Military Review

112 years ago the Peace of Portsmouth was made

12
112 years ago the Peace of Portsmouth was made

Russian delegation in Portsmouth. Sit S. Yu. Witte and Baron R. R. Rosen. Photo from wikimedia.org


Once again retell history Russian-Japanese war does not make sense, we note only that it turned into an unprecedented shame for Russia, because for the first time in several centuries, the country lost part of the territory and paid a contribution to the winners.
It was not by chance that after signing it, the Petersburg wits began to call S. Witte, who signed the treaty, “Count Polusakhalinsky”. Although Witte just need to say thank you for the fact that he managed to return to Russia at least the northern part of Sakhalin completely occupied by the Japanese.

The firm position of Witte allowed Russia to save face in the matter of paying indemnity, which was not formally paid, but was disguised in the form of payments for the maintenance of Russian prisoners by the Japanese 70 000.

Evaluating the agreement signed in Portsmouth, we can say that, in general, S. Witte and the Russian ambassador to the US R. Rosen concluded a very profitable world for Russia, especially taking into account the realities that had happened by the autumn of 1905. Indeed, besides the southern part of Sakhalin, the Japanese could only bargain for the right to fish in Russian territorial waters.

The Japanese army left Manchuria, Russia didn’t protect its protectorate over Korea, and no one in the world was going to dispute, and the loss of Port-Arthur and Dalny in China was not considered a special loss, since after the lease period these cities still had to would return to the Chinese.

After the war, many historians for some reason wrote a lot and tirelessly that Japan was exhausted by the war, and the Japanese emperor was asleep and saw how to make peace with Russia as soon as possible. Of course, the war is expensive, and the Japanese did not continue economically to continue it. But Japan was going to conclude peace not because it was exhausted by the burden of military spending, but because the continuation of the war simply did not make sense to it.

Japan achieved all its goals and even exceeded the original plan, occupying Sakhalin. Japan removed the Russian rival and rival in the region, destroyed the Russian fleet, received Port Arthur and Dalny and, most surprisingly, managed to inflict a series of defeats on the Russian army. What the Japanese, and all the others, did not count at all.

And if the victory of the Japanese fleet over Russian as a whole was allowed, then on land the Japanese counted on very modest successes. But it turned out that the Japanese army could operate almost as effectively as the fleet. What was a pleasant surprise for the Japanese, and an ice shower for the Russian army. Because no casualties were expected on land, and even from the Japanese. Both Japan itself and its allies, who gave very pessimistic forecasts on the eve of the war.

The British, well acquainted with the Russian army in the Eastern (Crimean) War, openly said that the Japanese would inevitably be crushed when confronted with the Russian land army. As arguments, the British cited the following facts - the Russian army not only outnumbers the Japanese, but has unlimited reserves. weapons and ammunition and a long military history. The Japanese have nothing of this, and on land their prospects are very sad.

But it turned out that the Nikolaev "generals" of the type of Kuropatkin and Stoessel are only able to retreat and lose battles, even surpassing the enemy in numbers. And about the pseudo-admirals of the type of Rozhestvensky there is nothing to say.

"The war revealed the complete unsuitability of the fleet, its materiel and personnel, and in the land army a number of deep flaws: lack of knowledge, arbitrariness and bureaucratic formalism of the highest ranks, and at the same time the depression of ordinary officers, devoid of training, initiative" (V. Klyuchevsky ). And there is nothing to add to this, everything was really so, if not worse.

But the fact remains that at the end of the summer of 1905, Japan was simply banal to fight for. And there is nobody with it, considering the defeat of the Russian fleet and the passive Russian army, retreating farther and farther into the depths of Manchuria. So the continuation of the war has lost all meaning.

All the same applied to Russia. Having lost Port Arthur and left without a fleet, Russia could have ended the war with some successes on land. But this was not the desire of the top political leadership, the belligerent army, and the rest of the country's population, who simply did not understand why Russian soldiers and sailors were dying somewhere on the edge of the world.

In addition, do not forget about the revolutionary situation. So when Nicholas II learned about the Japanese conditions for making peace passed through the Americans, he did not think long, and soon S. Witte went to Portsmouth to sign a peace treaty.


From left to right: from the Russian side (the far side of the table) —G.A. Plsson, K.D. Nabokov, S.Yu. Vitte, R.R. Rosen, I.Ya. Korostovets; from the Japanese side (the near part of the table) -Adati (German), Otiai, Komura (Eng.), Takahira (Eng.), Sato (Jap.). Rosen. Photo from wikimedia.org

Of course, all the blame for the defeat in the war was laid on Emperor Nicholas II, and after Portsmouth only lazy did not scold him with the last words.

The same S. Witte in a somewhat veiled form described the outcome of the war as follows: “It is morally difficult to be a representative of a nation in distress, it is hard to be a representative of a great military power of Russia, so terribly and so stupidly broken! Not the Japanese were defeated by the Japanese, not by the Russian army, but by our orders, or more correctly, our boyish management of 140 to a million people in recent years. ”

It is not necessary to be able to read between the lines in order to understand to whom specifically Witte places the blame for the defeat, mentioning boyish management. More precisely, V.I. Lenin, describing the defeat as "the complete military collapse of autocracy."

It would be very interesting to know the reaction to the signing of the Portsmouth Treaty of Nicholas II himself, but in his diaries there is not a word about it.

5 September 1905 of the year he wrote in his diary the following: “In the first pen, I killed the hen, in the second Birilev - the fox and the hare ... The sun just burned. After sunset there was a small fireworks display for children. After lunch, read.

September 6: “Today is a perfect day ... At 2, we went to the eastern side of the bay at the Patrol Station and consistently took two islands in a raid, but with no result, although there were several black grouse ... We drank tea on the last island.”

The same thing in the following days.

About Portsmouth there is not even the slightest mention, although there officially, on paper and with the signatures of high-ranking officials, the shame of Russia was perpetuated, which for the first time in several centuries lost part of its territory and agreed to disguised contribution.

And the emperor, famous for his piety, not only does not find a place for himself, experiencing defeat in the war and does not pray for all the dead, but drives tea and arranges raids on black grouses on an "ideal day." Although the day is not perfect, but black.

This behavior of the “owner of the Russian land” is very difficult to explain, even from purely human positions. After all, what an adequate host would indulge in idle pastime and chasing tea when he was chopped off a piece of land? Yes, almost 400 000 subjects either did not return from the war at all, or returned with injuries. Although if we recall the “boyish management” and how the crown prince Nicky threw cones at his cousin on the day of the death of Emperor Alexander III, then there is nothing surprising in that.

The Russian-Japanese war may seem insignificant to someone and has not had a noticeable influence on the course of world history, but this is not so. If its outcome was completely different, then surely for the same Nicholas II everything would not have ended in the basement of the Ipatiev house. Surely Pearl Harbor and now would be a sleepy, quiet, resort town, and Hiroshima and Nagasaki would not have survived the horror of nuclear bombardment.

The leader of the world proletariat, Vladimir Ulyanov, would have lived his life in Switzerland or France and would not push fiery speeches from an armored car in 1917, while political prisoner Joseph Dzhugashvili would quietly die in another link and never become the “father of nations”, the great Stalin.

Perhaps the shots in Sarajevo in the summer of 1914 would have remained a shallow incident, which everyone would soon forget, and looking at how Russia defeated Japan in Manchuria, the future Fuhrer of the German people, Adolf Schicklgruber, would not say that Russia clay feet ”and there would not be a black June day of 1941 in our history.

But, alas, history does not know the subjunctive mood ...
Author:
Originator:
http://www.km.ru/science-tech/2017/09/06/istoriya-rossiiskoi-imperii/809201-112-let-nazad-byl-zaklyuchen-portsmutskii
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 10 September 2017 16: 18
    0
    Of course, on the one hand, the Portsmouth Peace success of Russian diplomacy could be worse ..
    1. svp67
      svp67 10 September 2017 22: 27
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      Of course, on the one hand the Portsmouth World, the success of Russian diplomacy, could be worse

      Having said “A”, you should at least say “B”, but how could it be worse? For various reasons, Russia did not transfer the most militant and most illustrious units from the European theater of war, but if Japan’s demands were prohibitive, it could. And let's just say that the position of victorious Japan was slightly better than the position of Russia and the war lasted, no one would say how it would end. But, alas, for this it was necessary to have not Nicholas 2 on the throne
      1. Ilya-spb
        Ilya-spb 11 September 2017 07: 33
        +4
        Yes, the author correctly says that history does not know the subjunctive mood.



        Quote: svp67
        Quote: parusnik
        Of course, on the one hand the Portsmouth World, the success of Russian diplomacy, could be worse

        Having said “A”, you should at least say “B”, but how could it be worse? For various reasons, Russia did not transfer the most militant and most illustrious units from the European theater of war, but if Japan’s demands were prohibitive, it could. And let's just say that the position of victorious Japan was slightly better than the position of Russia and the war lasted, no one would say how it would end. But, alas, for this it was necessary to have not Nicholas 2 on the throne


        But what does this assessment have to do with it?

        What does it mean - 1941 - as a result of the Russo-Japanese war? Lenin and Stalin again haunt ...

        If Russia won the Russo-Japanese war, this would not have resolved any contradictions between the capitalist (imperialist) countries.

        Subsequent wars and crises would be anyway.
      2. Prometey
        Prometey 11 September 2017 10: 58
        +3
        Quote: svp67
        For various reasons, Russia did not transfer the most militant and most illustrious units from the European theater of war, but if Japan’s demands were prohibitive, it could.

        And what are these illustrious and militant divisions if Russia has not fought since 1878? And Turkey was overcome with great difficulty.
        And yes, you are cunning a little. Towards the end of the Russo-Japanese War, a half-million Russian army was concentrated on Sypingai. But apparently this was not enough to go on the offensive against 300 thousand of the Japanese army - well, it was impossible to fight, apparently, without a 2-3-fold advantage.
  2. antivirus
    antivirus 10 September 2017 16: 21
    0
    and the loss of Port Arthur and Dalniy leased from China in Russia was not considered a special loss, since at the end of the lease term these cities would still have to be returned to the Chinese.
    how GDP is to blame- "pumped loot through OI2014 and didn’t do anything for the country"
    only GDP is to blame.
    how many schools have not been built - built Port Arthur?
    where is the mowing machine - the scythe for another 30 years hl was
    sickles cleaned the bread. and the fleet was dragged to Yapu.
    Hiroam Glory.
    Rus-Yap war - sharing budget-pie and Western loans + access to the body of Nick 2.
  3. 27091965
    27091965 10 September 2017 16: 52
    0
    For some reason, even after the war, many historians wrote tirelessly that Japan was exhausted by the war, and the Japanese emperor was asleep and saw how to make peace with Russia as soon as possible.


    Perhaps the Japanese emperor did not dream of concluding peace with Russia, but in the fall of 1904 such proposals came from the Japanese to Russia. The British proposed concessions to Russia in Persia to compensate for concessions in Manchuria. At that time, it was still possible to conclude a decent peace treaty. But, as always, ambition does not allow you to think normally. After the fall of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, proposals for a peace treaty ceased to be received.

    " You can be sure that Russia will fight to the end in this war, and until the last Japanese is expelled from Manchuria..... "

    From a letter from Nicholas to William. 06.11.1904/XNUMX/XNUMX.
  4. captain
    captain 10 September 2017 17: 06
    +1
    The Great Patriotic War 41-45gg at its beginning is so reminiscent of Russian-Japanese. Apparently, the Soviet leaders did not draw conclusions either.
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 10 September 2017 18: 24
      +2
      Quote: captain
      Apparently, the Soviet leaders did not draw conclusions either.

      The Soviet leaders drew conclusions, but there was too little time to translate these findings into trained personnel and equipment. Needless to say, it could not have done without errors; I had to refine and correct the campaign of the war.
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 11 September 2017 10: 50
        0
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        but there was too little time to translate these findings into trained personnel and technology.

        And how much time does it take - a century, two?
  5. San Sanych
    San Sanych 10 September 2017 20: 03
    +1
    still a muddy character, this Sergey Yulievich, one word, “semi-Sakhalin”, the result of all his stormy activity
    1. your1970
      your1970 21 March 2018 12: 04
      0
      I read like a long time ago (it’s possible that the bike, and certainly not verbatim)
      Witte talked with the French ambassador before leaving, and he said that "Now Russia will have to pay reparations!" to which Witte said "Why?" The Frenchman said, "Germany took Paris and France had to pay !!" To this, Witte said, "That's when the Japanese get to St. Petersburg - then we will discuss the issue of reparations!"
      Apparently, the reparations were not paid precisely because of the firmness of his position.
      By and large, it is impossible to consider the fee for the maintenance of prisoners as reparations (hidden / veiled) - there were general principles of warfare, it was already necessary to pay the expenses for the maintenance of prisoners, and even under the Conventions:
      "Article 17
      Prisoners of war shall receive a salary to which officers of the same rank of the country where they are detained are entitled, subject to reimbursement of such expenses by their Government. "
  6. Catherine II
    Catherine II 10 September 2017 21: 21
    +1
    S. Witte and the Russian ambassador to the United States, R. Rosen, made a very profitable peace for Russia, especially taking into account the realities that had developed by the fall of 1905.

    Without Roosevelt, little has happened.
    By the way, the agreement terminated the alliance of China and the Republic of Ingushetia (mutual assistance) + lease of the Liaodong Peninsula.
    It must be added that RI was not in a hurry. The first attempt to admit defeat with the assistance of France was rejected. And only through Roosevelt succeeded. He put pressure on the Japanese so that they had to give up the opportunity to rip off the 1.2 RI billion yen for Sakhalin and various bonuses ... It could be understood, the US budget cost support for nuclear weapons, the goals were achieved. Further, the interests of the Japanese could be neglected. What caused the unrest in Tokyo (dissatisfaction with the peace treaty)
    The USSR recognized Portsmouth in 1925 but did not agree to bear political responsibility for it. And after the victory over Japan as part of the coalition, Portsmouth was completely annulled and shame was somehow washed away (a brilliant and quick victory over the Kwantung army and the capture of Port Arthur by assault forces)
    It took half a century and the change of everything in the country (and the country itself) to somehow wash away what Nikolai 2 and his system created at the beginning of the century.
    As for the war itself, before Portsmouth. How can you fight, even if the eternal allies can do nothing? Something on the side of the enemy of the United States and the World Bank and provided considerable assistance (crucial). We can only remember the courage and glorious death of our ancestors, with the total loss of the system ...
    Stessel, by the way, didn’t have an advantage (he’s the head of the Oku district, he had more)
    The man of the Kondratenko level was not always the most important - so that the Heartland would win against the sea power in a land battle. We have far from the Suvorovs and not the Vasilevsky ones ...