, taking all this into account, carefully examine the outlines of the coastline of the islands of Uzmeni, as they were in the 13th century, according to the hydrological surveys carried out by the expedition, the following becomes obvious:

1) the battle could not have taken place directly at Voronogo Kamen due to the weakness of the ice at Sigowice;

2) north of the Voronii Kamnya, i.e. between it and the Podborovsky cape, this is also excluded, since the chronicle says that the defeated enemy was “a gonjerm along the ice to the Subolichsky coast” and To the west of these places extended vast wooded islands, and thus, pursuing "on the ice" was not possible;

3) to the south-west of Vorony Stone was a peninsula, much of which is currently flooded; it is now called Sigovets (cape), since its most northern tip is adjacent to the “sigovitsa”.

This section of the eastern coast of Uzmen was located in the 13th century. (as it is now) against the widest part of it - to the opposite bank, if you look directly to the west, to the village. Parapalo is currently more than 6 km away, and up to Cape Ukhtinka, where the broken remnants of the German knight’s army, very likely, ran - up to 8 km. Thus, in this respect, the area near the western coast of Sigovets cape very close to the direction of the chronicle. It is, however, not far from Crow Stone - less than 1,5 km; This fully explains the fact that the chronicler, when indicating the place of the battle, named this landmark, which is widely known in the area.

770 yo Ice Battle
S. Prisekin "Whoever comes to us with a sword, will perish by the sword" (1983)


It is necessary, moreover, to keep in mind that at that time no one measured the distance between the shores and it could be called only very approximately by those participants of the victorious campaign, who later, from memory, told the chronicler about it. In addition, due to the fact that the description of the battle, placed in the annals, is embellished by the religious writings of the chronicler, it is natural to assume that the figure “seven” was named by him in this case as apocryphal in order to express the fullness of the victory over the enemy. ”

“Thus,” concludes G.N. Karayev, “the place of the Ice Battles is quite accurately determined by comparing the results of the expedition survey and the topographic data on it contained in the chronicle text. Due to the fact that the coastline at Cape Sigovets has now changed and moved to 300-400 meters to the east, the battle site should be understood as the stretch of warm Lake, located about 400 meters west of the modern coast of Cape Sigovets, between its northern extremity and latitude der. Isle".

In the thirteenth century the lake at this place was already than now (see on map).

The second question “where” concerns the two options offered by history: is it on the ice, or ashore?

“On both sides, the dead fell on the grass,” says Elder Livonian Rhymed Chronicle. Karayev answered this question: “... having built up on the shallow water strip adjacent to the eastern bank of the Uzmeny, the Russian army was among the thickets of reeds protruding from under the snow, which is mentioned in the chronicle as“ grass ”.

Ii. How many?

Let us return to the chronicles.

In the Novgorod first chronicle of the eldest, we read: "... and Pade Chyudi bieschisla, and the German 400, and 50 with the hands of Yash and brought to Novgorod" (p. 78).

In the Novgorod first chronicle of the younger editions, the numbers changed: “... and Pade Chyudi, beschisla, and German 500, and other 50 by Yash and brought to Novgorod” (p. 296).

Therefore, the killed Germans were 400 or 500, captives - 50, and more was destroyed "without a number" Chud.

Laurentian chronicle and the number of soldiers and dead does not, alas, nothing. Her story "In the summer of 6750" generally fits into three lines.

The Life of Alexander Nevsky is a more artistic source than a documentary and historical one. Judge for yourselves: “But then, the Sabbath is a day, the rising sun, the wallpaper coalesced, and bych of evil, rubbing from spears of breaking, sound from a sword section, as if I were moving to the sea, I don’t see ice, covered everything with blood. Beshe many are full in his regiment, but the vedyhut is near the machinations of the ilk called God's rotor. Yako approaching the prince to the city Pleskova, sosretosha him with crosses abbots, priests in vestments of the city, and before the city singing the glory of the Lord Olexandr: posobivy Lord, meek Davyd wins Yati foreigners, faithful prince our oruzhiem cross svoboditi hail Pleskov from inoplemennik from inoyazychnik hand Olexander "(p. 191). In a word, “set.”

Karamzin writes on this topic: “Another winter lasted then in the month of April, and the army could safely operate on solid ice. The Germans hit our ranks with a sharp column; but the courageous Prince, striking at the enemies from the side, kneaded them; he broke, destroyed the Germans and drove the Chud until the darkest evening. 400 Knights fell from our swords; fifty were taken prisoner, including one who, in his arrogance, wanted to capture Alexander himself; Chudi’s bodies lay on seven versts ”(“ History of the Russian State ”, volume IV). As we see, the historian adheres to the information of the annals.

NI Kostomarov, in contrast to Karamzin, follows the Life of Alexander Nevsky, adding the maximum number of Germans killed from the chronicle: “The Germans moved to the Russians. According to the method of the then tactics, Alexander put his army of pigs: the construction was called a triangle, which formed a sharp end, turned to the enemy. Seeing the approaching enemies, Alexander raised his hands up and loudly in front of his entire army said: “God, judge me, and judge my argument with this eloquent people; help me, Lord, how you helped my grandfather Yaroslav against the accursed Svjatopolk! ”It was then the Saturday of the fifth week of the great fast, the day of 5, April. The sun has just risen. When the Germans approached, Alexander swiftly moved his pig with his snout against the enemy, and the German system was cut. Then, says the chronicler, conveying his story with the words of an eyewitness who reported the glorious deed to the news: “Then the crackling of breaking spears and the sound of the sword section rose. It seemed that the frozen sea had moved, and the great one was slashing the Germans and Chudi with us, and the ice was not visible: everything was covered in blood. ” Torn, lost the ranks, the Germans fled; Russians triumphantly chased them seven miles across the ice to the Subolichny coast. The chronicler has five hundred beaten Germans, and about Chudi says that her countless number has disappeared; some sank in the water: then in the spring time the ice was not strong; and of those who fled, many were with wounds, and died from wounds. Fifty Germans are taken alive ”(“ Russian Republic. Northern Russian national empire during the time of the specific veche order. History of Novgorod, Pskov and Vyatka ”).

S. M. Solovyov: “... the Russians drove the Germans across the ice to the coast at a distance of seven miles, killed 500 people from them, and countless multitudes, captured 50 knights” (“History of Russia from ancient times”, volume 3). Solovyov also used "The Life of Alexander Nevsky", and took the number from the chronicle.

Gumilev: “The number of knights proper was small - only a few dozen, but each knight was a formidable fighter. In addition, the knights were supported by foot mercenaries armed with spears, and the allies of the order - the Livs. The knights formed a "pig": the most powerful warrior in front, behind him - the other two, behind those - four, and so on. The onslaught of such a wedge was irresistible for lightly armed Russians, and Alexander did not even try to stop the blow of the German army. On the contrary, he weakened his center and gave the knights the opportunity to break through it. Meanwhile, the reinforced flanks of the Russians attacked both wings of the German forces. The Livas ran, the Germans resisted desperately, but since the time was springtime, the ice cracked and the heavily armed knights began to fall into the water of Lake Peipsi. Novgorod also did not allow the enemy to escape from the disastrous trap. The defeat of the Germans on Lake Peipsi 5 on April 1242 delayed their attack on the East - Drang nach Osten - which was the leitmotif of German politics from 1202 to 1941 year "(" From Russia to Russia "). So, "a few dozen" plus "livy".

And here is an excerpt from Senior Livonian Rhymed Chronicles:

"The Russians had such a rank (schar),
that every German attacked,
perhaps sixty people.
The Knights Brothers resisted quite stubbornly,
but they were overpowered there.
Part of the derpttsev out
from the battle, it was their salvation,
they were forced to retreat.
Twenty knight brothers were killed there,
and six were taken prisoner. "

"Sixty" people against one - a clear exaggeration of the losers, but the 20 killed knights and six captives - seems to be true. Why? Because there were few knights at that time and it was very expensive to maintain a knight with squires and horses.

Quote:

“... Pskov, for example, being captured by the Livonians, could contain only two such full-fledged soldiers. Of course, they marched along with their servants and squires, but even with them the number of such a knightly unit could not be more than 15 — 20 soldiers, and there were only 5 — 7 men in cavalry. At one castle of the Livonian Order, as a rule, accounted for one knight. He was called the commander, and he led the commissariat, which usually consisted of one castle and the surrounding land. From 1230 to 1290, the Order built around 90 locks on the territory of the Baltic States. From here it is easy to calculate the military capabilities of the order and the number of its troops.

V. Serov "Alexander Nevsky's entrance to Pskov after the ice battle"


It should also be noted that a year before that, 9 on April 1241, the Teutonic Order took part in the Battle of Legnica. Then the army of the Golden Horde under the command of the grandson of Genghis Khan Baidar defeated the combined Polish-German army under the command of the Krakow prince Henry II the Pious. Considering that quite a few Teutons died in that battle, no more than 60-70 knights of the order could take part in the Ice Battle (some ancient German sources speak of 30 knights, each of which still had 5-6 cavalry warriors). With the infantry supporting them, about a thousand and a half soldiers gathered, including poorly armed Estonians ”(source: "A red star").

A. Shcherbakov and I. Dzys in the book “Ice Battle” (Moscow: Exprint, 2001) write:

“There is practically no exact data on the number of sides during the battle on Lake Peipsi, but it can be approximately established.

The Germans, obviously, having taken the advance of the Russian detachments on the territory of the Derpt episcopacy and the Order of the Order for a regular raid, did not begin to force all the forces that were in Livonia (and given the fighting against the Lithuanians, it was simply impossible) and carried out total mobilization, but came up with warriors who were able to quickly assemble, without waiting for help from the Danes.

During this period, 60 Teutonic Knights were in Livonia, of which no more than 30 could participate in the battle at Lake Peipsi. After the Battle of Siauliai, no more than two dozen knights remained of the Order of the Sword, although it was unlikely that all of them were in the army that set out on the ice of Lake Peipsi. The Dorpat bishop with the knights accompanying him should also be taken into account, although it is generally unlikely that there would be more than fifteen people. In total, this will be no more than 65 — 70 knights.

Each knight was accompanied by up to a dozen squires, sergeants and armed servants. Most likely, all of them were equestrian in April 1242. With knights, it will be about 700 — 750 German fighters in a knightly army.

To participate in the campaign militiamen from Chud were involved. There is no exact data on their numbers: neither the Germans nor the Russians did not consider it necessary to reflect their numbers in the chronicles and chronicles. In the battle, they did not play any role. All of them, as you can imagine, were from five hundred to nine hundred, but no more. ”

Bottom line: roughly 1500 warriors, of which up to 70 knights.

On the Russian side, according to some modern estimates, there were about 2-3 thousands of warriors - that is, a little less than sixty per enemy. For example, in the above-mentioned book Shcherbakov and Dzysya "Ice Battle" provides the following data: "... the total number of Russian troops - no less than two thousand fighters, but no more than three."

Estimates of the Russian ratification in Soviet times, for example, those given in Great Soviet Encyclopedia, reached “15 — 17 thousand people”. At the same time, the number of crusaders was reported evasively: “great forces”, “large knightly troops”. It seems that Soviet historians believed the Livonian chronicles: 60 vs. 1.

On this occasion, historian and archivist Anatoly Bakhtin from Kaliningrad in April 2004 said Izvestia correspondent I. Stulova the following: “Image makers probably took part in the compilation of the Russian chronicles of that time, who, in order to recognize the significance of the victory or explain the reasons for the defeat, did not bother themselves with pedantry. The number of warriors in those times was indicated by one word “beschisla,” that is, a myriad of. This formulation gave historians an occasion to increase the order of the number of participants in the battle of Lake Peipsi by an order of magnitude. Unrealistic and unsubstantiated figures sounded like anecdote: eighteen thousand from the Russians, fifteen from the Order. By the end of the thirties of the thirteenth century, the entire population of Novgorod, including women, old people and children, was just over fourteen thousand people. Therefore, the maximum number of militia, which Alexander could call under his banner, could not exceed two thousand warriors. And the Teutonic Order, the majority of whose members shed their and other people's blood in Palestine for the Holy Sepulcher, during this period, consisted of approximately two hundred and eighty brothers and knights. No more than two dozen Teutons fought directly on the ice of Lake Peipsi. The rest of the thousandth mass that opposed the Russian squad was made up of Livonians and Chuds, the ancestors of the current Estonians. ”

I. Danilevsky writes: "Other historians are trying to" reconcile "the numbers given by the ancient Russian chroniclers, and the data of the Rhymed Chronicle, claiming that the chronicler allegedly cited the full losses of the enemy, and the Chronicle took into account only full-fledged knights. Naturally, it is impossible to either confirm or refute such conjectures. ”

Yes, it is impossible to either confirm or deny, but reading the Elder Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, one can assume that the chronicler, who spoke about sixty against one, took into account only the knights, not taking into account the Livonians and even more so Chud. The Russian army was taken into account in full. Simple truth shines through the obscuring poetic text of the chronicle.

Perhaps we can take for granted the "minimalist" assumption that on the Warm Lake 1500 Germans and their allies fought against the 2000-2500 Russians - as the most plausible. Among the Germans there were “several dozen” heavily armed knights (it seems that Gumilev turned out to be the most accurate historian, as he put it very carefully), “but every knight was a formidable fighter”.

In conclusion, I will again quote “The Laurentian Chronicle”: “Grand Prince Yaroslav, ambassador of his son Andrea to Novogorod Veliky, to help Oleksandrovi to Nemtsy, and I will win for Pleskovoy on the lake, and full of fun, and return Andrey to my father with honor.” I will also quote a line from The Life of Alexander Nevsky: “... his father, Yaroslav, sent him to help his younger brother, Andrey, in a squad of retinue.” Speaking about the commander-winner Alexander, we should not forget about his younger brother - Andrew.
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  1. Dmitriy69
    Dmitriy69 21 March 2012 08: 54
    +8
    In such details, to be honest, I have not read it yet! Thanks to the author +++
  2. in4ser
    in4ser 21 March 2012 08: 56
    +9
    Congratulations to all on this significant date !!!

    In the memory of the Russian people - this is one of the most important battles for the Russian faith.
  3. Artur09-75
    Artur09-75 21 March 2012 09: 00
    +5
    No matter how many they were there - they came with a sword - they received over the yell.
  4. Enjoy
    Enjoy 21 March 2012 09: 25
    +4
    Many thanks! Great article
  5. alebor
    alebor 21 March 2012 11: 06
    +2
    In the Middle Ages, military conflicts between Russia and the Livonians and the Swedes took place regularly, once every few years. These were both small cross-border conflicts, and quite large wars for that time. But for some reason, of all these battles, we remember only two - the Battle of Neva and the Battle of the Ice. This is probably due to the personality of the commander who participated in these wars, the illustrious Russian saint, Prince Alexander Nevsky.
  6. Eugene
    Eugene 21 March 2012 11: 19
    +5
    At the same time, the much larger victory of Dovmont Pskov and other princes of the Battle of Rakovors was forgotten. Where the order lost up to a third of its Knights, and even the Danes got it.
    1. Goga
      Goga 23 March 2012 13: 53
      0
      What do you mean forgotten? Even without talking about people seriously keen on our history, one can give such a "frivolous" example - there is even a computer game with Prince Dovmont, Pskov soldiers and, naturally, the enemy - the Germans. So there is no need to talk about oblivion.
      In general, I never tire of being surprised at the wretchedness of our filmmakers. Having the richest history, the greatest literature - to ruin money and time for mediocre copying of Hollywood clichés is complete idiocy. Bortko alone made a wonderful film based on Gogol's book and how many attacks and accusations from the "critics".
      1. raptor_fallout
        raptor_fallout 23 March 2012 13: 57
        -1
        Quote: Gogh
        What does it mean forgotten?

        Quote: Gogh
        What does it mean forgotten?

        I recently downloaded the film on rutrekere already 38 years old, look! I’ll like it! Alexander Nevskiy.
  7. Ascetic
    Ascetic 21 March 2012 11: 26
    +7
    In the Battle of the Ice, almost all the color of the military-feudal Teutonic Order was destroyed, which saved our people from physical destruction and assimilation, almost 200 years before the Battle of Grunwald saved the Eastern Slavs from enslavement by the Western "orders" and "Reichs".
    The peculiarity of the battle on Lake Peipsi is also that for the first time in the military practice of the Middle Ages, heavy cavalry was defeated by a foot army. As the historian of military art rightly remarks,
    "The tactical encirclement of the German-knightly army by the Russian army, that is, the use of one of their complex and decisive forms of military art, is the only case of the entire feudal period of the war. Only the Russian army under the command of a talented commander could carry out tactical encirclement of a strong, well-armed enemy."

    Here is how the famous historian of Ancient Rus M.N. estimated the historical significance of the Battle of Ice Tikhomirov:

    "
    In the history of the struggle with the German conquerors, the Battle of Ice is the greatest date. This battle can only be compared with the Grunwald defeat of the Teutonic knights in 1410. The struggle with the Germans continued even further, but the Germans could never do any significant harm to the Russian lands, and Pskov remained a formidable stronghold, which all subsequent attacks of the Germans crushed
    1. bandabas
      bandabas 21 March 2012 21: 21
      0
      I do not quite agree with you. The color of the Teutonic Order was not destroyed then (existed another half century), but after Grunwald, it turns out yes. By the way, on the Battle of Grunwald, too, much is debatable.
    2. ikrut
      ikrut 22 March 2012 03: 39
      +2
      Undoubtedly, a great and significant victory for Russian weapons. But I want to add a little. The Russian army was not at all on foot. Its backbone was precisely the horse squad of Alexander. Each warrior of this Russian squad was somewhat like a knight. They were also clad in armor, had good training and combat experience. These were not "people from the plow" at all, but precisely well-equipped military professionals. And they had the same squires .. Each of this squad was not inferior to the knight. And he could successfully resist them. Although the number of vigilantes, I think, was not great. Hardly more than two hundred. Well, the rest were mostly on foot. I don’t think it’s worth considering the Russian army of those times as primitive and not professional. It will simply not be fair.
  8. Kibb
    Kibb 21 March 2012 11: 35
    +1
    Thanks, I read it with pleasure
  9. shipbuilder
    shipbuilder 21 March 2012 12: 15
    -2
    Livonia was called all of Western Europe at that time.
  10. nnz226
    nnz226 21 March 2012 13: 10
    +7
    "Russians always beat Prussians!" (A.V.Suvorov)
  11. 755962
    755962 21 March 2012 14: 52
    +3
    As a result of this victory, the Catholic chivalrous expansion into Russia was stopped.
  12. Odinplys
    Odinplys 21 March 2012 15: 03
    +2
    The Greatest Victory of Russian Warriors ...
    Strength in Truth ... and Truth is with us ... We will win ... !!!
  13. Vlaleks48
    Vlaleks48 21 March 2012 15: 43
    +2
    Thank you for the article!
    And they beat the enemy, we beat and we will beat!
    On that stand! Glory to our ancestors!
  14. malera
    malera 21 March 2012 17: 24
    -11
    Quote: Ascetic
    In the Battle of the Ice, almost all the color of the military-feudal Teutonic Order was destroyed, which saved our people from physical destruction and assimilation, almost 200 years before the Battle of Grunwald saved the Eastern Slavs from enslavement by the Western "orders" and "Reichs".

    Rave. Not looking for a black cat in a black room. She has never been there.
    Events unfolded in this way:
    Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, the son of Prince Vladimir Mstislavich, expelled from Pskov, decided to regain the Pskov throne with the help of the Derpt bishop, with whom he was related, and the knights of the Teutonic Order. Since in Pskov there was a group of boyars, supporters of Yaroslav, then, as a result of negotiations, the city was surrendered. The Germans left there two knights with a small detachment. Opponents of Yaroslav turned to Novgorod Prince Alexander Yaroslavich for help. He received military assistance from his father Yaroslav, Prince of Suzdal, and captured Pskov. Then he invaded the land of the Order with an army. Alexander's advance detachment was ambushed and defeated. Alexander retreated to the ice of Lake Peipsi. Whether this was preplanned or an accident is unknown. The chivalrous army, most of which was a miracle, lined with a wedge to pursue Alexander, until the Russian army rested on the shore, overgrown with reeds and willows, and littered with snow. The German wedge cut through the Russian army, as it was intended. But then something happened that the Germans did not foresee - they ran into the shore and got stuck in the snow and willow. They failed to turn around and surround the Russian army. Miracle, seeing that the usual plan failed, rushed to retreat. As a result, the knights themselves were surrounded and defeated. 20 knights - killed, 6 - captured.
    By the way, about steaming. Immediately after the Battle of Peipsi, Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich ordered the construction of a Catholic church in Pskov.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 21 March 2012 18: 00
      +9
      Well done well! From other people's words! there remains in the annals of history a genuine testament of the Holy Prince Alexander Yaroslavich, who, before his death, received a schema named Alexy. This will happen twenty years after the Battle of the Ice, and then, going to the red square of the Kremlin in front of the Holy Trinity Church in Pskov-grad, addressing the townspeople and the whole Russian Land, he said:
      "If you forget about all this even before my great-grandchildren, then you will become like those Jews whom the Lord fed in the desert with manna and fried quails and who forgot about all this, just as they forgot God who freed them from Egyptian captivity. And if anyone is from the most distant descendants. mine will come in sorrow to live with you in Pskov and you will not accept him, then you will be called the second Jew! "


      You apparently forgot judging by your post.
    2. rexby63
      rexby63 21 March 2012 18: 34
      +3
      And what does parasitism have to do with it? And he didn’t even build it, but simply agreed, as they say now. In order to somehow restrain the expansion of the insatiable Germans and, finally, to keep the word given to Innocent IV
      And in 1261, Saint Alexander Nevsky and Metropolitan of Kiev Cyril II, with the support of the Golden Horde Khan, Berke, a Muslim, established the chair of a Christian bishop in Sarai. Naturally, the Orthodox church was attached
    3. Passing
      Passing 21 March 2012 20: 34
      +9
      Quote: malera
      The knightly army ... pursued Alexander, until the Russian army rested on the shore, overgrown with reeds and willows, and littered with snow. The German wedge cut through the Russian army, as it was intended. But then something happened that the Germans did not foresee - they ran into the shore and got stuck in the snow and willow. They failed to turn around and surround the Russian army. Miracle, seeing that the usual plan failed, rushed to retreat.

      Read what you have written here:
      1) MOUNTAIN Germans chased the DEPTING RUSSIAN DAPING through the entire lake, i.e. Dragged as much as SEVEN kilometers ?! Cho, ours were so messed up and draped from nemchury, the headquarters even overtook the horses ?! I apologize, fuck!
      Maybe all the same, not the Germans were persecuting the Russians, but Alexander chose the place of battle he needed?
      2) But suddenly "we got stuck in the snow and willows", and allegedly out of despair, with cries of "we got stuck in the snow and willows, we're finished, we'll all die!" twenty knights died from a heart attack, and six knights surrendered in deep depression?
      Admit it, albeit an unpleasant, but just an obvious thought - the Germans lost not to "snow and willow trees", but to Alexander's talent in command, and to the unprecedented skill of the Russian squad, which defeated the equestrian knights on foot! But were there any other similar precedents in world history ?!
      Quote: malera
      Immediately after the Battle of Peipsi, Prince Alexander Yaroslavovich ordered the construction of a Catholic church in Pskov.

      Can I link to specific historical documents? Or is it an artistic whistle?
      1. datur
        datur 21 March 2012 22: 41
        +3
        Passing, yes, he just forgot about the fact that a bad dancer always has one interesting part of his body interfering !!!! wink laughingor at least GeneralFROZ !! belay ! and now as we see and willow !!!! repeat
      2. Eugene
        Eugene 21 March 2012 23: 54
        0
        which defeated on horseback knights! But were there still similar precedents in world history ?!


        It was. When the Swiss infantry appeared, the cavalry had forever lost its significance.
        1. Igarr
          Igarr 22 March 2012 19: 19
          0
          And then, with the advent of the First Horse, Second Horse, Chervona Equestrian Army - suddenly it regained significance.
          And, I wanted to put it - on the Swiss infantry.

          As well as the horse corps of Dovator .. Baranov, Blinov's horse division, who fought from 1941 to 1945. What is interesting - in the Wehrmacht was also - equestrian division
  15. rexby63
    rexby63 21 March 2012 18: 10
    +1
    The article is very sensible. Competently, thoughtfully, understandably. Author well done
  16. malera
    malera 21 March 2012 18: 38
    -7
    Quote: Ascetic
    "If you forget about all this even before my great-grandchildren, then you will become like those Jews whom the Lord fed in the desert with manna and fried quails and who forgot about all this, just as they forgot God who freed them from Egyptian captivity. And if anyone is from the most distant descendants. mine will come in sorrow to live with you in Pskov and you will not accept him, then you will be called the second Jew! "

    To begin with, I recall that Prince Alexander Nevsky is the adopted son of Batu Khan.
    And he did not serve the land of NOVGOROD (FOR RUSSIAN HAS NOT EXISTED AT THIS MOMENT) but the Golden Horde.
    And he harbored a fierce hatred for Novgorod.
    Here is just one of his deeds.
    The very first news of the census aroused indignation in Novgorod. “The evil news came from Russia that the Tatars of tamga and tithing [tribute] from Novgorod want,” the Novgorod chronicler reports, “and people were worried all summer.” The Novgorodians killed Mikhalkov’s posadnik, the protege of the Grand Duke, and the Mongol “numbers” who arrived in the city were “dishonored.”

    The Horde hastily returned to Vladimir to ask the Grand Duke for help to pacify the rebellious Novgorodians.

    The Grand Duke Alexander Yaroslavich sent an entire military expedition against Novgorod, in which, besides himself, the Suzdal and Rostov princes took part. Princely warriors brutally dealt with the discontented. Novgorod "rebels" were put to painful executions: "one nose was cut, and the other's eyes were removed."

    However, despite the executions of Novgorodians and the help of the grand-princely administration, a census in Novgorod in 1257 was not possible. Novgorodians categorically refused to pay "tithing and tamga." Horde "ambassadors" had to confine themselves to gifts.

    Only in 1259, under the threat of a campaign of numerous grand-ducal regiments in the city, did the Novgorodians finally agree to the census. The Horde ambassadors “Berkai and Kasachek and many others” immediately arrived in Novgorod.

    Ordyntsev was again accompanied by the Grand Duke Alexander Yaroslavich with a strong squad. And again, an attempt to conduct a census met the resistance of the inhabitants of Novgorod. In response to the violence and unlawful requisitions that accompanied the census, again "there was a great rebellion in Novgorod." Horde "ambassadors" in fear ran to the princely courtyard. The Novgorod chronicler reports that “the accursed [Tatars] began to fear death, they said to Alexander: give us the guards [guards] so that they do not kill us. And the prince commanded to watch over their son, the posadnik, and all the children of the boyars at night. ”
    Finally, with the support of the Grand Duke, "the mob was overpowered by the boyars, and they appeared under the number, they made themselves boyars easily, but less evil."

    The Horde "man of numbers", accompanied by an armed princely squad, began to ride through the streets and "write at home." Novgorod was laden with heavy tribute.

    The events in Novgorod showed that the only force actively opposing the Mongol-Tatar yoke at that time was the masses, “black people” who were ready to “die of honor”, ​​but not submit to the enemy. Conversely, the feudal lords supported the claims of the Horde khans. The princely squads were the force that the Mongol officials relied on when conducting the census of Russian lands. The princely policy of reconciliation with the conquerors was supported by the boyars, who tried to shift the main burden of the foreign yoke onto the shoulders of the masses. As a result, popular performances were suppressed by the joint efforts of the Mongol-Tatar and Russian
    feudal lords.

    About "LIFE OF ALEXANDER NEVSKY" from which you quoted. No original, unknown author. This is a work of fiction, not a historical document.
    1. rexby63
      rexby63 21 March 2012 19: 42
      +4
      The question is - what source did you use?
    2. Passing
      Passing 21 March 2012 20: 53
      +7
      Quote: malera
      The Grand Duke Alexander Yaroslavich sent an entire military expedition against Novgorod ... The princely combatants brutally cracked down on the discontented. Novgorod "rebels" were put to painful executions: "one nose was cut, and the other's eyes were removed."

      What did you write here? Like the Horde fosterling, Alexander slaughtered the Novgorodians like pigs, cut their noses, burst his eyes, raged like a ghoul, and so what? Typically, the few surviving Novgorodians with horror gave the last, if only to stop this bloody lawlessness?
      Quote: malera
      However, despite the executions of Novgorodians and the help of the grand-princely administration, a census in Novgorod in 1257 was not possible. Novgorodians categorically refused to pay "tithing and tamga." Horde "ambassadors" had to confine themselves to gifts.

      Well, where are the people from Novgorod, trembling with horror? Show me your finger. Personally, here I see how the Novgorodians wanted to put on some kind of Horde, and Alexander, forced to pretend that he was like for the Horde, painted picturesquely to the Horde ambassadors how he would de bloodthirsty punish these arrogant tax evaders, and gave them expensive gifts to convey to the khan, his sincere loyalty. Like we have temporary difficulties with collecting taxes, check back next week ... But where to go? Alone, he didn't stand a chance against the Horde. Moreover, the Horde was far away, demanded only money, but the Catholics were right "across the river", and already demanded a soul to boot.
  17. Igarr
    Igarr 21 March 2012 19: 03
    +3
    I read, I read ..
    And article ... and comments ... and "battle" ... Ascetic with malera.
    I decided so .... Ascetic and malera are completely different weight categories .. without interruption live - there will be no result.

    Although that’s what I thought.
    We are here discussing the vile, frankly, US policy in the modern world. In this material, "The disintegration of the United States may begin on December 21, 2012" everything is clearly stated.

    And here malera - leads a source ... one leader with the letter P, .. "Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, the son of a prince expelled from Pskov" - decided to stir up. Against the non-Motherland ... but against Russia - definitely.
    He called his Catholic accomplices, lured an unstable element in Pskov and Novgorod - and considered himself a godfather to the king.
    Well, the real "kings" of Russia - they explained to him that his comrade was fundamentally wrong. If he is not drowned in the same place, on the lake, then the Teutonic comrades have explained to him that he has turned green, with the letter K. About him further, nothing is heard anywhere.
    And taking into account the theory of the "New Chronology" - this option passes without any questions at all. Everything is absolutely logical.

    And later all this Livonian-Teutonic order, together with Livonia, Latgallia, Kurland - swore allegiance to Russia .. represented by Ivan III. From a good memory.

    Glory to Russian weapons.
    1. rexby63
      rexby63 21 March 2012 19: 44
      +2
      In principle, I agree. Somewhat original, but true.
  18. malera
    malera 21 March 2012 20: 06
    -5
    Quote: rexby63
    The question is - what source did you use?

    If the question is for me.
    One of the sources. NOVGOROD FIRST CHRONICLES in LTO 6765 [1257]
    In LTL 6765 [1257]. Come, come from Rus evil, as the Tatars want 42 tamgas and tithes to Novgorod; and people are embarrassed through all the time. And to the mistress, the days die Ananya Posadnik, and for the winter you kill Mikhalka the posadnik of Novgorod. If someone repairs good to a friend, then there would be good; But whoever digs a hole under another, he will fall into it. That same winter, Priikhasha, Tatarsky ambassadors to Alexander, and Vasily Pobzha to Pleskov; and often ask the ambassadors of tithes and tamgas, and not forgiving Novgorod then, and giving the gifts of the crown prince, and letting me go in peace; and Prince Alexander ousted his son from Pleskov and the ambassador to Niz, and Alexander and his execution squad: to the same nose as Ursash, and to the other who took out his eyes, who Vasily led to evil; all evil must perish. The same spring killing Misha. Those same winters, giving duchy to Mikhail Fedorovich, who came out of Ladoga; and the thousandth dasha Zhirohnu.
    1. rexby63
      rexby63 21 March 2012 20: 29
      +4
      one nose was cut, and another's eyes were taken out. ”


      This is about the team of Vasily, and not about the Novgorodians. Do you know such a saying - the devil is in the details?
  19. Igarr
    Igarr 21 March 2012 20: 43
    +5
    And so I still remembered ..
    "The eternal oath of the crusaders to remain loyal to the Russian rulers" was taken in the 400th century, when Vsevolod the Big Nest, the grandfather of Alexander Nevsky, sent the knights expelled from Palestine to a distant, seedy corner of Russia at the request of the German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, with whom he was in friendship. In response, the crusaders pledged to serve Russia faithfully. However, Russia received a medieval version of the "Ichkerian Imamate" for almost 500 years, a headache for 150 years with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Belarus-Ukraine and Poland's assistants), then simply with the Commonwealth (Poland and Lithuania, previous assistants), for XNUMX years (rounded so) with Sweden (in the assistants - all the previous ones).
    So let it go after that ... tenants.
    Alexander Bushkov ... by the way, he counts in the ancestors of the Poles.
    Alexander Prozorov is a historian.
    Alexey Kungurov is an expert analyst.
    About the "New Chronology" - .. ah, already mentioned.

    I call the state territories of that time, but I used the name of the states from the current situation. This must be taken into account.
    1. Igarr
      Igarr 21 March 2012 21: 02
      +5
      But in general ... everything is here ... http: //www.nlr.ru/

      And here ... http: //www.rusarchives.ru/muslib/libs/nlr/nsa.shtml

      And how to use it - everyone determines for himself.
      1. rexby63
        rexby63 21 March 2012 21: 55
        +1
        And for the links - many thanks!
  20. 16
    16 21 March 2012 22: 38
    0
    interesting stuff! and comments too!
  21. malera
    malera 22 March 2012 18: 23
    -1
    Quote: rexby63
    This is about the team of Vasily, and not about the Novgorodians. Do you know such a saying - the devil is in the details?

    Well, I’ll explain for those who are interested.
    Alexander Nevsky served the Golden Horde.
    To curry favor, I decided to conduct a census of the population subject to him. (This is so that not one coin will be concealed from the tax collectors of the Golden Horde.)
    However, Novgorod refused to go under the arm of the khan. The rebellious townspeople were supported by Prince Vasily, son of Alexander.
    We conclude. Who was the protector of the land of Novgorod?
    Prince Vasily.
    Who was the venal servant of the Golden Horde.
    Alexander Nevsky
    1. Passing
      Passing 22 March 2012 22: 51
      +2
      Quote: malera
      Alexander Nevsky served the Golden Horde.

      And what, what exactly is Alexander's betrayal? All Russian princes received a label for reigning with the khan, all princes paid tribute. This is called the Mongol-Tatar yoke. Fee for fragmentation of the Russian Land. Pay for the position - my hut from the edge do not know anything.
      Quote: malera
      To curry favor, I decided to conduct a census of the population subject to him.

      Oga, I just dreamed of bending down before the boss to notice and brought closer to me, I was just dreaming of getting dumped for permanent residence in Kyzyl-Orda, like settling in a personal VIP yurt, enjoying the exquisite aroma of horse manure and feeling the girls who had never washed. Just a dream of a lifetime.
      But still, we will not rampant fantasies, life is much more prosaic - the khan ordered, I had to pretend that I obeyed. Well, what can you do, one is not a warrior in the field.
      Quote: malera
      However, Novgorod refused to go under the arm of the khan. The rebellious townspeople were supported by Prince Vasily, son of Alexander.
      We conclude. Who was the protector of the land of Novgorod?
      Prince Vasily.
      Who was the venal servant of the Golden Horde.
      Alexander Nevskiy.

      And how many chances would the rebels against the Horde have? Prince Vasily is certainly a hero. Young, uncompromising, on a dashing horse, with a saber bald. Just do not belong to him among the statesmen. The Horde would have rolled Novgorod and its environs, and after the Livonians would have vacated the empty lands. Such a finale was programmed by Vasily's reckless behavior. And if not for the wisdom of Alexander ...
      Better to lose money than to lose your land and your faith. And Alexander stood to death for the Russian Land and for the Russian Faith - when Pskov was captured by the schismatics, personally led the squads to help, and defended. So to each according to his deeds, and therefore to Alexander Nevsky our honor and respect.
      1. predator
        predator 23 March 2012 06: 24
        0
        Catholics called the Orthodox schismatics.
        1. Passing
          Passing 23 March 2012 15: 26
          +1
          And then I did not know. wink
          The question is why the Orthodox schismatics? Let me remind you of schism = schism.
          It is on the Catholic Church that lies the blame for the split of the Christian world. It was the Catholics who stormed and robbed Constantinople, and not the other way around. It was the Vatican, unjustified ambitions for supremacy that led to the separation of churches. And where does the Orthodox ?! They just did not demand anything, but simply were faithful to the original faith.
          To shift the blame onto another, to call black - white, these are the favorite tricks of the West.
          1. all
            all April 26 2017 20: 37
            0
            Who was the first Rome or Constantinople? The second schismatic. Is not it?
  22. all
    all April 26 2017 20: 35
    0
    As if it did not sound convincing: "swords, shields, helmets, chain mail were of high value in the XIII century - and it is not surprising that what did not drown was tidied up," but everything was in places of other similar battles of that time! No matter how expensive they are. Especially if they "drowned." And the whole area was checked with metal detectors, the bottom was cleared with a rake. And nothing! You can, of course, continue to practice “interpretations” and fabrications why you haven’t found them, but it’s better to go from historical propaganda to historical facts.