Military Review

The defense of Sevastopol is an amazing example of Russian heroism

24
9 September 1855 of the year, exactly 162 a year ago, ended the legendary defense of Sevastopol, forever included in history Russia as an amazing example of valor and courage of Russian soldiers. In memory of this event in Russia, September 9 is regularly celebrated as the Day of Remembrance of Russian soldiers who fell during the defense of Sevastopol and in the Crimean War of 1853-1856.


The Crimean War still meets with mixed opinions of historians. In this war, the Russian Empire had to deal with the combined power of the leading European powers - Britain and France, whose allies were also a very strong Ottoman Empire and even the Sardinian Kingdom - the future core of the Italian state. Naturally, it was very difficult to resist such a serious coalition. Nevertheless, the history of the Crimean War is, first of all, the exploits of Russian soldiers and sailors, the heroism of civilians, the honor and valor of admirals, generals, officers of the Russian army and fleet.

Since the end of 1840's. in Europe, there was an increase in anti-Russian sentiment, which was zealously fueled by most European governments. Great Britain, France, Austria saw in the Russian Empire a dangerous geopolitical rival and competitor, especially in the Balkan and Middle Eastern policies. One of the main tasks of the European powers was to block Russia in the Black Sea in order to prevent its active participation in the affairs of the Balkan Peninsula. The anti-Russian position of Britain and France was aggravated by the crisis of the Ottoman Empire, which was precisely the main opponent of the Russian Empire in the Black Sea region. By the middle of the XIX century, the Ottoman Empire was in a rather difficult position. The national liberation movements of the Balkan peoples, actively supported by Russia, were a great threat to the empire. In addition, Russia was actively promoted in the Caucasus, which worried not only the Sultan, but also Great Britain, which had long considered the Middle East to be its sphere of influence. France, although not to the extent that Great Britain was a geopolitical opponent of Russia, nevertheless longed for revenge for the defeat inflicted on Napoleon Bonaparte. Austria also had claims to Russia, which, despite seemingly allied relations with the Russian Empire and joint participation in suppressing revolutionary movements in Eastern and Central Europe, was very much afraid of Russia's interference in the political situation on the Balkan Peninsula. Finally, Sardinia, which had no territorial disputes and political conflicts with Russia, hoped in return for help in the Crimean War to get the support of London and Paris in the unification of Italy. Thus, an impressive coalition was formed against Russia, including the strongest states of the world at that time.

The defense of Sevastopol is an amazing example of Russian heroism


The siege of Sevastopol, which culminated in the Crimean War, continued for almost a year. In June 1854 of the year, the combined fleet of the allies from the 34 battleships and 55 frigates blocked the Russian fleet in the bay of Sevastopol. The forces were unequal - Russia had only 14 battleships, 6 frigates and 6 steamboats and frigates here. The naval blockade of the Sevastopol Bay preceded the landing operation. At the end of August 1854, 350 Allied ships advanced from Varna towards the Crimean peninsula, delivering and landing thousands of soldiers and officers of the British, French and Turkish armies on the Yevpatoria coast of 60. Most of the landing, about 30 thousands of people, were French units - by that time France had the largest ground forces in Europe. Another 22 thousands of people accounted for the British army and 7 thousands of people - the army of the Ottoman Empire.
2 September 1854 expeditionary Anglo-Franco-Ottoman troops landed in the area of ​​lakes Kizil-Yar and Kichik-Belsk. In turn, around the left bank of the Alma River, 35-thousandth Russian troops under the command of Prince Admiral Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, the Minister of the Sea of ​​the Russian Empire, concentrated. However, in the battle on Alma 8 September 1854, the Allies defeated the troops of Menshikov. The loss of Russian troops amounted to more than 5700 people. The situation was becoming harder and demanded the adoption of early measures to protect the city from a possible assault. On September 9, a meeting of the military council was held, at which Admiral Menshikov decided to sink old ships at the entrance to Sevastopol Bay - the 5 battleship and the 2 frigate. It was decided to remove the artillery guns from the flooded ships and use them to strengthen the garrison. Against this decision was made by the chief of staff of the Black Sea Fleet, Vice Admiral Vladimir Alekseevich Kornilov. The naval commander offered to withdraw the ships and take an unequal battle with the enemy, but Menshikov did not support his point of view.



Meanwhile, the commander of the French troops, Marshal Saint-Arnaud decided to attack Sevastopol from the south, because he received information that it was the southern side that was the weakest in terms of the defense of the city. As for Admiral Menshikov, he chose to retreat to Bakhchisarai, fearing possible isolation in Sevastopol surrounded by the enemy. After leaving the city of Menshikov, Pavel Sergeevich Nakhimov and Vladimir Alekseevich Kornilov began to lead the defense of Sevastopol. Their names are inscribed in golden letters in the history of the Russian Navy and the Crimean War. It was Nakhimov and Kornilov who are considered the protagonists of the defense of Sevastopol and, I must say, both the naval commanders fully deserved the fame they received after their deaths. In the subordination of Nakhimov and Kornilov, there remained forces totaling about 18 thousand people. Basically, these were naval crews, but since they were deprived of the opportunity to fight on ships, the sailors had the task to protect Sevastopol on land. Large-scale fortification works were started on the construction of fortifications and strengthening of the already existing bastions.



Lieutenant-colonel Edward Ivanovich Totleben, engineer-lieutenant, was put in charge of the construction of fortifications. Coming from the Thuringian family, who moved to Russia, Totleben was a military engineer with great experience at the time of the beginning of the Crimean War. He participated in the construction of fortifications on the Danube, made a plan of attack of Turkish fortifications on Calafate, prepared a siege of Silistria. Totleben was then seconded to the Crimea - at the disposal of Menshikov, who initially rejected the engineer’s plan for the immediate commencement of the construction of fortifications. Menshikov did not believe that the enemy troops would undertake the siege of Sevastopol in the fall, but when the Anglo-Franco-Ottoman troops nevertheless landed in Evpatoria, the commander changed his mind and immediately summoned Lieutenant Colonel Totleben. It is to the engineering talent of Edward Totleben that Sevastopol is largely due to the fact that the enemies could not take it - he was able to invent and implement such a good system of fortifications.



At first, Vice-Admiral Kornilov led the defense of Sevastopol. An outstanding naval commander, he showed himself to be an excellent organizer of positional warfare. In particular, the troops defending Sevastopol successfully used methods of mine warfare, made forays into enemy positions. Kornilov himself enjoyed enormous prestige among the officers and sailors of the fleet, the civilian population of Sevastopol, earning him not only selfless personal courage, but also a human attitude toward lower ranks and ordinary people. Unfortunately, in the very first bombardment of Sevastopol 5 in October 1854, Vice Admiral Kornilov was mortally wounded on the Malakhiv Hill. Wounded Kornilov was taken to hospital on the ship's side, but they failed to save the naval commander. The last words of Admiral Kornilov were: “Defend Sevastopol”.

Kornilov was buried in the crypt of St. Vladimir's Cathedral, near the grave of his elder comrade and teacher, Admiral Lazarev. The first bombardment did not bring any special advantages to the enemies; moreover, their losses and the losses of the defenders of the fortress were about the same. The Russians lost 1250 people, and the allies lost about 1000 people. Nevertheless, the bombing of the city continued, and a number of unsuccessful battles forced Prince Menshikov, who held the post of commander-in-chief, to doubt the ability of the Russian troops to keep Sevastopol and the Crimea as a whole. Nicholas I demanded more and more decisive actions against the enemy from Menshikov and, in the end, dissatisfied with the admiral's slowness, he replaced the commander-in-chief of the Russian troops in the Crimea. They became the general of artillery Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov - a participant in the Battle of Borodino, a number of Russian-Turkish wars and the suppression of the Hungarian uprising. In the army, Gorchakov was known as a brave warlord, but many contemporaries and subsequent historians of the Crimean War accused Gorchakov, like his predecessor Menshikov, of indecision and lack of initiative.

In the spring of 1855, the allies, dissatisfied with the protracted assault, demanded new reinforcements. The 15-thousandth Sardinian army arrived in Crimea, since Sardinia officially entered the war against Russia on January 14 and 1855. The commander-in-chief of the Allied forces also changed - instead of General Canrobert, he became General Jean-Jacques Pélusier, who was "glorified" by cruelty during the colonization of North Africa. 7 March 1855 killed another heroic organizer of the defense of Sevastopol - Rear Admiral Vladimir Ivanovich Istomin. During the defense of the city, he was appointed head of the 4 distance defensive line, which included Malakhov Kurgan. Like Kornilov and Nakhimov, Istomin was particularly respected by both the people of Sevastopol and the sailors of the Black Sea Fleet. When he was returning from Kamchatka lunette to Malakhov Kurgan, the enemy core tore his head off.

By this time, Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov was appointed military governor of Sevastopol. Legendary naval commander, he had become famous during the Russian-Turkish wars, and then became the closest ally of Vladimir Kornilov in organizing the defense of Sevastopol. But the fate of Nakhimov turned out to be evil - 28 June 1855, he was mortally wounded during a detour of positions on the Malakhov Kurgan.



27 August, (8 September) 1855, the enemy, after shelling Sevastopol, marched to storm the city. Despite the fierce resistance of his defenders, the defense of Sevastopol was no longer of strategic interest to the Russian command, so Prince Gorchakov ordered the withdrawal of his troops to the north, after which the city was set on fire. However, only 30 of August (11 of September) the enemy ventured to join Sevastopol.

Speaking of the heroes of the defense of Sevastopol, in the same row with the famous admirals Kornilov, Nakhimov, Istomin, with the most talented engineer Totleben, one can not but mention the simple defenders of the fortress of Russian maritime glory - sailors, soldiers, just civilians. The name of the legendary Pyotr Markovich Koshka, who served as a sailor of the 30 fleet crew of the Black Sea Fleet, is known throughout Russia. When the siege of Sevastopol began, the Cat, among other sailors, was transferred to the shore - to the battery number 15 under the command of Lieutenant A. M. Perekomsky. Sailor Cat became a “hunter”, i.e. intelligence officer who regularly made forays into the enemy's rear. At least 18 outings are known, in which the sailor Cat participated. In January, 1855, the heroic sailor, was promoted to quartermaster - naval junior non-commissioned officer. Already during the Crimean War, his fame thundered far beyond the borders of the troops fighting in the Crimea. A huge contribution to the defense of Sevastopol was also made by civilians who provided the most varied assistance to the active forces. In the first place, these were physicians who, in the most difficult conditions, treated numerous wounded and saved more than one thousand human lives. Among them, in the first place, of course, Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov - the famous Russian doctor, a surgeon, actually headed the medical service in the besieged Sevastopol. To assist the medical service, the Sisters of Mercy of the Moscow St. Nicholas Monastery set off for Sevastopol. It is noteworthy that among the sisters of mercy was Ekaterina Mikhailovna Bakunin, the daughter of the former St. Petersburg governor and cousin of the famous revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin. Side by side, the wounded were assisted by aristocratic girls from the best families of St. Petersburg and ordinary residents of Sevastopol - soldiers, merchants, artisans. The defense of the city brought together the Russian people, gave them the opportunity to feel themselves belonging to a single great nation, and not just to different classes and classes.



About the participants of the heroic defense of Sevastopol can be remembered forever. Eternal memory deserve the heroic Russian warriors, 163 a year ago, who defended the most important for Russia naval port. The status of Sevastopol as a city of Russian maritime glory is watered with the blood of its defenders in the Crimean and World War II. This should not be forgotten even now, when anti-Russian forces outside our country, and, unfortunately, inside the country claim that Russia allegedly has no right to the Crimea and Sevastopol, that this is the territory of another, non-historical state that exists only from 1991 years - and that thanks to the Soviet national policy. In fact, the name of Sevastopol as a Russian city is holy for every citizen of Russia - a patriot of his country.
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  1. 1536
    1536 9 September 2017 07: 03
    +9
    The memory of the first defense of Sevastopol must and will live among the people. And about her heroes too. And it must be firmly said that the criminal "transfer" of Crimea by a certain Khrushchev - the leader of the Communist Party, in the 1954 year to the administrative jurisdiction of the Ukrainian SSR - was illegal and criminal. Because Crimea is back in Russia.
  2. svp67
    svp67 9 September 2017 07: 25
    +6
    The defense of Sevastopol is an amazing example of Russian heroism

  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 9 September 2017 07: 53
    +5
    Author:
    Russia supposedly does not have the right to Crimea and Sevastopol, that this is the territory of another, unhistorical state, which has existed only since 1991 - and thanks to that Soviet national politics.

    So was the political policy true or ... no ?! belay request
    I also speak about the southern capital of Russia, Russian Odessa, the Russian city of Nikolaev, etc., transferred like a bag of potatoes.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 9 September 2017 08: 06
    +4
    [b
    ] Since the late 1840s. Europe saw an increase in anti-Russian sentiment, which was eagerly fueled by most European governments. Great Britain, France, Austria saw in the Russian Empire a dangerous geopolitical rival and competitor
    [/bapter...In 1848, the Austrian empire was bursting at the seams .. the national revolution blew up the empire. The Austrian empire was on the verge of destruction .. But Russia intervened, saved the Austrian empire and received a "black ingratitude" in response ..
    1. Cat
      Cat 9 September 2017 08: 30
      +5
      His caftan is closer to the body - a common truth that almost all the monarchs of Russia after Catherine II ignored, except for Alexander III.
      By the way, in addition to saving Austria, in the piggy bank of the merits of Nicholas I, it is worth adding the title of savior of the Ottoman Port!
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 9 September 2017 11: 08
        +3
        “They don’t fight ideas with guns” - Catherine II
    2. Mood Ozvon
      Mood Ozvon 9 September 2017 12: 40
      +1
      There was no need to intervene; Nikolay1 was not too smart.
  5. Kenxnumx
    Kenxnumx 9 September 2017 09: 24
    +1
    In principle, the article is not bad for an anniversary. Somewhat distorted the thesis that the protection of the city was not of strategic interest.
  6. practus
    practus 9 September 2017 09: 51
    +6
    Great time, great people !!! Everlasting memory!

    1. stew
      stew 9 September 2017 12: 35
      +1
      Where did you get the photo?
  7. Alex1117
    Alex1117 9 September 2017 11: 45
    +4
    A typical situation for us in which the courage and heroism of some hides the incompetence, stupidity, stupidity and theft of others.
    The great failure of our foreign policy - Nesselrode, Brunov and others like them. Including the Emperor. Everyone was convinced of the existence of irreconcilable contradictions between England and France. Strongly exaggerated the danger to us from Austria. She was actually not ready for war. What proved her subsequent defeat from the Italians. And it is not clear, but why did this war begin? The defense of the city was of strategic interest. If we had destroyed Sevastopol, then we would have been squeezed out of the Crimea. And in the Crimea, the British and French would gain a foothold.
  8. nnz226
    nnz226 9 September 2017 12: 39
    +1
    Sevastopol will remain Russian !!!
  9. nnz226
    nnz226 9 September 2017 12: 43
    +3
    "It smells of smoke from the fallen banners,
    There’s no use in a fierce battle
    The last bastion fell yesterday
    And the enemies enter Sevastopol ...
    But the wounded says the soldier
    Stumbling on the stone slope:
    "Anyway, we will go back!
    Sevastopol will remain Russian! "
    (Gorodnitsky)
    1. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 9 September 2017 15: 50
      +7
      My grandmother said that her grandfather, as a cantonist, defended Sevastopol and, like other Jewish soldiers, got the right to settle outside the Pale of Settlement and start a family there. He chose Astrakhan.
  10. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 9 September 2017 16: 40
    +1
    somehow passive defense with the right siege leads to the fall despite the heroism of the defenders ..
  11. peta locksmith
    peta locksmith 9 September 2017 18: 44
    +4
    cit from the article. "Admiral Pavel Sergeevich Nakhimov was appointed"

    name and patronymic of Admiral Nakhimov Pavel Stepanovich!

    Write about the Great Warlord, the Glory and Pride of our fleet, and they have mixed up patronymic ...

    Shame on you, Mr. Polonsky!
  12. rumpeljschtizhen
    rumpeljschtizhen 9 September 2017 20: 01
    +1
    strange war strange results. Russia had a million-strong army at the time, and such a feeling that 10 fought another part
    1. datur
      datur 9 September 2017 22: 00
      +1
      so it was !!!!! wink
    2. The centurion
      The centurion 1 October 2017 12: 28
      +1
      Quote: rumpeljschtizhen
      strange war strange results. Russia had a million-strong army at the time, and such a feeling that 10 fought another part

      "18 February 1855, at the height of the Crimean War, Emperor Nicholas I passed away. The new emperor was his son Alexander II. By the beginning of the reign of Emperor Alexander II, the position of Russia, both externally and internally, was difficult. Finance has been brought to extreme stress. In the Crimea and the Caucasus were bloody wars. In the reign of Nicholas I, army officers and generals only thought about holding their part in front of the emperor on a ceremonial march. So ceremonial march Russian army marched to the Crimean War. The beginning of the Crimean War was successful. November 18 1853 city the Turkish fleet was destroyed in the Bay of Sinop. In response, its allies, the British and French, and then the Sardinians, stood up for Turkey, and sent their steam fleets and troops to the Black and Baltic Seas. Everywhere appeared the enemy. For the protection of the coast took a lot of horse regiments. 87 regiments and 14 equestrian battery, and a total of 82 thousands of people, put only the Don in this difficult time. The enemy looked into the most remote parts of our coast, and it could be expected everywhere. The Allies, with the support of the fleet, landed in the Crimea and besieged Sevastopol. Numerous Russian army (on 1.1.1853 only the active infantry numbered 15382 general and officer and 581 845 lower ranks seemed indestructible. But the very first clashes with the enemy on the Crimean land destroyed this illusion. Due to mistakes in military-technical policy, supplies and training, the million-strong army was able to put on the front only a few truly combat-ready divisions. Austria occupied Moldavia and Wallachia, made an alliance with Britain and France and was also ready to oppose Russia. Prussia hesitated, not joining either side. The Sardinian king took the side of the Allies and sent a corps to the Crimea. Sweden and Spain were ready to follow his example. Russia found itself in international isolation. The defense of Sevastopol showed many examples of the courage and resilience of a Nikolaev soldier. But among the brave and steadfast stood out especially brave who committed fabulous feats. Among such people were the sailor Cat and the Cossack of the village of Perekop Osip Ivanovich Zubov. He came to Sevastopol as a hunter, he was already 55 years old, but he was strong, alert, dexterous, and desperately brave. He himself asked the sailors for the bastions, constantly went into reconnaissance, behaved boldly and defiantly, constantly delivering tongues and prisoners. But the Russian army was much inferior to the enemy as weapons. Back in 1823 English officer Norton invented a cylindricon bullet for a rifled choke gun, and in 1853 The same bullet, improved by the French captain Mignet, was put into service in many armies and gave the European infantry a weapon of unprecedented rate of fire, range and accuracy of fire. New rifles gave the British and French a decisive advantage over the Russian infantry in field battles. Despite the heroism of the defenders of Sevastopol, September 8 1855 Allies was taken Malakhov Kurgan, and the Russian army left Sevastopol. Among the failures of the Crimean Front, a report came from the Caucasian Front about the capture of Kars and the surrender of the large Turkish army. The Cossacks of the legendary Don General Baklanov played a decisive role in this victory. By this time, all opponents were very tired of war, and there was a lull on all fronts. The war dragged on, to which the allies were not ready. In the battles with Russian infantry, Cossacks and sailors, the Allies suffered significant losses. In addition to the Crimea, the Allies have not been able to conduct successful amphibious operations anywhere. Technical superiority in small arms also could not be long. Therefore, negotiations began, which ended with the Paris Peace Treaty, which was signed in March 1857.
  13. rumpeljschtizhen
    rumpeljschtizhen 10 September 2017 00: 12
    0
    there is a feeling that we had to lose it ... and we also wanted to lose ..... after the loss, as it were, fundamental reforms began ...
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 1 October 2017 12: 52
      0
      Quote: rumpeljschtizhen
      a feeling that we had to lose it ... and still wanted to lose ..

      "July 13 1814 Emperor Alexander returned to Petersburg. In August, on the occasion of the end of the war, a manifesto was issued, promising to improve the life of the lower classes and ease the most difficult service of the population - the military. The manifesto said: "We hope that the continuation of peace and silence will give us a way not only to keep the warriors content in a better and more abundant state against the former, but to give a settled life and add families to them." There was a thought in the manifesto - to create the armed forces of Russia on the model of the Cossack troops. The internal life of the Cossacks has always served for the Russian government as a tempting example of the organization of the army. In the Cossack regions, military training and constant combat readiness were combined with the position of a peaceful man in the street — a farmer and herder, and military training did not require any effort or expense from the government. Combat qualities and military training were developed by life itself, handed down from generation to generation over the centuries, and thus formed the psychology of a natural warrior. An example of standing troops in a Moscow state were also Streltsy troops, which served as the basis for those that appeared in the XIV century. within the Russian principalities are homeless horde Cossacks. More information about the formation of the Streltsy troops was described in the article “Formation of the Don Army”. Strelets regiments were organized on the principle of the Cossack troops. The maintenance of them was their allotted lands, on which they lived families. The service was hereditary, the authorities, except for the Streletsky head, were elective. For two centuries, the artillery regiments were the best troops of the Moscow state. At the beginning of the 18th century, the soldiers' regiments, recruiting recruits, replaced the rifle regiments. The maintenance of these troops required large government expenditures, and the recruitment kits were forever tearing off recruits from families. The experience of the formation of new Cossack settlements through the relocation of part of the Cossacks to new places also gave positive results. According to the emperor, the system of military settlements was supposed to improve the lives of the soldiers, enable them to remain among their families and engage in agriculture during the service. The first experiment was made in 1810. The war with Napoleon stopped this experience. During the Patriotic War with the best European army, led by a brilliant commander, the Cossacks showed themselves excellently, were highly appreciated by all nations, attracted the attention not only of military organization, but also the organization of their domestic life. At the end of the war, the emperor returned to carrying out his pre-war idea and a broad plan for the creation of military settlements was outlined. The idea was carried out in decisive ways and the shelves were settled by administrative-command method on the allocated lands. Regiments were replenished from their districts. The sons of settlers from the age of seven were enrolled in the number of cantonists, from eighteen to the service in the regiments. Military settlements were exempt from all types of taxes and duties, all provided housing. The settlers handed over half of the harvest to general bread shops (warehouses). On such bases, it was decided to reorganize the armed forces of Russia. After the repeated defeat of Napoleon 31 August 1815 g. Emperor Alexander made a review of the troops in Reims, then arrived in Paris, where the Holy Trinity Alliance between Russia, Austria and Prussia was founded. In December, the 1815 Alexander returned to St. Petersburg and in the new year began to actively increase the number of military settlements. In 1816 was about 500, thousands of peasants and soldiers were transferred to the position of military settlers — after the grueling drill exercises, they also had to do rural labor. But the "benefactors" of military settlers sent requests addressed to the emperor, influential persons, agreeing to bear all sorts of duties and pay taxes, but tearfully begging to save them from military service. Discontent was accompanied by riots that were brutally suppressed. However, military officials firmly decided to turn the Slavic inhabitants of the western regions of Russia into Cossacks, without any doubt of success, believing that for this purpose it would be enough by decree to introduce purely external factors of Cossack life. Settlements continued to exist, and many of them flourished. Through the efforts of Count Arakcheev, schools and hospitals were built there, roads were laid, economic innovations were introduced. According to Arakcheev, the “ideal” system of settlements was supposed to help the peasants earn money and buy out themselves and their land from the landlords. He even drafted and submitted to the emperor a draft of the gradual abolition of serfdom. According to some historians, this project was more progressive than the one that was implemented in 1861. The experience of planting military settlements continued, not only during the reign of Alexander, but also during the next reign, and ended, both from a military and economic standpoint, with complete failure. This military-political chimera was one of the main reasons for Russia's defeat in the Crimean war.
      The Cossacks demonstrated a completely different position. Their experience of the formation of new Cossack settlements, through the relocation of part of the Cossacks to new places, was also not easy and smooth, but had extremely positive results for the empire and the Cossacks themselves. For a short, by historical standards, term on the borders of the empire eight new Cossack troops were created. "
      https://topwar.ru/36475-kazaki-v-otechestvennoy-v
      oyne-1812-goda-chast-i-dovoennaya.html
  14. Gnefredov
    Gnefredov 10 September 2017 00: 37
    +1
    The article is excellent.
    The author of all the best, health and good luck.
  15. Pravodel
    Pravodel 1 October 2017 12: 47
    0
    The Crimean War, in conjunction with the offensive of the Swedes and Germans in Russia in the 13th century, the intervention of the Poles in the 17th century, and the invasion of Napoleon, is another example of a united Europe attack on Russia. Russia, despite the significant superiority of the West, survived this war. Subsequently returned all that was lost during the war.

    "People-State-Fatherland" - this is the slogan of every Russian patriot. A close-knit people, a strong state, a prosperous country for centuries.
  16. Lexus
    Lexus 9 December 2017 17: 36
    +1
    That war is a tragic example of the fact that the "elite" fat loss is incompatible with victories. And NO personal heroism of ordinary people can not stand the battle with the enemy of external and internal betrayal. Because in the drunken delirium of balls and other "Olympiads" for rearmament, "there is simply no money" ...