Military Review

As a "Russian crowd of barbarians" crushed the "invincible" Prussian army

34
260 years ago, 30 August 1757, the Battle of Gross-Egersdorf took place. It was the first general battle for the Russian army in the Seven Years War. And the "invincible" Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Levald did not withstand the onslaught of the "Russian barbarians" by the command of Field Marshal S. F. Apraksin. The decisive role will be played by the strike of the regiments of Major General P. A. Rumyantsev, which he delivered on his own initiative. The Prussians fled.


However, having won the general battle, Apraksin did not develop success. He stopped the troops, camped and was inactive. This allowed the Prussian command to quietly withdraw the troops and bring their order. Moreover, in September, Apraksin suddenly retires to the other side of the Pregel and starts hasty, as if he was defeated, and not the Prussians, retreat to the Neman. Having recovered from the Prussians, having learned about the departure of the Russians with a delay of a week, from that moment they were pursuing the Russian army on their heels all the way to the Prussian border. The reasons for such a shameful action of the Russian commander in chief are controversial to the present. There is an opinion that they are connected with the domestic political situation in Russia itself - Elizabeth was seriously ill, could have died, and the throne was supposed to be inherited by Prince Prussian king Frederick Prince Peter. Therefore, Apraksin, relying on the victory at the St. Petersburg court of the party of Tsarevich Peter, was afraid to develop an offensive so as not to fall into disgrace under the new sovereign. As a result, the success of the general battle was not used, the campaign next year had to start from scratch. Apraksin himself was removed from office, put on trial, and without waiting for the trial, died.

Thus, the Russian army had every opportunity to inflict a decisive defeat on Prussia and to complete the campaign in the 1757 year. However, due to indecision and mistakes of the high command, which was more busy with court intrigues than with war, this was not possible, and the chances of a quick victory were lost.

prehistory

The Seven Years War (1756-1763) is one of the biggest conflicts of the New Age. The war went on both in Europe and overseas: in North America, in the countries of the Caribbean, in India, in the Philippines. All the great European powers of that time, as well as most of the middle and small states of Western Europe, took part in the war. Not surprisingly, Winston Churchill even called the war "World War I".

The main prerequisite of the Seven Years' War was the struggle of France and England for hegemony in European civilization (the western project) and, accordingly, world domination, which resulted in the Anglo-French colonial rivalry and the great war in Europe. In North America, border clashes took place between British and French colonists, involving both sides of the Indian tribes. By the summer of 1755, the clashes turned into open armed conflict, in which both the Allied Indians and regular troops began to participate. In 1756, Britain officially declared war on France.

At this time, Western Europe, a new great power - Prussia, which violated the traditional confrontation between Austria and France. Prussia, after coming to power in the 1740 year of King Frederick II, began to claim a leading role in European politics. After winning the Silesian Wars, the Prussian king Frederick took Austria’s Silesia, one of the richest Austrian provinces, from Austria, significantly expanding the kingdom’s territory and population more than doubled from 2,2 to 5,4 million. It is clear that the Austrians were eager for revenge, not intending to give up leadership in the then fragmented Germany to the Prussians and wanting to recapture rich Silesia. On the other hand, London, starting a war with Paris, needed “cannon fodder” on the continent. The British did not have a strong land army and concentrated the available forces on the colonies. In Europe, for England, where she had her own territory - Hanover, the Prussians had to fight.

Thus, in January 1756 of Great Britain concluded an allied treaty with Prussia, wishing thereby to secure itself against the threat of a French attack on Hanover, the hereditary possession of the English king on the continent. Prussian king Frederick, considering the war with Austria inevitable and aware of the limited resources, made a bet on the "English gold". He also hoped for the traditional influence of England on Russia, hoping to keep Russia from actively participating in the upcoming war and thus avoid war on two fronts. With this he miscalculated. Russian Chancellor Bestuzhev considered Prussia the worst and most dangerous enemy of Russia. In Petersburg, the strengthening of Prussia was perceived as a real threat to its western borders and interests in the Baltic States and in the north of Europe. Moreover, at that time Austria was a traditional ally of Russia (they fought with the Turks together), the allied treaty with Vienna was signed in 1746 year.

It is worth noting that, in general, this war did not meet the national interests of Russia. In this war, the Russians acted as the “cannon fodder” of Vienna, defending its imperial interests. Prussia, who had strong enemies, did not pose a strong threat to the Russians. Russia had more pressing tasks, in particular, the need to return the Black Sea coast with the Crimea and the Russian lands as part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Poland).

The conclusion of the Anglo-Prussian Union pushed Austria, thirsting for revenge, to come closer to its traditional adversary, France, for which Prussia now also became an enemy. In Paris, they were outraged by the Anglo-Prussian Union and went to meet Austria. France, which had previously supported Frederick in the first Silesian Wars and who saw Prussia as just an obedient tool for fighting Austria, now saw Frederick as an enemy. A defensive alliance was signed between France and Austria at Versailles, which Russia joined at the end of 1756. As a result, Prussia, blinded by English gold, had to fight with a coalition of the three strongest continental powers, joined by Sweden and Saxony. Austria planned to return Silesia. Russia was promised Eastern Prussia (with the right to exchange it from Poland to Courland). Sweden and Saxony were also seduced by other Prussian lands - Pomerania and Luzation (Lusatia). Soon almost all German principalities joined this coalition.

The outbreak of war

Frederick decided not to wait until enemy diplomats divide his lands among themselves, the generals prepare the armies and launch an offensive. He attacked first. In August, 1756, he suddenly invaded Saxony, which was allied with Austria, and occupied it. 1 (12) September 1756, the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna declared war on Prussia. On September 9, the Prussians surrounded the Saxon army, which was camped near Pirnoy. October 1 went to the rescue of the Saxons, the Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Brown was defeated at Lobozitsa. Caught in a stalemate, the Saxon army capitulated on October 16. The captured Saxon soldiers were forcibly recruited into the Prussian army. King of Saxony Augustus fled to Poland (he was also the Polish ruler at the same time).

Thus, Frederick II knocked out one of the opponents; got a convenient operating base for invading Austrian Bohemia and Moravia; moved the war to the territory of the enemy, forcing him to pay for it; used the rich material and human resources of Saxony to strengthen Prussia (simply looted Saxony).

In 1757, three main battle theaters were defined: in West Germany (here the French were the opponents of the Prussians and the various German contingents of the Imperial army), the Austrian (Bohemia and Silesia) and East Prussia (Russian). Counting on the fact that France and Russia will not be able to enter the war before the summer of 1757, Friedrich had planned to defeat Austria before this time. Frederick did not care about the appearance of the Swedes of Pomerania and the possible Russian invasion of East Prussia. “The Russian crowd of barbarians; should they fight the Prussians! ”said Friedrich. At the beginning of 1757, the Prussian army entered Austrian territory in Bohemia. In May, the Prussian army defeated the Austrian army near Prague under the command of Prince Charles of Lorraine and blocked the Austrians in Prague. Taking Prague, Frederick was going to go to Vienna and destroy his main enemy. However, the plans of the Prussian Blitzkrieg did not come true: the second Austrian army, commanded by the talented Field Marshal L. Down, came to the aid of the Austrians besieged in Prague. 18 June 1757 of the year in the vicinity of the town of Kolin, the Prussian army was defeated in a decisive battle.

Frederick retreated to Saxony. His position was critical. Prussia was surrounded by numerous armies of opponents. In the spring of 1757, France entered the war, whose army was considered one of the strongest in Europe. In the spring-summer, the northern 70 of thousands of French army under the command of Marshal Louis d'Estre occupied Hesse-Cassel and then Hanover, defeating the 30-thousandth Hanover army. The Prussian king entrusted the Duke of Beverna with defense against Austria, while he himself left for the Western Front. Having from this point on a considerable numerical superiority, the Austrians are winning a number of victories over the generals of Frederick and seize the key Silesian fortresses of Shveydnits and Breslau. The volatile Austrian squad even temporarily captured the Prussian capital in October.

The northern French army was headed by the new commander-in-chief, Louis Francois, duke de Richelieu. He belonged to the party of resolute opponents of the rapprochement of France with Austria and sympathized with the party of Frederick's supporters at the French court. According to the military historian A. A. Kersnovsky (“History Russian army ") Frederick just bribed Richelieu. As a result, the northern French army, which, after defeating the Hanoverians, opened its way to Magdeburg and Berlin, was in no hurry to continue the offensive. Meanwhile, Frederick, taking advantage of the inaction of the northern French army, on November 5, in the vicinity of the village of Rosbach, utterly attacked the second army of the French and Imperials. After that, Friedrich transferred his army to Silesia and December 5 won a decisive victory over the Austrian army, which had a large numerical advantage under the command of the Prince of Lorraine under Leuthen. The Austrians were crushed to smithereens. Prussians beat off Breslau. Almost all of Silesia, with the exception of Schweidnice, again falls into the hands of Frederick. Thus, the situation that existed at the beginning of the year was restored, the “combat draw” was the result of the 1757 campaign of the year.



Russian front

Russian army campaign was announced in October 1756, and during the winter Russian troops were to concentrate in Livonia. Field Marshal Stepan Fedorovich Apraksin was appointed commander-in-chief. He began military service in 1718, a soldier in the Preobrazhensky regiment and in the reign of Peter II was already a captain. Thanks to the patronage of his stepfather, the head of the Secret Chancellery A. I. Ushakov (this cunning man was able to lead the Secret Chancellery under five monarchs) and B. Minich made a quick career, although he did not possess any talents.

Apraxin loved luxury. He was always richly dressed and studded with diamonds. The Russian historian, prince M. M. Shcherbatov wrote about Apraksin: “... little-aware of things, sly, luxurious, ambitious, always had a great table, his wardrobe consisted of many hundreds of different rich caftans; in a campaign all calm, all pleasures followed him. The tents with its size made the city, its wagon train more than the 500 horses aggravated, and for its own use the 50 were with lively, richly decorated horses ”. At the same time Apraksin was able to find high patrons. Arrogant and arrogant with his subordinates, Apraksin did everything to maintain his influence at court. So, he became a friend of Chancellor A. Bestuzhev-Ryumin. As a result, Apraksin's movement in the service went even faster: in 1742, he was a lieutenant colonel of the guard and a lieutenant-general, in 1746, a general-in-chief, with no talent for management, he became president of the Military Collegium. In 1751, he was awarded the Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First Called. When Russia concluded an alliance with Austria against Prussia, the Russian empress Elizaveta Petrovna granted Apraksin to field marshals and appointed the army commander in chief.

As a "Russian crowd of barbarians" crushed the "invincible" Prussian army

Field Marshal S.F. Apraksin

Here is such a seemingly powerful, but inside empty, rotten man became the commander of the main Russian army. Apraksin himself tried his best not to take any drastic steps. In addition, it was closely dependent on the Conference - a kind of supreme military council that borrowed from the Austrians - a degraded copy of the Gofkrygsrat. The members of the Conference were: Chancellor Bestuzhev, Prince Trubetskoy, Field Marshal Buturlin, Shuvalov brothers. At the same time, the Conference immediately fell completely under Austrian influence and, “commanding” the army for many hundreds of miles from St. Petersburg, was primarily guided by the interests of Vienna.

In the winter and spring of 1757, the Russian army completed its concentration in Livonia. The army was a significant shortage, especially in command personnel. The unsatisfactory situation was with the supply of the army, its administrative and economic part. In addition, the situation was bad with the morale of command. The Russian army lost its high fighting spirit, which had been since the victories of Peter the Great, but the Russian soldier, fighting with the Swedes and the Ottomans, repeatedly showed his high fighting qualities. Russian soldiers needed only commanders with the "Russian spirit". But there were problems with it. In Russia there were four field marshals: Count A. K. Razumovsky, Prince Trubetskoy, Count Buturlin and Count Apraksin. However, all of them were not real commanders, they were rather experienced courtiers, not warriors, “field marshals of the world, not wars,” one of them, Razumovsky, said about himself.

Prussians were afraid, considered almost invincible. Since the time of Peter the Great and Anna Ivanovna, the German order was a model for Russia, the Germans - teachers and bosses. In Russia, the Romanovs had a nasty habit of belittling themselves compared to foreigners (now this disease is again very common in Russia). And the army of Frederick beat the Austrians, the French. After the first skirmish on the border, when the three Russian dragoon regiments were overturned by Prussian hussars, the whole army was mastered by “great shyness, cowardice and fear” - said the participant of the war, Russian writer A. Bolotov. At the same time, this fear and cowardice at the top was stronger than among ordinary Russian soldiers. The Russian elite, the nobility and the officers followed the path of Europeanization (Westernization), that is, they extolled all Western, European (including military), compared to Russian.

Frederick II dismissively referred to the Russian army: “Russian barbarians do not deserve to be mentioned here,” he noted in one of his letters. The Prussian king had some idea of ​​the Russian troops from his officers, who had previously been in the Russian service. They rated the highest command of the Russian army not too high. Frederick left for the defense of East Prussia an army under the command of old field marshal Johann von Levald - 30,5 thousand soldiers and 10 thousand militiamen. Levald began his military career back in 1699, distinguished himself in several battles, and in 1748 he was appointed Governor-General of East Prussia. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, a brave and experienced Prussian commander successfully pushed aside the Swedish corps, who tried to attack Stettin from Stralsund. Frederick had no doubt that in the first general battle the Russian “barbarian army” would be defeated by the valiant Prussians. He even prepared a draft peace agreement with Russia, planning to divide Poland with the help of the Russians.


Prussian Field Marshal Johann von Levald

In May, Apraksin's army of 1757, numbering about 90 thousand people, of which about 20 thousand irregular troops (Cossacks, non-combatant, armed with bows and cold weapons Kalmyks, etc.), marched from Livonia towards the Neman River. The Russian commander in chief was himself mediocre, and he was entirely dependent on the Conference. He had no right to make important decisions without the consent of St. Petersburg. For any change in the situation, even for every little thing, the commander-in-chief had to communicate with Petersburg. At the beginning of the campaign, the Conference ordered him to maneuver so that he could go to Prussia or through Poland to Silesia. The aim of the campaign was the seizure of East Prussia. But Apraksin until June believed that part of his army would be sent to Silesia to help the Austrians.

June 25 (July 6) 1757 20 thousand auxiliary corps under the command of General-General Fermor with the support of the Russian fleet took Memel. This served as a signal for a decisive offensive by the Russian army. Apraksin with the main forces headed towards Virballen and Gumbinen. Combining with Fermor's corps, on August 12 (23), the Apraksin army headed for Allenburg. All this time, Levald was located in a well-defended position near Velau, limiting himself to sending an observation detachment. However, learning about Apraksin’s movement to Allenburg, in a deep detour of the position of the Prussian army, Levald went to meet the Russians, intending to engage in decisive battle.

To be continued ...
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  1. Hoc vince
    Hoc vince 30 August 2017 06: 44
    +2
    We look forward to continuing.
    "... in general, this war did not meet the national interests of Russia"
    1. Cat
      Cat 30 August 2017 07: 31
      +9
      As with Samsonov, everything is simple, even somehow “black and white”! One is good, the other is bad.
      The history of the Seven Years' War is quite a bright colors, events and phenomena that gave Russia several stars of the first magnitude among the generals. For example - Rumyantseva. It was during the Seven Years War that Europe realized that the bear in the far east is Strength! But most of all, it was precisely during these years that the spirit of the Russian soldier manifested itself, about which King Frederick said that it was not easy to kill him, he still needed to be knocked down!
      1. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn 30 August 2017 09: 01
        +3
        Quote: Kotischa
        It was during the Seven Years War that Europe realized that the bear in the far east is Strength!
        Actually, the Northern War has already shown, for Sweden at that time was quite a regional power. And even more so, this does not smooth out the fact that the Seven Years War did not correspond to the interests of Russia, therefore Peter III was right three times that he stopped immediately shedding the blood of Russian soldiers for the interests of Austria
        1. Cat
          Cat 30 August 2017 09: 14
          +3
          The Northern War for enlightened Europe was somewhere far away and in the north. Moreover, the view of the latter, thanks to the merits of Denmark, Saxony and other trifles, and not Russia in any way, it ended with the defeat of Sweden. Remember how we made a peace agreement after the Northern War. It was the Seven Years War, let it be contrary to Russia's interests, that put Europe in a position in which it became necessary to reckon with the northern bear.
        2. Moore
          Moore 30 August 2017 10: 27
          +2
          Quote: Stirbjorn
          therefore Peter III was right three times that he stopped immediately shedding the blood of Russian soldiers for the interests of Austria

          He would have demanded that his idol pay for the already spilled Russian blood - then he would be absolutely handsome ...
          1. Stirbjorn
            Stirbjorn 30 August 2017 12: 03
            0
            Quote: Moore
            He would have demanded that his idol pay for the already spilled Russian blood - then he would be absolutely handsome ...

            Well, no matter how the idol entered the territory of the Russian Empire, even after the drape of the Apraksin army. All the hostilities our army conducted on the territory of Prussia
            1. Moore
              Moore 30 August 2017 12: 22
              +3
              Well, as if an idol did not fit into the territory of the Russian Empire

              But did he have such an opportunity at all? That is why the maximum number of preferences should be shaken from Old Fritz, as money has already been spent, there are losses, but there are victories.
              Therefore, the knighthood of Peter III in this case is inappropriate for the monarch fopping.
              How can one not recall the Sun of our Zi with his “This is a struggle for profit. Profit is victory ”
              1. Stirbjorn
                Stirbjorn 30 August 2017 13: 03
                0
                Quote: Moore
                That is why the maximum number of preferences should be shaken from Old Fritz, as money has already been spent, there are losses, but there are victories.
                The benefit is that for a century and a half, Prussia was a Russia-friendly state, including the Crimean War
              2. Weyland
                Weyland 30 August 2017 19: 40
                0
                Quote: Moore
                from therefore it was necessary to shake the maximum number of preferences from Old Fritz, because money has already been spent, there are losses, but there are victories.

                A little nuance: Peter promised to return Fritz to East Prussia occupied by us - but "promising does not mean getting married!" And in real life, Prussia returned her to Catherine the Great type!
                1. Quintus sertorius
                  Quintus sertorius 1 September 2017 02: 58
                  0
                  Peter would give it all the same - do not build illusions. And Catherine is not the type, but the Great. And deservedly so.
              3. Ryazan87
                Ryazan87 31 August 2017 17: 27
                0
                Peter III was determined, with the help of Prussia, to solve the most important strategic issue: "... By themselves, these (Danish Holstein lands) were not very extensive in Russia, but their value was not in size, but in a strategic location in the south of the Jutland Peninsula ", on the isthmus between the North and Baltic Seas. The owner of them could conduct both Baltic and ocean trade, and by navigating the canal with a length of only 100 km, he could completely get rid of the Danes' Duty duty." Out of the Baltic puddle is much more useful for Russia than East Prussia.
                So it’s precisely that “struggle for profit”.
                1. Quintus sertorius
                  Quintus sertorius 1 September 2017 03: 05
                  0
                  What are you writing about? This channel was dug only after more than a hundred years. Russia had neither the means nor the desire for this project. It was easier to maintain friendly relations with Denmark, which has been our ally since the time of Peter and due to this, have a free exit from the Baltic.
                  1. Ryazan87
                    Ryazan87 1 September 2017 11: 07
                    0
                    Those. to build a 117-kilometer Staroladozhsky canal and the funds and desire were enough. And to have in your hands a free exit from the Baltic is nothing. The issue of straits is relevant, alas, not only in the Black Sea.
                    By the way, “The first link between the North and Baltic Seas was the Ayder Canal, which used the Ayder River channel.ider-channel was completed in 1784 and amounted to 43 kilometers from a 175-kilometer waterway from Kiel to the Aider estuary on the west coast. It was 10 meters wide and 3 meters deep. "
  2. kvs207
    kvs207 30 August 2017 07: 22
    +4
    Quote: Hoc vince
    "... in general, this war did not meet the national interests of Russia"

    But there was an experience of taking Berlin lol
    1. Anuar Zhanakaev
      Anuar Zhanakaev 30 August 2017 17: 25
      0
      Berlin took so much back in the 30 year war that it was not an impregnable fortress for a long time
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 30 August 2017 07: 49
    +2
    The seven-year war can be called one of the world wars, hostilities were fought in Europe, Asia, America ... and not only Europeans fought ...
    1. venaya
      venaya 30 August 2017 09: 40
      +3
      Quote: parusnik
      The seven-year war can be called one of the world wars; hostilities were fought in Europe, Asia, and America. ..

      World wars are fought for world domination, and this war, so to speak, can be said to be a minor internal showdown, practically within the same ethnic group (the Prussians fought with the Russians, the ethnic group is essentially the same, only their languages ​​are slightly different).
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 30 August 2017 19: 43
        0
        Quote: venaya
        World wars are fought for world domination, and this war is so, we can say that minor internal disassembly

        Canada, squeezed by England from France as a result of this war, and most importantly - a solid piece of India, laid the foundation for world domination of the brazen! Why is Britain generally officially was considered an empire? Because the Queen of England was also titled as Empress India!
      2. Alex
        Alex 14 September 2017 15: 09
        +1
        Quote: venaya
        Prussians fought with the Rus

        In fact, these "Prussians" have nothing to do with those "Prussians". Besides the name ...
        1. venaya
          venaya 14 September 2017 15: 45
          +1
          Quote: Alex
          In fact, these "Prussians" have nothing to do with those "Prussians". In addition to the name ..

          Your opinion is very surprising. Take a closer look at the ethnic composition of these same "Prussians", in particular in the province of Pomerania, the percentage of Russian genetics of the genus R1a1 reaches as much as 90%. absolute record, no more anywhere. And the capital of Prussia, Berlin has a purely Russian name. Another thing is the term "Prussia" is nothing more than a simple distortion of the Russian-language term Rus-Porussia (Varyazhskaya Rus) - just in the Turkic languages ​​the phoneme "pore" is converted to the phoneme "pr" - this is a feature of all languages ​​of the Turkic language group, which now include and all the "Germanic" languages, by the way, appeared in those places quite recently, about 500 years ago. Previously, this entire territory for many millennia was almost entirely Russian-speaking, which is clearly and loudly said by the place names of these territories. If you are really interested in this topic, then you can just take a closer look at this issue.
          1. Alex
            Alex 15 September 2017 20: 43
            +1
            You here decided to hit me with your erudition? Not worth it, you haven’t said anything new to me: I already know about the Slavic past of these lands. As well as the fact that the Prussians mentioned in the article are entirely Germans who conquered foreign territory during the crusades to the east. So what was I wrong about?
            1. venaya
              venaya 17 September 2017 16: 39
              +1
              Quote: Alex
              .. the Prussians, who were discussed in the article, are entirely Germans who conquered foreign territory during the crusades to the east. So what was I wrong about?

              "Prussians .. - all the time Germans"? -" what was I wrong about? "- I answer, here you have a total error in linguistics. see: How did you get that on the territory of Varyazhskaya Rus (Vagriya, Porussia, Vienna and other names of those years) at that time terms already existed such as "Prussia", "Prussians", "Slavs", etc. From the very beginning, decide for yourself the time these terms appeared, for example, the term "Slavs" recorded its appearance only in the 16th century, earlier It’s been known from the 6th century that the term “skladeni” (S (c) lavi) was used, or in Etruscan “falconry” = sun-worshipers, with the face of the sun in the form of a falcon. A similar situation is with the German term “Prussians”, but written German (of Turkic origin) appeared only in the 16th century, and before that no one had used it, they used the early dialects of the Russian language, where the inhabitants of the western part of Russia with the name "Porussia" (the future "Prussia", "Prussian Kingdom" ). They could call themselves Rus and Rusich or else, (to p for example, by Venets), but the terms "Prussians" and "Slavs" could not exist at that time, "Prussians appeared with the advent of the" Prussian Kingdom ", not earlier .. Understand, in this case the utmost accuracy in the use of terminological terms is already crucial . If we do not take this into account, then everyone will have complete mess in their heads, which all the enemies of Russia achieve, by the way, quite successfully. Due to the absence of the “German language itself until the 16th century, the very existence of the term" Prussians "is simply not real, and we now often call Germans simply Russes who, on pain of death, were forbidden to speak their native language of their ancestors, that is, one of dialects of the ancient Russian language that have lived in those places for many, many millennia (for example: the treasures of the "Temple of Retra, all the inscriptions on them are entirely Russian-speaking). As for the Crusades, the crusaders ruled by Rome, like the whole Holy Roman empire "(just the eastern part of the" Empire of the Franks "or earlier the" Frankish State "), spread the Latin language, the language into which the Bible was officially translated, then there was still no" German language ", it was introduced into use, along with the translated they’ve got a Bible in the new German language, Protestant Martin Luther, see how much I have to write, please try to figure out something on your own, at least you will help me a little in mine easy work.
  4. BAI
    BAI 30 August 2017 09: 14
    +2
    “Russian barbarians do not deserve to be mentioned here,” he said in one of his letters


    But the next phrase will be
  5. Curious
    Curious 30 August 2017 10: 52
    +2
    "The reasons for the shameful actions of the Russian commander in chief are still controversial."
    Elizabeth II was seriously ill, and Chancellor Aleksey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin was going to enthrone not Peter III, the nephew of Elizabeth, but the grandson of the Empress, Paul, who would rule until adulthood under the tutelage of Bestuzhev himself and his mother, Catherine (future Catherine) Great). To carry out this coup, he wanted to have an army at hand. Since the empress’s health was soon recovering, Bestuzhev ordered Apraksin to return to Prussia at the end of September. It was the refusal to comply with this requirement that became the reason for the removal of the latter from the leadership of the army.
    And there were a lot of versions around Europe.
    In the book The History of the Seven Years War of 1788, Baron von Archenggolts Johann Wilhelm put forward a version of Bestuzhev’s bribery by the British: “But the hatred of the Russian great chancellor gave way to English gold, and Apraksin had to leave Prussia.”
  6. midshipman
    midshipman 30 August 2017 12: 28
    +1
    In this war, young M.V. also found his place. Suvorov. He commanded guerrilla units. Also fought and Miloradovich, father of the St. Petersburg Military Governor and ally Kutuzov. Suvorov and senior Miloradovich together left for St. Petersburg. One led a regiment in Staraya Ladoga, the second after the report returned to the army. I have the honor.
  7. kvs207
    kvs207 30 August 2017 13: 35
    0
    Quote: midshipman
    young M.V. Suvorov.

    Still - Alexander Vasilievich.
    1. Curious
      Curious 30 August 2017 17: 24
      +1
      Do not carp at the person.
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 30 August 2017 19: 45
      0
      Quote: kvs207
      Still - Alexander Vasilievich.

      obviously just a typo (on clave M diagonally from A)
  8. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 30 August 2017 17: 59
    +1
    this is the first war when Russia fought for the interests of others ..
  9. Kenxnumx
    Kenxnumx 30 August 2017 20: 03
    0
    I would not consider Kersnovsky the truth. Popularizer. In addition, he wrote in exile for the most part without access to archives. And by the way, this war and the weakening of Prussia by the Russians were directly not profitable at that time. Peter 3 and then Catherine understood this, so one stopped and the other supported the cessation of the war.
  10. vodkinmotors1
    vodkinmotors1 30 August 2017 20: 37
    +1
    Romans were called barbarians by the Germans. What does the Russian have to do with it? (This is me) And 7 years is not a "war game".
    1. Cat
      Cat 30 August 2017 22: 28
      +1
      Quote: vodkinmotors1
      Romans were called barbarians by the Germans. What does the Russian have to do with it? (This is me) And 7 years is not a "war game".

      I’ll fix it a bit. The first in history, the term "barbarians" was used by the Greeks. So they called peoples whose languages ​​they could not understand. Moreover, in ancient Greek the word "barbarian" sounded like "barbar". From here is the "Barbara ship" of the epoch of Peter I.
  11. Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 31 August 2017 17: 50
    0
    The main thought after reading the article: do not limit your knowledge to the works of Kersnovsky.
    - "This was the first general battle for the Russian army in the Seven Years' War" - the general battle is one, which is why it is called. At least a "general battle of the campaign of 1757" is more correct.
    - "Thus, the Russian army had every opportunity to inflict a decisive defeat on Prussia and complete the campaign as early as 1757." - for a decisive defeat of Prussia, it was necessary to destroy the main army of the Prussians and, preferably, to kill King Frederick himself) The defeat of the secondary corps is far from critical.
    - "In this war, the Russians acted as the" cannon fodder "of Vienna, defending its imperial interests ... Russia had more pressing tasks, in particular, the need to return the Black Sea coast with Crimea and the Russian lands as part of the Commonwealth (Poland)." - It is worth noting that to solve these pressing problems, Russia needed the benevolent neutrality of Austria or its alliance. As shown by the Russian-Turkish wars of Catherine and the sections of Poland.
    "... Russia was promised East Prussia (with the right to exchange it from Poland to Kurland). Sweden and Saxony were also tempted by other Prussian lands - Pomerania and Luz (Luzitsa)." - firmly established only demand for the return of Silesia to Austria. The Swedes already owned Pomerania, albeit in a truncated form. The only thing the French promised them (and then only in words) is Tobago (not at all in Pomerania). About the exchange of Courland, it’s even not funny, there were completely different things.
    “The Russian elite, the nobility and officers followed the path of Europeanization (Westernization), that is, they extolled everything Western, European (including military affairs)” - I wonder what other options for building a regular army the author sees?
  12. Quintus sertorius
    Quintus sertorius 1 September 2017 03: 20
    0
    About the interests of Russia in this war. Why did Elizabeth immediately respond to Frederick's attack on Saxony? Just because it was an attack on the Polish king (Saxon elector).
    The Polish question was what worried Russia. It was impossible to allow the strengthening of Prussia in the Commonwealth. The policy to preserve Polish statehood (under the influence of Russia) Catherine consistently pursued after the Seven Years War. But this policy was doomed. The first partition of Poland is a consequence of blackmail by Frederick and aggression by Austria, so that the Poles would not write about it now. To some extent, the sections are an echo of the Seven Years War.