Military Review

September 2 celebrates Russian Guard Day

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22 December 2000 to revive and develop the Russian military traditions, increase the prestige of military service, and also in connection with the 300 anniversary of the Russian Guard, by a decree of President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, a new memorable date was set - Russian Guard Day. September 2 was chosen as the festive date. In addition to all the above, this memorable day was established in recognition of the merits of military specialists in solving the tasks of ensuring the defense and security of the country.


Guard (from the Italian word guardia - guard, security) traditionally called the privileged, selective, trained and equipped part of the troops better than others. In many countries, the guard was the core of the army. Often these were well-armed detachments that were directly under the monarch and sometimes also performed the functions of his personal guard. At the beginning of the 15th century, the guard was organized in France, later becoming widespread in many European countries.

The appearance of guards in Russia is inextricably linked with the name of Peter I. The so-called amicable troops of Peter the Great, who were trained in the “foreign system” (modeled on the Western European armies in terms of training and organization), became the forerunners of the Russian Guard. Sergey Leontyevich Bukhvostova is considered the first Russian guard, who was the first in 1683 to enroll in amusing regiments. In the 1692 year, they were consolidated into the 3 Moscow Elective Regiment under the command of A. M. Golovin (already divided into two regiments: Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky). In 1700, these two regiments began to be called Life Guards. Already in the battle of Narva in 1700, both guards regiments were able to distinguish themselves. For three hours they, despite the general chaos and panic, as well as the wounding or surrender to the Swedes of all the staff officers of the Russian army, with unprecedented resilience and courage restrained the onslaught of the enemy, which ultimately saved the army from complete defeat and destruction. In a sign that in the battle of Narva, the guards fought "knee-deep in blood", Peter I ordered to replace their stockings with green to red.

Guardsmen of the Semenov regiment, 1812 year

Guards Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments existed in the Russian army until 1917, after the revolution and the collapse of the Russian Empire, they were abolished. The revival of these regiments took place already in the XXI century. 12 December 2012 of the Year in his Address to the Federal Assembly, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated the need to revive the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments. 9 on April 2013, the 154-th separate commandant regiment was given the honorary title "Transfiguration". And on April 16 of the same year, the 1-th separate rifle regiment was given the honorary title "Semenovsky". So the glorified parts found a second life.

In the XVIII century, the Russian Guard in full force took part in the Northern (1700-1721) and Russian-Swedish (1741-1743) wars. Separate guard detachments also took part in the Russian-Turkish (1735 1739 and 1787 1791) and Russian-Swedish (1788-1790) wars. At the same time, the guard in Russia had a very large political influence, taking an active part in the famous palace coups of the 18th century. In those years, the Guards regiments prepared officer cadres for the entire army and were staffed almost exclusively by nobles, for whom military service was compulsory. From the middle of the 1730-s, the rank-and-file Guards also began to be supplemented with recruits from the tax-paying classes, and in the 1762 year after the manifesto on freedom to the nobility, this method of recruitment became the main one.

The guard was an elite part of the Russian army, so enjoyed a lot of privileges. So according to the Table of Ranks (1722 year), the officers of the guard had the seniority to ordinary army officers in two ranks. In 1813, the Young Guard was also approved in the country in addition to the Old Guard. This name was later assigned to the two Grenadiers and one cuirassiersky regiment, they were noted for their military successes during the Patriotic War 1812 of the year. The officers who served in these regiments were given one rank advantage over their army counterparts. This order existed in the Russian Empire until the end of the 19th century, when Emperor Alexander III cut down the privileges of the guard: in the Old Guard, the seniority of officers was reduced to one rank, and the officers of the Young Guard were abolished altogether.

Franz Kruger, Russian Guard at Tsarskoe Selo in 1832 (1841).

If the officers in the guards overwhelmingly were nobles, they tried to select the soldiers first of all for “quick mind”, skillful possession weapons, courage and courage in battle. In addition, of course, good physical data were taken into account. In the end, a large role was played by the appearance of military personnel. The tradition to select recruits by color of hair, eyes and facial features was formed in the Russian Empire in the 30-s of the XIX century. In the Preobrazhensky regiment they picked blonde and the tallest; in Semenovsky they took blondes, in Izmaylovsky regiment - brunettes, in the leyb-huntsman - light-built people with any hair color. In the Life Guards, the Moscow Regiment recruited red, in the Grenadiers - brunetov, in Pavlovsky - red and snub-nosed, in the Finnish criteria were the same as the rangers. The Cavalry Regiment tried to recruit the tallest blond and bay horses, while the Equestrian Guard had brunettes and black horses. The Cuirassier Regiment of Her Majesty - blondes on Karak (dark bay) horses, Cuirassier of His Majesty - red on red horses.

The privilege of the guard, its difference from ordinary army units, was emphasized by the special status of service, special insignia, as well as a special form of clothing. Each Guards regiment of the Russian army, as well as each separate unit, had its own uniform, badges, pennants, standards and banners. From the beginning of the 19th century, the St. Andrew's Star served as a symbol of the Russian Guard (from the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called), on which the motto “For Faith and Loyalty” was inscribed.

In the XIX century, the Russian Guard took part in all the wars waged by the empire with Napoleon. At the beginning of the 20th century, separate guards took part in the 1900 Chinese campaign of the year, as well as the 1904-1905 Russian-Japanese war. During the First World War, the guards units successfully showed themselves in the Battle of Galicia, as well as in the Warsaw-Ivangorod and Lodz operations of the Russian army, and took part in other battles. The guards carried out all the war, along with the rest of the Russian army.

September 2 celebrates Russian Guard Day
Pirate K. K. Ober officers of His Majesty’s Life Guard Cuirassier and Her Majesty’s Life Cuirassier regiments, 1855 year

For more than two centuries history Russian guard organizational structure of units has changed many times, while maintaining a steady upward trend in the number of such units and their numbers, and increased military capabilities of the guard. If under Peter I in 1700, the guard consisted of only two regiments (total number of about three thousand people), then in 1812 there were already 12 regiments, an artillery brigade and several other units (about 18 thousand people). At the beginning of World War I, the Russian Imperial Guard was already consolidated into 4 Guards infantry divisions, two Guards cavalry divisions, a separate Guards cavalry brigade and a number of separate Guards units and divisions of the regiment-battalion (division) - company. In total, it consisted of about 50 parts and more than 90 thousands of people. The cavalry general was commanded by the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, who also headed the Petersburg Military District. After two revolutions of 1917 and the collapse of the empire, parts of the Russian Imperial Army were disbanded, and the Guard was abolished along with it.

In the Soviet Union, the first Guards units appeared only during the Great Patriotic War, when the Soviet Guard was born. The Soviet Guards are military units, formations and unions of the USSR Armed Forces, as well as warships that received the honorary title of the Guards for mass heroism, courage, and high military skills that they showed in combat during the Great Patriotic War, as well as rocket artillery and newly formed formations (formations), which included units (formations) that had previously received the honorary title of the Guard.

Badge "Guard"

Guards units, formations and ships in the USSR were awarded Guards battle flags. 21 in May 1942 was a special “Guard” badge for military personnel of the Guards units, and a rectangular plate with orange moire ribbon with black longitudinal stripes was established for the guardsmen of the RKKF. At the same time, the military ranks of the Guards were introduced, after which, before the military ranks, soldiers and officers who served in the guards units on ships added the word “Guard” (for example, private guard or lieutenant guard).

The birthday of the Soviet Guard is considered to be 18 September 1941 of the year. On that very day, in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Command Headquarters for mass heroism and courage of personnel, four rifle divisions were ordered by the order of the Soviet Union Commissar of Defense: 100, 127, 153 and 161, respectively, were renamed 1, 2-th, 3-th and 4-th Guards infantry divisions.

The soldiers of the Red Army during the ceremony of the Guards banner, photo: waralbum.ru

By the time the Great Patriotic War ended, the Soviet Guard already included 11 combined arms and 6 tank armies; 40 rifle, 12 tank, 9 mechanized, 7 cavalry and 14 aviation buildings. They numbered 215 guards divisions, consisting of fleet there were 18 guards surface warships, as well as 16 submarines. After the end of World War II, differences in the states of formations and units were abolished. In peacetime, the conversion of military formations into guards was not carried out. At present, as part of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the name of the guard is retained as part of the units, ships and formations, as an honor.

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  1. Spartanez300
    Spartanez300 2 September 2017 06: 49
    +7
    "Guard" in translation from Italian - protection, guard, selected privileged part of the troops. It arose with the birth of slave-owning states, when special monitors (bodyguards) appeared under the monarchs and military leaders. For example, in Ancient Greece it was called a “sacred detachment”, in Ancient Persia it was a 10th corps of the “immortals”, in the army of Alexander the Great it was a 6th corps that included heavy infantry (hyraspists) and heavy cavalry (getters). In Ancient Rome, Gaius Marius had a Praetorian cohort
    1. vovanpain
      vovanpain 2 September 2017 07: 15
      +14
      Although I am not a Guardsman, but on the occasion of the Guard! On the occasion of my Grandfather Guards!
      1. Hoc vince
        Hoc vince 2 September 2017 07: 57
        +12
        Happy holiday! HOORAY!
        "My friends - the police served in the police, then in the police, now they are transferred to the national guard ... I feel that they will retire with the MUSHKETERS."
        1. Tusv
          Tusv 2 September 2017 08: 40
          +6
          Quote: Hoc vince
          "My friends - the police served in the police, then in the police, now they are transferred to the national guard ... I feel that they will retire with the MUSHKETERS."

          Nat guard is also needed. Fight in your internal enemies. Badge Carriers, watered with the blood of our grandfathers, are called upon to protect from external hi
          1. Hoc vince
            Hoc vince 2 September 2017 08: 56
            +6
            I agree. Let them remain guards for centuries. Renaming is tired. Happy holiday!
          2. creak
            creak 2 September 2017 10: 36
            +5
            Quote: Tusv
            Nat guard is also needed. Fight in the internal enemies.

            I wonder who they fought with before internal troops in the same North Caucasus? As far as I remember, they also fought with gangs, and also ensured public order, the protection of strategic objects, etc.
            Because they were called internal ...
            By the way, but the Guard in the RF Armed Forces - is it also national or what?
            1. Tusv
              Tusv 2 September 2017 10: 43
              +2
              Quote: ranger
              By the way, now the Guard in the Armed Forces - is it also national or what?

              She forever hi
              1. creak
                creak 2 September 2017 10: 55
                +2
                Quote: Tusv
                She forever

                The slogan instead of commentary on the merits - well, who, how can ... hi
                1. Tusv
                  Tusv 2 September 2017 11: 01
                  +1
                  Quote: ranger
                  Instead of answering the case, the slogan is - well, who knows how ..

                  Does the Guardsman need something to answer? Alas, this is a routine and nothing heroic hi
                  1. DEPARTMENT
                    DEPARTMENT 2 September 2017 13: 37
                    +4
                    For ALL Russian GUARDIANS! drinks

                    Guard is a state of mind ...! I have the honor soldier
                    1. Tusv
                      Tusv 2 September 2017 13: 46
                      +1
                      Quote: DEPARTMENT
                      Guard is a state of mind
                      .
                      And here you are wrong. The same Rust flew between the Guards. For We are looking specifically at orders. The same Combrig personally from me a mat with ears filtered twice. What actually now turns into a friendly conversation on this site hi
                      1. DEPARTMENT
                        DEPARTMENT 2 September 2017 13: 53
                        +1
                        Quote: Tusv
                        Quote: DEPARTMENT
                        Guard is a state of mind
                        .
                        And here you are wrong. The same Rust flew between the Guards. For We are looking specifically at orders. The same Combrig personally from me a mat with ears filtered twice. What actually now turns into a friendly conversation on this site hi

                        Rust needs to be erected a monument in Red Square! To remember how they betray Russia .. And all your negotiations and mats are already in the past! soldier
              2. WUA 518
                WUA 518 2 September 2017 13: 29
                +1
                Quote: Tusv
                She forever

                Well said!
    2. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 2 September 2017 22: 16
      +2
      Quote: Spartanez300
      in the army of Alexander the Great - the 6th corps, which included heavy infantry (hyraspists) and heavy cavalry (getters)

      Well, firstly, the hypaspists ("shield-bearers") and getaires (eteres) (other Greek comrades, retinues) are heavy infantry and cavalry, but geters ... laughing wink Secondly, these are not elite units, but a corps of heavily armed soldiers, moreover, the number of 6 thousand people that you indicated is referred only to hypaspists, and some researchers consider the figure to be overvalued by 2 times i.e. the number of hypaspists is 3 thousand people. They were divided into chiliarchies - thousands. Getaires were divided into units of 200-250 people. Third, if we talk about the elite units of the army of Alexander, then they include only Agema or the "Tsarist Agema" - an elite unit of cavalry and infantry. The horse unit was called the Tsarist ilea (400 getyrs), infantry - royal hypaspists (512 people, possibly the number was increased to 1000). The so-called "personal getaires" —a small group of czar’s close associates — served in the Tsar’s silt. hi
    3. Per se.
      Per se. 3 September 2017 08: 35
      0
      Quote: Spartanez300
      and heavy cavalry (getters)
      It's nice to meet someone interested in military history. However, Victor, “getters” and “geters” are far from the same thing. As for modernity, the level of combat training is much more important to me personally than the name itself. It is not entirely clear that there is a modern guard, a national guard (Rosguard), guard units that have remained from the Soviet era, and what is the difference now in these “guards”. In principle, there should be select fighters in the guard, with the best weapons and enhanced combat training.
  2. Masya masya
    Masya masya 2 September 2017 06: 54
    +15

    Guards, walk boldly
    Thunderstorms and a flurry of nothing to you!
    Obstacles easily overpowered
    A fit of soul and a blade.
    The name entered in the story,
    The bold look is no longer melting
    And they brought up a shift for themselves:
    My fatherland is calm! love
    1. bouncyhunter
      bouncyhunter 2 September 2017 08: 24
      +5
      I join in all the congratulations and kind words! Happy Holiday, Guard !!! hi drinks
      1. Venceremos
        Venceremos 2 September 2017 12: 06
        +9
        Quote: bouncyhunter
        I join in all the congratulations and kind words! Happy Holiday, Guard !!!

        The guard unit of the People’s Police of the DPR (1st Army Corps) joins in congratulations to the brothers in arms.

        1. bouncyhunter
          bouncyhunter 2 September 2017 13: 49
          +4
          Hello Seryoga! hi drinks Wish you all the best ! Those who do not have the opportunity to be near you will support my words, because they come from the bottom of my heart !!! soldier drinks
          1. Venceremos
            Venceremos 2 September 2017 14: 06
            +2
            Quote: bouncyhunter
            Hello Seryoga! Wish you all the best ! Those who do not have the opportunity to be near you will support my words, because they come from the bottom of our hearts !!!

            Great, Pash! Thank you for your wishes.
            Actually, the guardsmen, specifically we, became, so to speak, “inherited”, having inherited this title from the unit that was famous in the Great Patriotic War.
            And we, specifically the current guardsmen, although having in their account "something", still need to confirm this Status Quo action.

            BUT DO NOT GIVE.
  3. Spartanez300
    Spartanez300 2 September 2017 06: 55
    +12
    The Russian Guard is the color and pride of the domestic Armed Forces, the personification of indestructible military power, mass heroism and military valor. Its fighting traditions serve as a model of fidelity to soldiers and the Fatherland.
  4. Tusv
    Tusv 2 September 2017 06: 56
    +7
    In peacetime, the conversion of military formations into guards was not carried out.

    It also spoke of the assignment of the Guards to two parts of the Airborne Forces a year or two ago.
    And so with the holiday Guardsmen
  5. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 2 September 2017 06: 56
    +13
    Sin today does not celebrate this holiday. Back in 76, the young lieutenant was sent to serve in the Guards Order of the Battle Red Banner of SMEs. The presentation of the Guards badge took place after six months of service and solemnly. I am proud of this to this day. At that time, even the subordinate’s appeal: “Comrade of the Guard lieutenant (senior lieutenant)” stimulated success in b. and p. preparation.
  6. WHAT IS
    WHAT IS 2 September 2017 06: 58
    +6
    I myself did not serve in the Guard, and the Guards, a holiday !!! hi
  7. newcomer
    newcomer 2 September 2017 07: 05
    +6
    Happy Guards!
  8. Olaf Uksimae
    Olaf Uksimae 2 September 2017 08: 13
    +2
    Quote: rotmistr60
    Sin today does not celebrate this holiday. Back in 76, the young lieutenant was sent to serve in the Guards Order of the Battle Red Banner of SMEs. The presentation of the Guards badge took place after six months of service and solemnly. I am proud of this to this day. At that time, even the subordinate’s appeal: “Comrade of the Guard lieutenant (senior lieutenant)” stimulated success in b. and p. preparation.


    How beautiful, proud and many binding sounds: Comrade Guard !!! lieutenant. Happy holiday Guards !!! and carry it deserved by our
    fathers and grandfathers title with honor !!
  9. Million
    Million 2 September 2017 09: 37
    +2
    I already thought that we were talking about the new blessed. I will not say anything about the Russian, and the Soviet Guard was Strength!
  10. Holoy
    Holoy 2 September 2017 12: 24
    +2
    I recognize the guard that went through the Patriotic War, and who received the title of Guards ... All the rest are mummers!
    1. Rock616
      Rock616 2 September 2017 13: 04
      +5
      Envy, envy silently serf hi wink
      1. Holoy
        Holoy 2 September 2017 13: 50
        0
        To envy the mummers? Yeah...
    2. Dart2027
      Dart2027 3 September 2017 15: 53
      +1
      Quote: Holoy
      I recognize the guard, which went through the Patriotic War, and received the title of Guards

      In fact, since then the staff has changed more than once.
  11. googled
    googled 2 September 2017 13: 53
    +1
    In reality, he served everyone with the holiday of all, my grandfather was a guardsman in the Great Patriotic War, it’s ridiculous, he walked alive from Moscow to Berlin on foot))) The Guard, in a word, my grandfather told me some of them received the rank of guards just after the battles near Moscow, Siberia again Mother saved Russia, and it will be necessary, again, we will save all of you living in 1/4, or maybe less than Russia, we are at least few, but we are all in Siberia in vests, no matter who comes from and what nationality!
  12. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 2 September 2017 14: 30
    +1
    The most beautiful was, among my soldier "awards". wink
    1. s.melioxin
      s.melioxin 2 September 2017 15: 01
      +1
      vladimirvn Today, 14:30 PM New
      The most beautiful was, among my soldier "awards".
      It looked very nice. But this beauty obliged a lot. I felt on myself. Happy Holidays to you Guards.
  13. faterdom
    faterdom 2 September 2017 15: 24
    +4
    He served in the 77th Guards Infantry Division, later transferred to the coastal defense, reduced to a brigade, then to a battalion and transferred to Kaspiysk, where its box was blown up at the May 9 parade. In this part, Arsen Pavlov (Motorola) served as a signalman. It had in its composition in the 215th regiment the Battalion of Glory (the battalion, all awarded the Order of Glory for crossing the Dnieper), and the Company of Heroes (company completely awarded with heroes for the Wisla-Oder operation).
    In addition - in 149 guards. ICP 201st MSD.
    My personal opinion is that the guard ranks of the units earned by fathers and grandfathers cannot be squandered, they inspire and stimulate, no matter who grunts about it.
  14. oldzek
    oldzek 2 September 2017 17: 23
    +4
    the old guardsman thanks for the congratulations and, in turn, congratulates all the guards who served and are serving. actually I don’t drink but ... FOR THE GUARD!
  15. Guest171-Again
    Guest171-Again 3 September 2017 00: 52
    0
    For the Guard! All those who served in the 48th Guard, Order of Suvorov 3rd degree with a holiday (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhTuBTXvP5c)
  16. nnz226
    nnz226 3 September 2017 15: 55
    0
    Quote: "In peacetime, the conversion of military formations into guards was not carried out." It was done! Missile cruiser Black Sea Fleet "Glory" was renamed the guards missile cruiser "Moscow". Moreover, the predecessor - the leader of the destroyers of the Black Sea Fleet "Moscow" was not a guard, since he died at the beginning of the war during the raid on Constanta ....
  17. shura7782
    shura7782 4 September 2017 04: 32
    0
    What nationality is the national guard?