Numerous military experts, as well as specialists from the nuclear industry, nuclear scientists headed by Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences Igor Kurchatov, and the design bureau KB-11 (today the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, RFNC-VNIIEF, the city of Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Region), headed by its chief designer, Yuli Khariton. A special department of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces provided for the preparation and conduct of tests of the first atomic bomb. As a result of preparation for testing in the Soviet Union, the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site was established (today it is located on the territory of Kazakhstan, closed 1991 of the year in August). It was at this site 29 August 1949, the first Soviet nuclear bomb was tested.
20 September 1949 of the Special Section of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces was transformed into the 6-Directorate of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, this department was charged with coordinating all scientific research, developing special requirements for the combat use of armed forces in the conditions of use of nuclear weapons by the enemy. also conducting and coordinating tests of nuclear weapons, monitoring the activities of special units in the types of armed forces. By 1 March 1951, the USSR’s atomic weapon arsenal already contained 15 atomic bombs RDS-1. All of these bombs were stored on the territory of the nuclear “facility No. XXUMX” (Design Bureau No. XXNX) in a repository specially prepared for this purpose. In this case, the bombs were kept here in a disassembled state, the component parts and components for the bombs were also located in reinforced ground-based (ground-filled) storage facilities. By January 550 11, the 1 of Soviet atomic bombs was already stored here.
The first Soviet atomic bomb RDS-1
Since then, the country's nuclear arsenal has only grown, new delivery vehicles have appeared, more and more sophisticated and deadly atomic weapons have been created. Since 29 August 1949, 715 nuclear tests have been conducted in our country. The last nuclear explosion thundered on New Earth only 24 October 1990 of the year.
Currently, 12, the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (12 GUMO), is the Central Military Authority for the implementation of the country's military nuclear technology policy and the nuclear support of the Russian Armed Forces. The Directorate was created on April 29 on the basis of the Main Special Weapons Directorate of the USSR Ministry of Defense. In February 1958 of the year, 1959-e management of the USSR Ministry of Defense was retained as part of 12 GUMO, this department was created back in 6. Thus, it was possible to ensure a more centralized and purposeful implementation of technical policy in the field of nuclear weapons in the framework of the policy of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union.
The following tasks were assigned to the 12 control: assuring the testing of various nuclear weapons (YaB); control of ongoing development; the organization of the storage and operation of nuclear weapons, as well as the accounting of the ammunition put into service; planning the delivery of nuclear weapons to both military and central nuclear weapons storage bases, including during a special period; planning the delivery of components of the YAB after their warranty period. 12 GUMO was subordinated to the bodies of a special military mission that controlled the process of developing and manufacturing nuclear weapons, as well as various special military units.
By the Decree of the USSR Government on 17 December 1958, the 12-e Main Directorate was incorporated into the newly created type of Armed Forces - Strategic Missile Forces (RVSN). At the same time, the head of this department became part of the Military Council of the Missile Forces. In connection with the achievement of strategic parity between the USSR and the USA, as well as the substantial expansion of the nuclear support tasks for all types of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union with another government decree from November 28 1974, the 12 control was removed from the subordination of the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces and transferred to the direct control of the Defense Ministry country.
The tragedy at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 forced many of the usual stereotypes to revise, primarily concerning the nuclear safety issues of the state. In connection with the need to tighten control over compliance with its requirements, a new organizational structure was created within the USSR Ministry of Defense - the Nuclear Safety Inspectorate of nuclear weapons. In the context of the lessons that Chernobyl taught the country, the creation of a professional emergency rescue service as part of the Defense Ministry's Main Directorate of 12 should also be considered.
Each stage of the existence and development of the 12 General Administration was in its own way significant in the Russian stories. At the same time, experts identify three momentous stages in the history of management. The first of these was the withdrawal of a nuclear ammunition that was stored on the territory of the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, as well as from the territory of the former Soviet republics. On the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union (in 1989-1991), 12-e GUMO carried out the return of tactical nuclear weapons stored on the territory of the Warsaw Pact countries, as well as of the Union republics of Central Asia and Transcaucasia, on the territory of Russia. And in the 1992-1996 years, the removal of nuclear weapons from the territory of Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan to facilities located on Russian territory was carried out. This politically important and very complex state task was completed in a short time and with all possible caution and accuracy: without accidents, losses and violations of nuclear safety requirements.
The second, equally important for the 12-th General Directorate period can be attributed to the end of the XX beginning of the XXI century. For this time period, the process of concentration of the country's nuclear ammunition in the framework of 12-GUMO was the most characteristic. The structure of the cupola was included nuclear parts of the Navy, Air Force, Central Range of the Russian Federation. At present, the nuclear commander in his updated state can be called the keeper of the entire Russian nuclear ammunition.
Finally, the third stage is more than a decade of reform of the country's nuclear supply system. The result of the work at this stage, which began in the middle of 1990-s and ended only in 2009, was the unification of all military units of nuclear support into a single organizational structure under single command. The centralization of management has allowed to ensure the growth of the efficiency of all components of the system: management; nuclear safety; operation and technical readiness of nuclear ammunition; combat readiness. Taking into account the importance of the tasks to ensure the delivery of arms and types of troops of the Russian Armed Forces with nuclear ammunition, at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries nuclear-technical support was transferred from technical to the category of strategic support.
At the moment, Russia has a well-developed strategic nuclear force, which consists of land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), both stationary and mobile, as well as sea and aviation strategic nuclear weapons and their carriers. Today, the main function of the 12th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation is to ensure the safety of storage and operation of nuclear weapons, as well as to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1996). At present, the development of the country's nuclear weapons complex is taking place within the framework of the State Armament Program and Federal Target Programs (FTP). The implementation of the measures provided for by these documents is designed to ensure the safety of key basic Russian nuclear technologies, scientific, technical and personnel potential of Rosatom organizations, as well as to ensure the further development and strengthening of our country's nuclear shield.
On September 4, the “Military Review” team joins in congratulations to the experts on nuclear support, both existing and already in retirement. We congratulate the personnel of 12 of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the veterans of the department, as well as all those involved in the structures subordinate to this management with their professional holiday, we wish you good health and success in the difficult task of serving our Motherland.
Based on materials from open sources