In recent years, Germany has reduced the number of BMPs Rita, which was planning to buy, but geopolitical friction can change these plans in the direction of increasing
The British, French and German armies are modernizing their combat vehicles and changing the structure of the armed forces so that they can better withstand equal rivals.
Since 2001, France, Germany and the United Kingdom, together with other NATO allies, have focused mainly on the global war on terror and other special operations. However, the British strategic defense and security review (SDSR) 2015 of the year points to the re-emergence of state threats, in particular from Russia, which has become “more aggressive, authoritarian and nationalistic, increasingly opposing to the West”, as well as projects for restructuring and arming the British Army with the aim of increasing its ability to counteract equal and asymmetrical opponents. The change of military doctrines of France and Germany is also a consequence of the political mood prevailing there.
In May 2015, the French army launched the concept of Au Contact (In cooperation) with the intention of creating more powerful and flexible forces for military missions both in Europe and abroad. The French strike forces currently consist of two armored brigades (2-I and 7-I), two medium brigades (6-I lightly armored and 9-I marines) and two light brigades (11-I Airborne and 27- I am mountain rifle). One brigade of each type is organizationally subordinated to two Scorpion divisions (1-I and 3-I). The 1 Division is also subordinated to the French units of the French-German brigade: a reconnaissance regiment equipped with AMX-10RC armored vehicles, and a motorized infantry battalion with VAB armored vehicles.
French VAB armored personnel carrier (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé - front end armored vehicle)
The French program Scorpion is a comprehensive modernization project for the adoption of new or upgraded vehicles, seamlessly connected with new digital communications and battle management systems.
Former Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian announced in December 2014 that a temporary GME consortium (Groupement Momentane d'Entreprises), formed by Nexter Systems, Renault Trucks Defense and Thales Communications & Security, will receive a contract for the development and production of a multipurpose armored vehicle Griffon 6x6 VBMR (Vehicule Blinde Multi-Roles) and Jaguar 6x6 EBRC combat reconnaissance vehicle (Engins Blinde de Reconnaissance et de Combat) (photo below). This is the first start-up contract for the Scorpion project, which is scheduled to run from 2014 to 2025.
The French Defense Procurement Agency DGA issued in April 2017 an order for the initial production of 319 Griffon machines (photo below) and 20 Jaguar machines, along with a training and logistics package; Griffon shipments will start in the 2018 year, and the first Jaguar will be shipped in the 2020 year. In the army, by the end of 2025, the 110 armored vehicles Jaguar and 780 armored vehicles Griffon are planned to be received, which will allow each of the two medium brigades to deploy three combined-arms combat groups GTIA (groupement tactique interarmes).
Griffon will replace the Renault VAB 4x4 multipurpose armored personnel carriers that have been deployed in 40 variants starting from the 1972 year. The army plans to achieve the “minimum goal” - to purchase Griffon 1722 vehicles in five basic versions: 1022 armored personnel carrier; 333 command and staff vehicles; 196 sanitary; 117 artillery surveillance vehicles; and 54 repair and recovery options. Some models will also have additional sub-options for special tasks.
The standard Griffon armored vehicle with a mass of 24,5 tons will be an armored personnel carrier with a passenger capacity of three crew members, a driver, a commander and a gunner, and eight paratroopers. It will also be equipped with a remotely controlled weapon module (DUMV) with a 7,62-mm or 12,7-mm machine gun or an 40-mm automatic grenade launcher.
Jaguar will replace 256 AMX-10RC 6x6 armored vehicles armed with a 105-mm gun and 110 ERC 90 Sagaie 6x6 reconnaissance vehicles with a 90-mm gun, as well as an anti-tank VAB NOT armed with reconnaissance regiments. The new Jaguar weighing 25 tons will be equipped with a two-seat T40M turret, armed with a 40 mm CTAS cannon with a telescopic ammunition (Cased Telescoped Armament System) from STA International, a 7,62 mm machine gun and an MBDA Missile Moyenne Portee ATGM currently time coming into service, which will give Jaguar the opportunity to destroy the main battle Tanks at distances up to 4000 meters.
French heavy armored car AMX-10RC, often also classified as a wheeled tank
ERC 90 Sagaie French Military Reconnaissance Vehicle
Jaguar and Griffon will be equipped with the SICS battle management system (Systeme d'lnformation du Combat Scorpion) from Atos Technologies; electronic architecture Thales VSYS-Net; Thales CONTACT communication system (Communications Numeriques Tactiques et de Theater); Pilar V Acoustic Shot Detection System from Metravib; the Thales Barage jamming system and the Antares situational awareness system. Both cars will be equipped with modular armor, providing ballistic protection in accordance with the requirements of the fourth level of security of the NATO standard STANAG 4569.
The upgraded Warrior tracked vehicle will be the core of the British Army's 2026 Rider Mechanism project. But the contract for mass production has not yet been issued
The first stage
The final event at the first stage of the Scorpion project will be the purchase of 358 new VBMR-L 4x4 (Road Blinde Multi-Role Leger) multipurpose armored vehicles for replacing some of the CHIM and VNRA models of the CHI CHI machines. The contract must be signed in the 4 year, and the first cars are delivered in the 4 year. The army wants to get the 4-2017 mass category platform in several versions, including an armored personnel carrier, a command headquarters, a reconnaissance vehicle and an EW vehicle. The new vehicles will be equipped with Panhard Defense / Sagem DXMV T2021 and T10, equipped with 12-mm and 1-mm machine guns, respectively.
French military truck Acmat VLRA
"French jeep" Peugeot Р4
The second phase of the Scorpion project will go from 2023 to 2035 for a year (if not further) and will include the continuous deployment of Jaguar and Griffon vehicles and the purchase of VBAE armored vehicles (Driule Blinde d'Aide a I'I'ngagement) to replace the VBL 4X4 armored car. In addition, the Nexter 8x8 40xXNUMX BMP VBCI (BMP Blinde de Combat d'Infanterie) will be upgraded to a medium life, which provides for the installation of the XNUMX-mm CTAS gun.
In June 2017, the Belgian Minister of Defense announced that his country would purchase 60 Jaguar and 417 machines from Griffon in order to replace Piranha III 8xXNNUMX, Pandur I 8XXNNXX and Dingo 6 6X2 armored vehicles, and had to use the models, which also had a way to get the model, which had to be used by the model, which also had to use the models, which are available in the current model, which had to be supplied by the proprietors, in their hands, they are also equipped with in-the-art models, and they are also provided with in-place models, which also have in place, and in the figure, they are also in the hands of the model, which also have the patterns, which are also available in the current model, which had to be used by the model, which also have to use the models in the program, which are used by the model in the United States.
The minister also stated that “the goal is to establish a partnership based on the same French and Belgian combat vehicles. Admission to the armament of new machines is scheduled for the period from 2025 to 2030, and it is planned to start developing a close partnership with France in the short term. ”
Germans love caterpillars
Meanwhile, the German 13 Army of December 2016 of the year officially received the 100th tracked infantry fighting vehicle Puma from the PSM joint venture (equal shares of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall Defense) created in 2004 for the purpose of developing and designing a platform to replace the tracked BMP Marder 1, which was adopted in 1971 year.
The official transfer of the army hundredth BMP Puma
The army’s initial need was for Puma's 405 vehicles — enough to fully equip eight motorized infantry battalions, including 24 vehicles for fire support groups and 34 vehicles for tank schools. But in June 2012, the Department of Defense reduced that number to 342 BMP and 8 driver training machines, planning the latest deliveries for 2020 year. The army cherishes the hope of receiving additional funding so that each of the 9 motorized infantry battalions receive Puma 44 vehicles, although it will take more from 8 to 10 years before all units become fully operational.
These hopes are not unfounded, since in May 2017, the German defense procurement department BAAINBw issued a contract to KMW to upgrade 104 MBT Leopard 2 to A7V standard, thereby increasing the fleet of Leopard 2 tanks to 328 machines. This contract reflects the government’s concern for the threat Russia poses to European security.
The Puma armored vehicle houses a crew of three people — the commander, gunner operator and driver — and a detachment of six paratroopers. Puma is the first German combat vehicle designed to integrate with the improved Rheinmetall IdZ-ES combat equipment that every soldier is equipped with.
Installing a remote-controlled tower allowed all crew members to stay in the hull, providing improved protection. The turret is armed with an 30-mm Mauser MK30-2 / ABM cannon (Air Burst Munition - air assault munition) with double feed. From 2018, the Eurospike MELLS launcher with two Rafael Spike LR (Long Range) ATGMs, manufactured under license from Eurospike, will also be installed on its left side, which will allow the Puma BMP to fight MBT at 4000 meters.
The Puma armored vehicle weighs 31,45 tons in the basic configuration of the Protection Class A, allowing it to be transported by Airbus A400M military transport aircraft. The Protection Class C kit — a combination of composite protection and dynamic protection blocks — adds to the mass of the 9 machine tons. It includes additional tower protection, protective sheets for most of the roof, and side panels covering the sides and some tracks. To further increase the level of survivability, the Puma machine is equipped with the Hensoldt Multifunctional Self-protection System MUSS (Multifunctional Self-Protection System), which detects the attacking missile and suppresses its guidance system.
As far as gaining experience in operating the Puma in the army, it will be up to the motorcycle infantry battalions to decide whether it needs additional options. Representatives of the parent company recognize that the export potential of the platform can be enhanced by expanding the family, which will include armored personnel carriers, reconnaissance, command, evacuation, sanitary options, as well as the option of fire support with a large caliber gun.
New German BMP Puma from different angles
Pumas claws grow
In June 2017, BAAINBw awarded PSM four contracts worth up to 422 million dollars to implement various improvements that increase the capabilities of the Puma armored vehicle. A DUMM with an 40-mm grenade launcher will be installed above the stern troop compartment, which will make it possible to combat targets without depending on the movements of the turret; the level of ownership of the situation will be enhanced by the integration of new displays. Serial production contracts are expected to be issued in 2023 and 2020, respectively, after testing three prototypes of each of these systems.
The contracts also provide for the training and maintenance of the MUSS system and the supply of 11 turret trainers. BAAINBw's Director of Management called these upgrades "the main step towards full Puma combat readiness."
The organizational structure of the army also includes five light infantry and three mountain infantry battalions. All five light battalions and one mountain rifle battalion will be equipped with a Boxer Multi-Role Armored Vehicle armored vehicle manufactured by ARTEC (Armored Technology). The program for this configuration machine 8x8 was launched in 1998 by three countries. France came out a year later and launched its VBCI program, and the UK left in 2003 due to the fact that the British army needed a car that was light enough to be transported with C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.
In 2001, the Netherlands joined the project and three years later, this country and Germany signed a contract for the mass production of 472 machines in nine variants.
The Boxer concept is to install various functional modules (each country has its own modules) on the common Boxer Drive Module chassis with a power unit with drives and a chassis in which the driver is placed. The 33 platform weighing tons — larger than most modern machines of the 8x8 configuration — was chosen because of its high mobility compared to the 6xXNNUMX chassis, the effective payload of 6 tons and the internal volume of 8 м14.
The multi-purpose Boxer Multi-Role Armored Vehicle armored vehicle manufactured by ARTEC. Above the overall chassis of the Boxer Drive Module, below the basic chassis of the Boxer with the Lancer tower
High grade protection
ARTEC claims that Boxer has the highest level of protection - higher than any car of its class. Circular ballistic protection corresponds to the 4 STANAG 4569 Level, the frontal projection is protected in accordance with the 5 Level, and anti-mine protection corresponds to the STANAG 4569 4 Level.
The German armored personnel carrier Boxer houses the driver, commander and operator-gunner and eight paratroopers, all of them sitting in explosion-proof seats. The armored personnel carrier is equipped with a DUMV FLW-200, which can be armed with a 7,62 mm or 12,7 mm machine gun or a 40 mm Heckler & Koch automatic grenade launcher.
Germany's initial order for 282 vehicles includes 135 armored personnel carriers, 65 command vehicles, 72 ambulances and ten driver training machines. From the middle of 2011 until the end of its mission in 2014, the German army exploited 38 Boxer armored vehicles in Afghanistan: armored personnel carriers, commanding and sanitary options.
In December 2015, Berlin placed an order worth 476 million euros for additional 131 BTR Boxer in the latest A2 configuration with deliveries in 2016-2020 years. These vehicles will close the need for Boxer vehicles, although the army claims they need at least 684 vehicles, but even this figure does not correspond to the replacement of the “one to one” fleet of Fuchs 1 6x6 armored personnel carriers (photo below).
The army received 1126 machines from Fuchs 1 in various versions from 1979 to 1986 a year and about 540 of them are still in use. Starting in March 2008, the army received 162 machines upgraded to Fuchs 1A8 standard, with better protection and mobility, as well as increased armor.
In June, 2017, ARTEC received a contract for upgrading from 2018 to 2023, the 246 year of the German Boxer A1 machines to the A2 standard. It will include a new satellite communications system, improved operational management systems and additional space for the DUMV operator plus a new ammunition deployment system. In addition, the machines will be prepared to integrate the new vision system for the driver.
The following month, BAAINBw awarded Rohde & Schwarz a contract with Rheinmetall to install SVFuA programmable radios, a key element of MoTaCo's digital tactical communications program, for 50 Boxer and Puma command vehicles. The first machines will be equipped by 2020, and the terms of the contract allow additional SVFuA systems to be ordered over the next seven years.
Relative sizes: Volkswagen Sharan and Boxer
New British Army
In the SDSR 2015 government review, special attention is paid to the capabilities of the British army in deploying a combat division capable of "meeting the resurgent threat of conflict with an equal adversary."
In accordance with the “Improving the Structure of the 2020 Army”, announced in December 2016, the ground combat formations of the army are regrouped into two (instead of three) mechanized brigades and two new medium “shock” brigades. This will allow the reorganized 3 division with a total of up to 40 thousands of troops to deploy with two mechanized brigades and a strike brigade together with the relevant combat and logistic support units.
The army will be equipped with equipment in accordance with five projects: a project to extend the life of the OBT Challenger 2; program to extend the capabilities of the BMP Warrior under the designation WCSP (Warrior Capability Sustainment Program); family of armored vehicles Ajax; wheeled armored personnel carrier MIV (Mechanized Infantry Vehicle); and multitasking armored car Multi-Role Vehicle (Protected) (MRV-P). In support of all these new projects, a global network of new-generation battle radio stations will be deployed for 2025, to transmit voice messages and data.
Each mechanized brigade will include one 58 Armored Regiment, organized in three divisions, each with 18 Challenger 2 tanks, and two motorized infantry battalions each with three infantry companies on the Warrior BMP. The new structure will allow half of the 9 division of the Challenger tanks to combine with any motorized infantry company to provide immediate support.
Griffon 6x6 purchased under the ambitious program of the French army Scorpion; The first prototype is being tested, and deliveries are scheduled for next year.
Extension of service life
With the 1987 of the year, the British Army has received BAN Systems' 789 Warrior armored vehicles in several versions; These machines were intensively exploited in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Iraq. The BMP houses three crew members and seven paratroopers in the aft compartment, it is armed with an unstabilized 30-mm L21 Rarden cannon with loading clips.
The WCSP program, one of the foundations of the 2026 RV, will increase the firepower of the machine, integrate modular protection and electronic architecture in order to extend the life of the 2025 to 2040 year.
Lockheed Martin UK (LMUK) won BAE Systems and was selected for the WCSP project in October 2011, receiving a contract for 292 million dollars for the WCSP demonstration stage. In March 2015, the Department of Defense issued a contract to STA International for 515 40-mm CTAS guns, of which 245 is for the WCSP program.
LMUK abandoned the original plan to upgrade the existing Warrior tower in favor of creating a new, larger tower; this was the reason for the postponement of the adoption of the machine from March 2018 to October 2020. The ministry still has to issue a contract for mass production of WCSP, although the initial intention to modernize 380 machines to equip six battalions is likely to be revised downward, since at the moment only four battalions are needed.
Excessive Warrior vehicles will likely be converted into combat support platforms that will replace the outdated (45 years of service) FV430 specialized vehicles in mechanized brigades, although the army still has to decide how many vehicles will be redone.
The main combat units in each shock brigade will be two reconnaissance regiments, each of which will be equipped with 50-60 tracked reconnaissance vehicles Ajax. One regiment will use machines in reconnaissance tasks, and the second will use Ajax in close combat and to support infantry. Also, the shock brigade will include two motorized infantry battalions equipped with new MIV 8x8 machines, which will allow each company to increase the number of personnel by 25% compared to the Warrior company and, thus, provide enhanced support for infantry in close combat. The newly formed shock brigade headquarters will take over the command of the new shock forces at the end of 2017 of the year.
In July, after a competitive appraisal, 2010, General Dynamics UK (GDUK) received a contract from the Ministry of Defense for 500 million pounds to develop seven prototypes of the specialized reconnaissance vehicle Scout Specialist Vehicle, an advanced version of the ASCOD BMP. In September, 2014, the company GDUK received a large contract worth 3,5 billion pounds for the supply of 589 machines in the period from 2017 to 2026 year.
The Ajax family (the name given to the Scout machine) includes six options: 245 Ajax reconnaissance vehicles; Ares 93 machines with Javelin ATGM calculations or groups of dismounted patrols; 51 Argus Engineering Intelligence Machines; 112 commander machines Athena; Atlas 38 recovery vehicles; and Apollo 50 repair machines.
New British armored vehicle Ajax. At the top with the CTAS 40-mm gun, at the bottom of the exercises in the 3-division
The adoption of the Ajax vehicle with its integrated sensor kit transforms the capabilities of the army in the field of ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition & Reconnaissance - information collection, surveillance, target designation and reconnaissance). Like the Warrior, the new Ajax will be armed with a 40mm CTAS cannon. The Army Command says that Ajax will offer levels of mobility and reliability previously unattainable for tracked combat vehicles, thus allowing strike teams to operate at operational depths of up to 2000 km. The initial operational readiness of Ajax machines is planned for 2021.
In order to help the army develop the requirements for the new MIV vehicle, infantry companies conducted training deployments on the VBCI machines of the French army and the Stryker machines of the American army. The Department of Defense intends to purchase ready-made MIV platforms that would be equipped with a minimal number of subsystems of British origin, for example, a MASA, radio stations, a combat information and control system, and explosion-absorbing seats.
In the coming months, it is planned to transfer the project from the concept to the evaluation stage, which, given the development schedule, will allow the car to be delivered in 2023. Several manufacturers, including ARTEC (Boxer), General Dynamics European Land Systems (Piranha 5), General Dynamic Land Systems (Stryker and LAV III, in the newest configuration for the Canadian army LAV 6.0), Patria (Armored Modular Vehicle) and ST Kinetics (Terrex 3).
Over the past 30 years, the British army has been trying to acquire 8x8 machines for the fifth time; the latter was a general-purpose machine from the Future Rapid Effects System (Advanced Emergency Response System). The success of the MIV project is very important for its new structure of the armed forces and operational concept.
The report “SDSR 2015 and the Army” of the Committee on Defense of the House of Commons, published in April 2017 of the year, noted that the MIV project “remains underfunded” and that inadequate funding of army vehicle programs “can seriously impair, if not fatally, undermine the ability of the British Army deploy either a division or new shock brigades ".
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