Delays in building a domestic aircraft carrier fleet are only a small part of the complex of problems that has been outlined recently with the pace of serial production of other types of warships of the main classes. While the two leading American shipyards, Bath Iron Works (Maine) and Ingalls Shipbuilding (located in Mississippi and owned by the Northrop Grumman Ship Systems division), almost every quarter or half year they lower the new “ Aegis "- missile control destroyer weapons “Arleigh Burke Flight III” class, our “Northern Shipyard” already 8 year “squeezes” the second in series serial model of the air defense frigate of 22350 Ave. “Admiral Kasatonov” (“Admiral Gorshkov” class). The adoption of the w / o «431» in the composition of the Federation Council is expected no earlier than by 2019 year. And this is NK main class! The Americans in service with the Navy is 64 "Arley Burke" of various modifications and 4 - during the construction phase. As for the laying of the first atomic super-destroyer Ave 23560E “Leader”, which, according to anti-missile and anti-ship capabilities, will be equivalent to two “Arley Burke”, this event will take place no earlier than the middle of 19, and therefore it can be expected to be launched to the middle 20-s, when the Americans will have more 80 destroyers, the latter of which will be equipped with promising multifunctional AMDR radar instead of the good old AN / SPY-1D (V).
The same unpleasant situation is also observed with multi-purpose nuclear submarines of the 885 "Ash" and 885M "Ash-M" ave. The fleet received only one submarine of this class K-560 "Severodvinsk". The second MAPL / PLARK, modernized under the 885M K-561 “Kazan” project and undergoing factory tests, is being prepared for adoption by the Russian Navy in the 2018 year. At this point, the US Navy is already equipped with 13 ultra low-noise Virginia-class 3-class X subunits (Block I / II / III), most of which are assigned to certain aircraft carrier strike groups and acts shoulder to shoulder with the MAPL of the previous generation of Los “Angeles.” Moreover, let's not forget that all the “blocks” of “Virginia” have lower acoustic visibility than our “Ash Trees”, which is possible due to the use of a developed water jet propulsion unit.
This performance of the propeller should be introduced on the modernized Yaseny-M (885М pr.), But the final decision in the media has not yet been leaked. The detailed architecture of the avionics, as well as the acoustic profile of the updated "Ash" is still unknown, but now it is clear that the series will be several times smaller than the American submarines. In the conditions of the immense remoteness of the fleets of the Russian Navy and their extremely complex interchangeability, the shortage of multipurpose attack submarine cruisers forms a mass of submarine and surface "gaps" in the defense of remote ocean approaches to the country. Also, the shortage of MAPL will negatively affect the massiveness of the hypothetical strike by the strategic cruise missiles 3М14Т Caliber-PL on the most important strategic objects of the US Armed Forces on their territory, which is clearly noticeable against the background of the regularly developed maritime and ground systems of the US air defense-missile defense. At the same time, the shortage situation does not focus on the main combat ships of the main classes and multi-purpose nuclear submarines alone, but also affects such a submarine component of regional importance as dezel-electric submarines, which play a primary role in reliable anti-submarine and anti-ship defense of the near sea approaches to Russia.
This problem manifested itself most strongly in the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy, the zone of responsibility of which includes an extremely unstable section of the military-political "fault" - the western part of the Asia-Pacific region. Despite the extremely positive background of the meeting between President of the Russian Federation V. Putin and his South Korean counterpart Moon Jae In during the Eastern Economic Forum, as well as the “breakthrough” visit of the Russian leader to Japan to meet with Shinzo Abe, there is no illusion about the “warming” of relations, equivalent to strategic partnership, because we all well know that it is Tokyo and Seoul that are deploying on their territory more and more links of the American missile defense, reconnaissance unmanned aviationas well as the US Navy. And their goal is far from blocking North Korea alone from the sea and air. Close cooperation with these states is akin to “warming the snake on the chest”: any escalation scenario in the Far Eastern region (with the participation of the PRC, DPRK or Russia) will be accompanied by the transition of Kazakhstan and Japan to the United States. Against this background, for a more or less accurate predictive analysis, it is necessary to clearly study and compare the potentials of the diesel-electric components of the submarine fleets of the parties, taking into account the fact that the main boundary of the collisions will pass within the East China, Japan and Okhotsk seas.
Currently, the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy is armed with 7 ultra low-noise diesel-electric submarines Ave. 877 / M "Halibut" (B-445 "Saint Nicholas the Miracle", B-394 "Nurlat", B-464 "Ust-Kamchatsk" , B-494 "Ust-Bolsheretsk", B-190 "Krasnokamensk", B-345 "Mogocha" and B-187 "Komsomolsk-on-Amur"). All these submarines were built at the shipyard No. 199. Leninsky Komsomol (now PJSC Amur Shipbuilding Plant) in the period from 1988 to 1994, which causes a noticeable deterioration of the construction nodes. This can not have a serious effect on the acoustic visibility of submarines. 2 diesel generator 4DL-42М with a total power of 2000 kW (Ave. 877) or 30DG with a total power of 3000 kW (Ave 877М) are used as a power plant on submarines. For the movement of the submarines pr. 877 / M, 5500-strong propulsion motors PG-141 / 165, rotating 6-blade propellers, are used. These units allow you to accelerate the "Halibut" to 19 - 21 node in the underwater mode. Economical (“quiet”) stroke (at a speed of 3 knots.) Is provided by the 130-strong propulsion motor PG-142 / 166. The rowing engines are powered by 240 446 battery cells located in the 2 120 series. The six-bladed propellers of the “Halibus” have a reduced rotational speed (of the order of 250 rpm), which significantly reduces the acoustic visibility of the DEPL along with various vibration-absorbing materials and shock-absorbing platforms on which DG, the main rowing and economical electric motors are installed, as well as 2 backup electric motors total power 204 hp
Despite the excellent reliability and interchangeability of the electric motors of the power plant, transmitting torque to the propeller "Paltus", it has one significant drawback - the lack of anaerobic qualities. DL-42MX or 30DG diesel generators require regular (1 times in 3-4 days) surfacing to the surface to recharge the “446 product” battery cells by operating in the RDP mode. At this point, the submarine can be extremely easily detected with the help of side-mounted AFAR-radar AN / ZPY-3 MP-RTIP patrol aircraft MQ-4C "Triton" and AN / APY-10 anti-submarine aircraft P-8A "Poseidon". Moreover, it will be easy to track it on a snorkel rising above the surface and DG exhaust gases using the MX-20i multichannel turret optical-electronic complex (the basis of the Poseidon optical intelligence) capable of obtaining 1080 - 50 - 70p - a multiple increase of any part of the sea / ocean surface.
Consequently, in a limited maritime theater of operations (length of about 400 - 450 miles) with the enemy’s established antisubmarine defense, the “Halibus” can be considered non-nuclear super low-noise submarines of the “first days of war”. Literally for the first 3 days of underwater operation (before the first need to ascend) submarines must fulfill the whole range of assigned tasks, among which are both the fight against enemy’s underwater and surface assets, and the striking of strategic cruise missiles 3М14Т on coastal objects of the enemy. The realities of modern theater of war in the area of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk drive the submarine component of our Pacific Fleet into a rigid framework, providing for long-term underwater watch without ascent to the surface to avoid detection of the enemy with anti-submarine weapons.
Multipurpose nuclear submarine cruisers of the Antey Pr. 949 / AM (K-186 Omsk, K-456 Tver and K-150 Tomsk) or torpedo-perc. 971 Pr. B, ”but their acoustic secrecy is much worse than that of the diesel-electric submarine and the confrontation with even more slow-moving Virginia can end fatally. Meanwhile, in addition to the submarine component of the US Navy present in the western part of the APR, the modern and actively developing navies of the Republic of Korea and Japan present a potential threat to the Russian Pacific Fleet. The first unpleasant moment is that by the number of diesel-electric submarines the fleets of these states are exactly 5 times higher than our Pacific Fleet (37 versus 7 submarines, respectively). The second, even more alarming signal is the presence of an air-independent energy installation in most of these submarines. For example, the naval forces of South Korea are armed with 9 anaerobic Son Won - II submarines built at the shipyard of the shipbuilding company Hyndai Heavy Industries (HHI). The “Son Won-II” class is a simplified export modification of the German Type 212A DPL. The main difference between South Korean designs and the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) is the lack of a hull demagnetization process. In this regard, the Son Won-II submarines (the export name of the Type 214) can be detected using magnetic anomaly detectors located in the magnetic-transparent tail fairing of long-range anti-submarine aircraft.
But this does not negate the anaerobic qualities of the submarines of this class. They are equipped with an advanced air-independent power plant (AIP, Air-independent propulsion) on 9 electrochemical-type hydrogen fuel cell modules with a total power of 306 kW, which in the submerged mode (at the speed of the 3 node) are able to recharge 20 silver-zinc batteries for a day elements located in 288-x sections of the 2 element. The principle of operation of an electrochemical generator consists in the chemical reaction between oxygen and hydrogen coming from shock-resistant cylinders and steel tanks in the double-hull aft of the submarine. A high level of security with a simultaneously long period of operation of the ECG lies in the method of storage. Oxygen is cooled to a liquefied state with a temperature of -144 ° C, while hydrogen is present in the hydride form (in conjunction with metals). Also, batteries can be recharged in the standard diesel-electric mode, due to the operation of the diesel-generator set MTU183V16, represented by 396 diesel engines with a total power of 2 hp. The movement of the submarine is carried out thanks to the 8475-bladed propeller, rotated by one 7-strong electric motor "Permasyn" from the company "Siemens".
Anaerobic submarines of the South Korean Navy class "Son Won-II"
The submerged range with a speed of 4 knot is 2310 km using a hydrogen-oxygen electrochemical generator; for comparison: the 877 / M Pr. 740 / M, which are in service with the TDF DEPL, have a range of “electric” stroke 3 km, which is 65 times less! The Son Won-II submarines are compact enough: with a hull length of 6,3 m and a width of 1980 m, the underwater displacement is XNUMX tons. The case is covered with sound-absorbing materials, which allows to significantly reduce the detection range through the active mode of operation of the enemy's acoustic systems. All these technical moments, together with the small size of the submarine, give even greater secrecy than the "Platusov" / "Varshavyanok".
As for the weapons control complex, its role is assigned to the ISUS-90 combat information management system (CICS). The crew working terminals with this CICS receive generalized information from the combined CSU-90 hydroacoustic complex, represented by: FAS-3-1 on-board sonar, EFS DSQS-40DG active sonar station, Nasal active transceiver EFS DSQS-21DG, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are not enough, and there is not enough, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are no short numbers, and there are not enough, and there is not enough, and there is not enough, and there is not enough, and there are no shortcuts, and there are not enough, and there are not enough, and there are not enough, and there are not enough, and there are not enough, and there are not enough, and there will be not enough, and there will be not enough, and there will not be any of them; ) TAS-3, GA X-Intelligence Complex AN 5039A1, EFS / Allied Signal FMS-52 Mine Detection GAS, and Passive Distance Observation GAS PRS-3-15 As you can see, the range of sonar tools is one of the richest among them Lassa NNS. Consequently, the crew can clearly record the underwater tactical situation from the near and first far zone of acoustic illumination (5 - 35 km) to the second zone of acoustic illumination (70 - 140 km). “Halibuses” not only cannot boast such an abundance of sonar sensors, but also lose to the South Korean anaerobic Sonl “Son Won-II” according to the characteristics of the main GAK. In particular, the integrated sonar complex MGK-400M Rubicon-M (“Shark Teeth”) has limitations of the instrumental range, which allow escorting surface ships at a distance of only about 80 km and submarines - 20 km; "Rubicon-M" does not have passive on-board acoustic antenna arrays, which does not allow to determine the distance to the noise-emitting objects in the passive mode. And this is not a complete list of shortcomings ..
The ISUS-90 BIU also controls the mine-rocket and torpedo armament launched from 8 nasal 533-mm torpedo tubes. The main anti-submarine armament with the ability to defeat submarines and surface ships is the DM-2A3 / 4 torpedoes with a 28 or 50 km range. But it is also possible to use the more long-range version of the DM-2A4 "Sea Hake Mod 4 ER", which during ground tests reached a range of more than 140 km. Our advanced torpedo "Physicist-2" acts at a distance of a little more than 50 km: somehow alarming all this. Each Son Won-II is able to take on board from 12 to 16 "Si Heikov", a similar number of Sub-Harpoon anti-ship missiles. "Or 36 anchor min. From all the above it can be concluded: our "halibut" can oppose the enemy only a sudden antiship strike missiles 3M54E1 "Caliber-PL", equipped with 3-Makhov maneuverable combat stage, or at the worst possible moment to hit the coastal infrastructure of strategic modifications "Caliber" 3M14T from underwater provisions. In a duel situation, however, the 877M pr. Is unlikely to easily cope with 214 Type submarines.
One more class of potential enemy submarines in the areas of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk, without a doubt, can be considered the Japanese “Soryu”. From March 2009 to March 2017, the Japanese Naval Forces Self-Defense Force launched 8 Soryu-class submarines, which are the basis of Japan's super-low noise anaerobic submarine fleet, along with 6 Oyasio-class submarines equipped with diesel-powered air-independent self-contained power units. Before 2021, the 3 class submarines (“Sayryu”, No. 8125 and No. 8126) must also be commissioned. In comparison with other diesel-electric submarines / ДСЭПЛ, this class has a more impressive size and displacement: length 84 m, body width - 9,1 m underwater displacement - 4200 tons. Consequently, much more internal space is allocated for weapon compartments than in the “miniature” class “Son Won-II”. So, for 6 533-mm torpedo tubes, the placement of 30 torpedoes "Type 89", or a similar number of anti-ship missiles "Sub-Harpoon" is provided. Consequently, the number of anchor and bottom mines in the arsenal of a single submarine may be of the order of 35 units.
SS-508 "Sekiryu" Japanese anaerobic submarine, commissioned on 13 in March 2017 of the year
It is well known that UGM-84D2 “Sub-Harpoon” anti-ship missiles with 280 km range have subsonic flight speeds (of the order of 900 km / h) and a “poor” list of effective anti-aircraft maneuvers during the breakthrough of the enemy’s anti-aircraft defense systems (our KZRK “Kortik” -M "," Dagger "and C-300F" Fort "with a bang intercept such slow means of air attack), but in the case of the Pacific Fleet of Russia everything is very relative. Let's take a look at the surface composition of the Pacific Fleet: among the ships capable of ensuring proper missile defense of the order, there are missile cruisers of Varyag 1164 Ave. (one 6-channel ZRSK C-300 "Osa-MA" on 2 target channels ), the destroyer "Fast" Ave 2 (956-channel ZRSK M-6 "Hurricane"), 22 large anti-submarine ship Ave 3 "Delete" (in the amount of 1155 ADMS "Dagger" on 6 target channel) and 24 corvette ave. 1 (ADMS “Redut” on 20380 - 8 target channels). As a result, the situation is such that the entire main ship structure of the Pacific Fleet can simultaneously launch short-range, medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft missiles near 12, while the Soryu Japanese submarines are able to launch 50 X-guns on our Harpoons underwater start. But this is not all, because in the coming years, Japanese tactical aviation will be able to use hundreds of 8 flywheel anti-ship missiles XASM-160, capable of breaking through the enemy's incredible naval missile defense system. Closing your eyes to this problem is extremely difficult.
While our surface fleet continues to experience a shortage of air defense ships of the main classes, the total target canalization of the ESSM alone on 4 destroyers Akizuki reaches 48 - 60 simultaneously intercepted by the use of advanced multifunctional radar FCS-3A, and there are 4 Kongo and 2 XNUMX simultaneously. "Atago" with BIUS "Aegis"! Everything is absolutely not in our favor.
So, the Soryu class submarines make a good contribution to the formation of a powerful anti-ship and anti-submarine "shield" in the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk. The Stirling quad propulsion system Kawasaki Kockums V4-275R has the same high air-independent performance as the 214 type electrochemical hydrogen-oxygen generator of submarines, so that the Japanese crews can supernaturally hunt our submarines for our NKX - 2 submarines of the week for our submarines to be supernaturally hunted by our NK 3 677 XNUMX XNUMX submarines. . For our same, the Pacific Fleet has long been a unique solution to this problem - the active replenishment of the upgraded non-nuclear submarines Ave XNUMX "Lada", equipped with a fundamentally new type VNEU, working on the principle of reforming diesel fuel to produce hydrogen.
Moreover, on this submarine, an additional “rocket banquet” was installed with UVPU of a mine type on 10 units of multipurpose rocket armament, which would raise at times the impact qualities of the non-nuclear submarine component of the Russian Navy. According to statements by the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, Viktor Bursuk, the 677 series of the project “will be very large,” which means that it should be enough to update all the fleets of Russia. However, currently only one submarine with the standard B-585 diesel engine "St. Petersburg" is in trial operation of the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, and the replacement of EI with air independent is still only in our dreams and at a certain stage of development in the walls of SPMBM "Malachite" and TsKBP MT "Rubin". As for the Pacific Fleet, by the year of 2020, it will receive two new Varshavyanka Pr. 636.3, which continue to give way to South Korean and Japanese submarines.