On the way to the assault rifle

57
In Russian, the term "assault rifle" came in the form of tracing paper from the German Sturmgewehr and the English Assault rifle. It is believed that the author of the term could be Hitler, who in 1944 year, guided by propaganda considerations, called an automatic carbine for an intermediate cartridge (specially created rifle cartridge of reduced power) assault rifle. At the same time, the basic concept of such weapons and the term itself appeared much earlier, even during the First World War.

It is believed that the term “Assault phase rifle” was first used by Isaac Lewis, an American designer and creator of the famous machine gun of the same name, applied to the line of experienced automatic rifles he developed in 1918-1920. These rifles used regular American rifle cartridge .30 M1906 (.30-06, 7,62х63 mm). It should be noted that the German 7,92x57 mm cartridge with a light pointed bullet had a great influence on the development of this cartridge. Impressed by the success of engineers from Germany, their American counterparts in March 1906 began work on their rifle cartridge with a pointed bullet. Experienced Lewis automatic rifles repeated the same concept of "firing on the move" as the Browning BAR M1918 automatic rifle.



The people who came up with this concept were the French. At the beginning of the 20th century, the French army was at the height of technical progress. At first, self-loading rifles were adopted here, and during the First World War, infantry were equipped with a new class of small arms — automatic rifles, which were mass-produced in France. Thanks to this, the French infantry received weapons suitable for firing from the belt from the hands or from the shoulder, from short stops or on the move. The main purpose of the French automatic rifles was to support infantry, which was armed with ordinary magazine rifles, directly during the attack or assault of enemy positions.

BAR M1918


The first production model of a weapon of this class is called a machine gun, an automatic gun or a Shosh machine gun of the 1915 model of the year (Fusil Mitrailleur CSRG Mle.1915). Soon after it, the famous Fedorov automatic rifle of the 1916 model of the year was created in Russia later; history like an automatic machine Fedorov. Finally, in 1918, in the USA, Browning created his M1918 automatic rifle.

The first swallow of hand-held automatic weapons, which, of course, was the model Fusil Mitrailleur CSRG Mle.1915, was originally designed taking into account the possible mass production at non-specialized enterprises (the Gladiator bicycle factory was the main manufacturer of this machine gun during the First World War). The weapon managed to become really massive, in just three years of the war more than 250 thousands of units of this machine-gun were assembled. At the same time, mass production became the model’s weakness and its weakest point — the level of industry at the beginning of the 20th century did not guarantee the required stability of characteristics and quality from sample to sample, which, combined with a rather complex weapon design and a magazine to increased sensitivity of the model, to the general low reliability and sensitivity to pollution. At the same time, with proper maintenance and proper maintenance, the CSRG Mle.1915 light machine gun could provide acceptable combat effectiveness (they tried to recruit shooters from non-sergeants, and their training lasted up to three months).

A characteristic detail of this model was a huge open-type sector magazine, which was designed for just 20 unitary rifle cartridges Lebel 8x50. In many ways, it was the unsuccessful design of the store that was the main source of claims to the weapon. Many called the Shosh machine gun the worst weapon in its class, prone to a very large number of failures and delays when shooting. Other drawbacks of the weapons were very high recoil and low rate of fire - just about 250 shots per minute.

Fusil Mitrailleur CSRG Mle.1915


Both the French Fusil Mitrailleur CSRG Mle.1915 and the Fedorov machine gun and the Browning M1918 combined the fact that all three "assault rifles" had one drawback - they used regular rifle cartridges from that time period, which had a frankly excessive range for the assault use and firing range. All this led to a very strong impact when fired, as well as a significant mass and dimensions of the weapon itself. The fact is that the rifle cartridges of those years were created in the late XIX, early XX century, when salvo firing from long-range rifles was considered the normal and generally accepted method of infantry combat. As a result, the deadly range of rifle bullets of those years reached two kilometers, whereas in a real battle the infantryman could hardly expect to see enemy fighters more than 300-400 meters away, not to mention getting into them high probability. At the same time, none of the military denied the importance and necessity of maneuverable automatic fire in order to suppress the resistance of the enemy both during the attack and in defense.

An obvious solution to the emerging problem could be the creation of new cartridges with reduced power. Such ammunition would solve the problem of defeating enemy soldiers at a distance of 300-500 meters. Moreover, the development of such cartridges promised a serious gain in their mass, and hence in the mass of weapons in general, as well as in reducing recoil when fired, in saving gunpowder and materials, in increasing the number of cartridges worn by the soldier.

Curious is the fact that the very concept of “weakened” rifle cartridges appeared during the domination of black powder — a number of armies in the second half of the 19th century armed their cavalry units and other non-infantry units with carbines that fired weakened (compared to regular rifle) cartridges . At this stage, the closest to the implementation of the concept of "assault rifle" were the Americans, who created and produced the high-speed shop carbines of Spencer and Henry systems. These carbines were actively and successfully used during the American Civil War, and then used during the conquest of the "Wild West". These were compact and lightweight models of small arms, which used significantly weaker cartridges than ordinary single-shot army rifles of that period. This was more than compensated for by a significantly higher density of fire in the short range, which was especially important during cavalry attacks, which were quite transient. The same rifle and Spencer carbine were equipped with a tubular magazine for 7 cartridges, all 7 bullets could be fired at the enemy in 7 seconds, for that time it was a fantastic rate of fire.



Started in 1914, the First World War gave the warring parties real combat experience in using such small arms. For example, in 1917-1918, the French infantry successfully used Winchester 1907 self-loading American carbines chambered for .351 WSL (9x35SR). They were equipped with high-capacity stores and redesigned for the possibility of firing bursts. The Winchester 1907 carbines were much more comfortable and shorter than conventional rifles of those years. They provided soldiers with greater freedom of maneuver and were equipped with boxed magazines on 5, 10 or 15 cartridges, and could be effectively used at a distance of up to 300 meters. The model of this 1917 rifle of the year has been specially modified to enable bursts of fire, and also received a new magazine designed for 20 cartridges. The shooting rate of the 1907 / 17 model was on the order of 600-700 rounds per minute. In fact, the Winchester 1907 was a harbinger of a new class of small arms - automatic carbines for reduced power rifle cartridges, also called “intermediate” (the average between conventional rifle and pistol cartridges).

Already in 1918, in France, on the basis of the hunting cartridge .351WSL, a special army cartridge 8x35SR was developed, which was equipped with a pointed bullet from the French 8-mm cartridge Lebel. An experienced automatic rifle Ribeyrolles Modele 1918 (the official name is Carabine Mitrailleuse 1918) was developed under the designer cartridge Ribeirol. Since the 8X35 mm cartridge is close in its characteristics to the intermediate cartridges, this gives grounds to consider the Ribeirol carbine to be one of the first predecessors of the modern machine gun.

Winchester 1907


In the same year in the United States, Winchester also created a similar cartridge. Taking the sleeve from the .351WSL as a base, American engineers supplied it with a 9-mm pointed bullet, the new cartridge received the designation .345WMR (Winchester Machine Rifle), its initial velocity of the bullet was approximately 560 m / s. Especially for this cartridge, a Burton-Winchester Machine Rifle automatic carbine system, quite original in design, was created.

It was a free-gate weapon, the original features of the model were interchangeable barrels (ordinary for the aviation version and shortened with a tide for the bayonet, intended for infantrymen), as well as an unusual system of feeding cartridges. It included two receivers for sector stores, they were located on top of a weapon in the shape of a letter V. The stores had a capacity for 40 cartridges, and the switching of weapons to the second store took place automatically after the first one became empty. The rate of fire was already on the order of 800 shots per minute, while providing a fairly good practical rate of fire. The weight of the carbine was about 4,5 kg without cartridges.

Later in the beginning of the 1920-s, similar cartridges and automatic or self-loading carbines for them were developed in Italy and Switzerland, in the 1930-s - in Germany and Denmark. However, none of these models were eventually adopted. So why so promising, it would seem, small arms did not receive widespread use until the second half of World War II, here are just a few assumptions on this subject:

Burton-Winchester Machine Rifle

1. High-ranking military men were conservative in their nature, not risking their careers in the name of development, whose usefulness was not completely obvious to them. Most of the warlords of that time grew up in the conditions of the wide use of magazine rifles with a magazine cut-off, bayonet attacks and salvo firing. The idea of ​​arming the fighters with high-speed automatic weapons on a massive scale seemed alien to them.

2. Despite the obvious savings in production costs, materials and delivery of each cartridge, a significantly increasing consumption of ammunition in automatic weapons compared to ordinary magazine rifles would still lead to an increase in the level of load on both production and logistics.

3. By the time of the end of World War I, light and heavy machine guns had become an integral part of infantry weapons. Therefore, the use of significantly weakened intermediate cartridges in machine guns, especially heavy machine guns, would mean a sharp loss in the effectiveness of their fire on all types of targets, and this in turn meant the need to introduce a new weakened cartridge in parallel with the release of traditional rifle cartridges (and not in their place) that also only complicated the logistics.

4. Up until the end of the 1930, not only enemy soldiers but also horses (in many countries, cavalry was still a very important type of force), as well as armored cars and low-flying aircraft, were among the most typical targets for infantrymen to hit with small-arms fire. The use of weakened "intermediate" cartridges could seriously reduce the ability of infantry units to combat these objectives, which was considered unacceptable.

Soviet 7,62-mm cartridges: rifle, intermediate and pistol


Of course, there were other reasons, as a result, in the pre-war period in most countries of the world, self-loading rifles designed for “traditional” rifle cartridges were considered as promising individual infantry weapons. Attempts of adopting reduced-power cartridges for self-loading rifles or creating automatic rifles for regular rifle cartridges (German FG-42 and Soviet ABC-36 under 7.62х54R) were unsuccessful. As a result, by the beginning of World War II, most of the infantrymen of all the howling countries were still armed with self-loading rifles or store rifles with manual reload, designed for long-range and powerful rifle cartridges.

Information sources:
https://www.all4shooters.com/ru/strelba/tekhnika/Shturmovyye-vintovki-1-zadolgo-do-Shturmgevera/
http://modernfirearms.net/machine/fr/chauchat-csrg-m1915-r.html
http://www.armoury-online.ru/articles/civil/us/win-1907
Open source materials
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  1. +8
    29 August 2017 06: 21
    Once again I repeat about the French weapon, either good or nothing !! wink Well, about this sample, it's about the Shosh machine gun, except for obscene words!
    1. +2
      29 August 2017 20: 11
      was used by Isaac Lewis

      funny how with a wave of a feather, Isaac from the tribe of Levy was suddenly transformed into Isaac Lewis bully
  2. +5
    29 August 2017 06: 56
    Fedorov, when creating his assault rifle, in his works he substantiated the introduction of a reduced power cartridge for this type of weapon .... And for this, he was forced to develop his assault rifle under the cartridge of the Japanese Arisaka rifle, which was smaller in caliber and slightly weaker than the cartridges used in magazine rifles of the time ...
    1. +2
      29 August 2017 08: 59
      Fedorov, when creating his assault rifle, in his works he substantiated the introduction of a reduced power cartridge for this type of weapon ....

      You are soberly mistaken.
      1. +6
        29 August 2017 09: 29
        Quote: Grille
        You are soberly mistaken.

        I fully support. "And already in 1913, Fedorov proposed an automatic rifle of his own design, designed for a new cartridge developed by Fedorov himself. This cartridge had a pointed bullet of caliber 6.5mm weighing 8.5 grams, and a bottle case without a protruding rim. The initial speed of the bullet of the cartridge Fedorov was about 850 m / s, which gave a muzzle energy of about 3100 Joules (for a cartridge 7.62x54R the muzzle energy is 3600-4000 Joules, depending on the type of equipment). From these characteristics, by the way, we can conclude that Fedorov’s cartridge is not me was “intermediate" in the modern sense - it was a fully-fledged rifle cartridge of a reduced caliber (for comparison, the muzzle energy of the intermediate cartridge 7.62x39 is approximately 2000 Joules). However, Fedorov’s cartridge provided a lower recoil momentum compared to the standard cartridge, had a smaller mass and was more adapted for use in automatic weapons "- link to the article, where the quote comes from. It still has a lot of interesting things about the Fedorov assault rifle.
        1. +1
          31 August 2017 19: 06
          For THAT time, this can be regarded as an intermediate cartridge
          1. +1
            1 September 2017 06: 42
            And if you consider that the "automatic" was made under the cartridge of 6,5x51SR St. Petersburg equipment, then the very thing to eat is an "assault rifle" ....
  3. +16
    29 August 2017 07: 38
    That’s how sideways did Fedorov’s AUTOMATIC MACHINE be put on a par with Shosh and Browning MANUALS? Can you explain? I can. Equating the first machine gun with light machine guns is leveling the merits of Fedorov, and with it the championship of Russia in the development of a new class of weapons, which Fedorov originally called a machine gun, unlike the class of a light machine gun that had already taken place at that time. According to the memoirs of Fedorov himself, the idea of ​​a new class of weapons came to him in the French trenches during firing from the Shosh machine gun.
    The fact that the machine guns of Shosh and Braunig are machine guns, and not assault rifles say their performance characteristics. A mass of more than 7 kg and energy of a bullet of more than 3000 J do not allow for aimed shooting from hand. Fedorov’s assault rifle uses a cartridge with 2600 J power, which when fired from an assault rifle gave 2000 J, which is comparable to AK47!

    As for the cartridge 8x35SR. There really is a certain innovation. But the fact is that Fedorov said earlier that the ballistics of a new lightweight cartridge should, according to the RPA, correspond to the rifle. But the effective firing range of the 8x35SR and 8 × 35mm Ribeyrolles with a heavy bullet and low initial speed ends where the RPV rifle ends.
    1. +4
      29 August 2017 08: 29
      Good afternoon land !! Fedorov surpassed his time, his idea of ​​an intermediate cartridge lives on now !!!
    2. +4
      29 August 2017 08: 48
      But what about the experienced Fedorov rifles developed by him until 1914?
  4. +5
    29 August 2017 08: 14
    The range of automatic rifles "BAR" (Browning Automatic Rifle): American M 1918 A2, Polish (Belgian) RKM wz 28, Belgian FM 30.
    1. +10
      29 August 2017 10: 25
      Thanks for the photo. At number 3 is the Belgian "BAR". The year before last, in the Krasnodar Territory, a new water supply system was pulled at our enterprise. A skeleton corpse was found in the dug trench, such an apparatus, the truth is a little spoiled. I was still surprised, "BAR", but with a pistol grip, and a few stores with ammunition. Ammunition incidentally was in excellent condition. In those places during the Second World War there were German and Romanian units.
  5. +14
    29 August 2017 09: 30
    1. The article is necessary, but not complete.
    2. The first hand was not a Shosh machine gun (1915), but a Madsen machine gun (1890/1903). The second was a Lewis machine gun (1913).
    3. If the Madsen, Lewisai Shosh machine guns were created immediately, like machine guns, then Fedorov came to an automatic rifle (1916) from a self-loading rifle (1911).
    4. Automatic BAR rifle (1918, Browning Automatic Rifle), according to operating experience, was transferred to light machine guns (after weighting the barrel).
    5. The first serial automatic rifle was the design of Mondragon (1907, Mexico). The second was a Mauser rifle (1910/1913, a small series for aviation). The third was the Fedorov rifle (1913/1915). The fourth was the rifle of France (1917). Well, and BAR - respectively - the 5th.
  6. 0
    29 August 2017 09: 38
    By the way, there is talk, and research on the return of 6,5 mm in the same energy rifle cartridge. For 5,45 and 5,56 have problems shooting in a wooded area, and in general they quickly lose speed. 7,62, with all the advantages of a heavy bullet, has a problem in the amount of ammunition wearable. And then I recall Fedorov’s assault rifle with its rifle bullet. He came to this as I remember because of the excessive massiveness of the mechanism under 7,62x54. By the way, the use of OSNAZ in Finland confirmed the good properties of 6,5 mm in forests against Suomi with 9 mm Parabellum. Most likely, in about ten years, the first samples of the pre-production 6,5 mm automatic weapon will appear, combining the range of a direct shot, a portable ammunition, energy, and accuracy.
    1. +3
      29 August 2017 09: 59
      Quote: kugelblitz
      Most likely, in about ten years, the first samples of the pre-production 6,5 mm automatic weapon will appear, combining the range of a direct shot, a portable ammunition, energy, and accuracy.

      Yes, it already exists, Saiga is the original under 6,5x39. Barrett REC7 under 6,8x43 as well as the Berret ARX-160, that is, new modular rifles have such an opportunity.
      But under the cartridge
      6.5x38 Grende is not yet there is no trunk, although they can do without problems.
      1. 0
        17 October 2017 14: 36
        Quote: marshes
        But under the cartridge
        6.5x38 Grende is not yet there is no trunk, although they can do without problems.

        Once again I will repeat the link to the weapon under this cartridge, it has been sold for 10 years already http://www.alexanderarms.com/products/65-grendel and the cartridge is 6,5x39, not 38.
    2. 0
      17 October 2017 14: 35
      Quote: kugelblitz
      By the way, there is talk, and research on the return of 6,5 mm in the same energy rifle cartridge. ... ... Most likely in ten years the first samples of the pre-production 6,5 mm automatic weapon will appear
      A 6,5 × 49 sniper rifle successfully passed military tests back in the 90s in Chechnya. Under this cartridge created a light machine gun.
      6.5mm Grendel (6.5 × 39mm) Won a competition for a new cartridge for the US Army 15 years ago. under it release hunting carbines on the basis of the M-16, here is one of them
      http://www.alexanderarms.com/products/65-grendel На Вооружение не принят по одной причине- короче чем патрон 5,56х45, и одной только заменой ствола не обойдешся.
  7. +9
    29 August 2017 10: 00
    Since when did Shosha and BAR become automatic rifles? These are typical light machine guns of those years. Before the Stg-44, there was nothing similar in the class of assault rifles and assault rifles; it was a revolutionary weapon, the first in its class. Later, capturing German assault rifles as trophies, the USSR became interested in a new concept, developed their automatic machine gun 7,62 * 39 and created AK. The same Fedorov assault rifle is also closer to automatic rifles, an analogue of ABC, due to the use of a powerful rifle cartridge Arisaki. The military around the world did not want to hear about the use of weak cartridges as the main infantry cartridge, there were three reasons for this. First, up to WWII there was a fashion for long-range shooting, rifles had a notch on the sight up to a range of 2300-2600 m, machine guns even up to 3500 m. It was assumed that at such a distance from rifles it was possible to fire with volleys of a whole company at a group target, and from machine guns at such a distance were also offered to fire at a group target, or harassing fire. The experience of World War II showed that firing at such distances is a waste of ammunition, it is much more efficient to use mortars and regimental guns at a range of 2-3 km. The reason for such requirements for long-range aimed fire was the conservatism of the generals. They began their careers back in the 19th century, when there were no machine guns, none at all, and the regiment was armed with nothing but rifles and revolvers. But artillery was given to troops only from the level of the division, that is, the regiment did not have any means of amplification, and it was assumed that if the entire regiment or battalion would shoot at a target at a distance of 2 km, then at least one of the hundreds of shooters would fall into target. And the fact that machine guns, regimental and battalion guns and mortars appeared in the troops with the development of technology, it somehow passed by the generals' consciousness. Secondly, meeting the cavalry on the battlefield was considered quite probable in the 30s, and in order to knock down a horse with a first hit, a powerful cartridge was needed. The automatic cartridge for guaranteed stalling of a horse from the first hit was rather weak. Well, the third reason is the logistics. Indeed, in the army, instead of two cartridges - pistol and machine-gun rifle, there will be a third cartridge - automatic. Accordingly, the supply of ammunition to the troops will become much more complicated, if in the company the soldiers are armed with machine guns under a rifle cartridge and machine guns, then it will be necessary to import two types of cartridges at the position, and not one, as before.
    In the USSR they adopted the SVT, in the USA Garanda. Both the USSR and the USA made a bet on the armament of each fighter of the squad with their self-loading rifle, which significantly increased the density of fire of the infantry squad. In these countries, little attention was paid to the light machine gun; there was practically no development on them. Light machine guns DP and BAR were in the departments as far as, more likely for show. The French, British and Poles are stuck at the level of the 20s. The Germans went their own way, and made a bet on a single machine gun in the squad, which was the main firepower on the battlefield, and the squadron gunners, armed with magazine rifles, served as the servant of the MG-34 crew. The experience of the war showed that neither the Soviet-American nor German concepts fully justified themselves. As a result, now in all the armies of the world, the main infantry weapons are machine guns, and light and single machine guns as means of reinforcement.
    1. +3
      29 August 2017 11: 07
      Quote: Lgankhi
      Since when did Shosha and BAR become automatic rifles? These are typical light machine guns of those years. Before the Stg-44, there was nothing similar in the class of assault rifles and assault rifles; it was a revolutionary weapon, the first in its class. Later, capturing German assault rifles as trophies, the USSR became interested in a new concept, developed their automatic machine gun 7,62 * 39 and created AK. The same Fedorov assault rifle is also closer to automatic rifles, an analogue of ABC, due to the use of a powerful rifle cartridge Arisaki. The military around the world did not want to hear about the use of weak cartridges as the main infantry cartridge, there were three reasons for this. First, up to WWII there was a fashion for long-range shooting, rifles had a notch on the sight up to a range of 2300-2600 m, machine guns even up to 3500 m. It was assumed that at such a distance from rifles it was possible to fire with volleys of a whole company at a group target, and from machine guns at such a distance were also offered to fire at a group target, or harassing fire. The experience of World War II showed that firing at such distances is a waste of ammunition, it is much more efficient to use mortars and regimental guns at a range of 2-3 km. The reason for such requirements for long-range aimed fire was the conservatism of the generals. They began their careers back in the 19th century, when there were no machine guns, none at all, and the regiment was armed with nothing but rifles and revolvers. But artillery was given to troops only from the level of the division, that is, the regiment did not have any means of amplification, and it was assumed that if the entire regiment or battalion would shoot at a target at a distance of 2 km, then at least one of the hundreds of shooters would fall into target. And the fact that machine guns, regimental and battalion guns and mortars appeared in the troops with the development of technology, it somehow passed by the generals' consciousness. Secondly, meeting the cavalry on the battlefield was considered quite probable in the 30s, and in order to knock down a horse with a first hit, a powerful cartridge was needed. The automatic cartridge for guaranteed stalling of a horse from the first hit was rather weak. Well, the third reason is the logistics. Indeed, in the army, instead of two cartridges - pistol and machine-gun rifle, there will be a third cartridge - automatic. Accordingly, the supply of ammunition to the troops will become much more complicated, if in the company the soldiers are armed with machine guns under a rifle cartridge and machine guns, then it will be necessary to import two types of cartridges at the position, and not one, as before.
      In the USSR they adopted the SVT, in the USA Garanda. Both the USSR and the USA made a bet on the armament of each fighter of the squad with their self-loading rifle, which significantly increased the density of fire of the infantry squad. In these countries, little attention was paid to the light machine gun; there was practically no development on them. Light machine guns DP and BAR were in the departments as far as, more likely for show. The French, British and Poles are stuck at the level of the 20s. The Germans went their own way, and made a bet on a single machine gun in the squad, which was the main firepower on the battlefield, and the squadron gunners, armed with magazine rifles, served as the servant of the MG-34 crew. The experience of the war showed that neither the Soviet-American nor German concepts fully justified themselves. As a result, now in all the armies of the world, the main infantry weapons are machine guns, and light and single machine guns as means of reinforcement.

      And so it’s nothing that the cartridge 7,62, 39 samples43 years? A stg44 production 44 years
      And how did our designers create weapons for non-existent cartridges?
      1. +2
        29 August 2017 11: 32
        Actually, the Stg-44 under the name MKb.42 (N) passed military tests in the winter of 1942-1943 on the Eastern Front, where it was captured as trophies.
    2. +1
      29 August 2017 12: 31
      It seems to me that the appearance of the intermediate potron came from two directions. Some reduced the rifle, and 7,62x39 and German for StG could logically go from 7,62x25. PPSh gave already excellent ballistics in comparison with other PP.
    3. +1
      30 August 2017 02: 49
      Quote: Lgankhi
      Since when did Shosha and BAR become automatic rifles?

      Since they were adopted under the name "automatic rifle" (automatic rifle (English), fusil-mitrailleur (fr.)
      1. +1
        30 August 2017 04: 23
        The Germans also called their 28-mm anti-tank gun a gun: 2,8 cm schwere Panzerbüchse 41

        Does it become a gun from this?
  8. +6
    29 August 2017 10: 05
    The author writes, I quote: "... The people who came up with this concept were the French. At the beginning of the 3th century, the French army was at the top of technological progress. First, self-loading rifles were adopted, and during World War I they equipped infantry with a new class of small arms - automatic rifles, which were mass-produced in France ... "- Are these Lebel rifles with an underbarrel magazine, the pinnacle of technological progress? Or the succeeding ones - the Bertier rifles and carbines with 1917 charging medium shops? Complete nonsense! Well, the French were able to acquire automatic rifles only in 1917, under the "curtain" of the First World War, and they did not become massive and could not become, as if Sergey Yuferev did not want this. These were automatic rifles of the RSC arr. XNUMX, Riberol-Satter-Shosh system. Dear and difficult to manufacture and operate, they did not become widespread, because they were produced in limited quantities and at the end of the war. And do not talk about the "French weapons genius" here. She was not there, and is not ...
    1. +3
      29 August 2017 11: 12
      Comrade fighter angel, I already wrote about French-French weapons in another forum thread!
      1. 0
        17 October 2017 14: 41
        Quote: burigaz2010
        Comrade fighter angel, I already wrote about French-French weapons in another forum thread!

        and the point is not where you once wrote, the point is in this article.
    2. 0
      24 September 2017 00: 27
      Leclerc the French still succeeded. hi
  9. +3
    29 August 2017 13: 17
    Drive the author in the neck with such topics. "A characteristic detail of this model was a huge open-type sector store, which was designed for only 20 unitary rifle cartridges 8x50 Lebel. "
    Unitary rifle cartridges - "this is a new word in science and technology."
  10. 0
    29 August 2017 15: 00
    The predecessor of all modern assault rifles is the Llis machine gun of the 1923 model of the year with a gas-powered reloading mechanism



    The successor of his work is the Akulin TKB-336 light machine gun of the 1942 model of the year



    A copy of the TKB-336 light machine gun in a smaller caliber - Zaitsev AK-47 assault rifle

    1. 0
      29 August 2017 15: 34
      Clarification - the Lewis-Akunin design at the 1946-48 competition of automatic machines for the intermediate cartridge 7,62x39 mm was first borrowed by Alexey Bulkin in his TKB-415 / AB-46

    2. +3
      29 August 2017 15: 49
      Quote: Operator
      Zaitsev AK-47 assault rifle

      enlighten pls your thought. And then I feel the smell of trolling.
      1. 0
        29 August 2017 19: 09
        Alexander Zaitsev, the leading weapons designer of the design bureau of the Kovrov Mechanical Plant in 1946-47, completely redesigned the AK-46 Kalashnikov assault rifle in the image and likeness of the Bulkin AB-46 assault rifle on command from the GAU of the USSR. The new machine under the title KBP-580 won the competition, but it was undeservingly assigned the name AK-47, not AZ-47

        http://www.mk.ru/social/2013/07/14/883678-zabyity
        iy-konstruktor-kalashnikova.html
        1. +4
          29 August 2017 19: 26
          And is it nothing that the "leading weapons designer" (in the MK article referred to only as "young budding") after leaving college he immediately went to the front, and after returning did not work as a designer for several months? That is, no practical knowledge except the ability to correctly execute design documentation did not know how?
          1. 0
            29 August 2017 19: 43
            And is it nothing that Alexander Zaitsev already in 1950 became the deputy chief, and in 1967 the head of the Special Design Bureau of the Kovrov Mechanical Plant?

            Alexander Zaitsev, unlike the collective farmer Kalashnikov with the formation of 7 classes in a rural school, graduated from the Kovrov Mechanical College in 1943 and went to the front as an army intelligence officer-radio operator, in 1946 after demobilization he entered the Department of the Chief Designer of the Kovrovsky Arms and Machine Gun Plant (from 1949 of the year Plant named after Degtyarev). From 1950 of the year until his retirement, he worked as the head of the KMZ SKB on defense topics, including automatic machine under the low-pulse cartridge SA-006, which in the competition surpassed the future AK-74 automatic machine by 1,19 times.

            http://kvrv.ru/history/istorija_v_licah/zaicev_al
            eksandr_alekseevich_konstruktor-oruzheinik /
            1. +6
              29 August 2017 21: 05
              Quote: Operator
              graduated from the Kovrov Mechanical College in 1943

              Browning with Schmeisser and Shpagin, who joined them, also did not graduate from the academy. By the 46 year, Kalashnikov already had developments in metal from a resource meter and a tank mass switch to a submachine gun, light machine gun and carbine. Sudayev’s school and the NIPSMVO weapon museum, in which he studied the material part. The source of information you have is very beautiful. Yellow like that. Does it hurt your eyes when you read it?
              1. 0
                29 August 2017 21: 11
                Nevertheless, AK-46, independently developed by Kalashnikov, miserably lost the first stage of the competition in the 1946 year, and the Zaitsev KBP-580 machine, the prototype of which was the Bulkin AB-46 machine, won the final stage of the competition in the 1948 year.

                Zaitsev did not need to reinvent the wheel - it was enough to skillfully bring to mind Bulkin's ready-made solution. In any case, Kalashnikov did not take part in the development of KBP-580 from the word at all.
                1. +4
                  29 August 2017 22: 04
                  Quote: Operator
                  Nevertheless, AK-46, independently developed by Kalashnikov, miserably lost the first stage of the competition in 1946,

                  Private opinion of the test director U.I. Pchelintsev "is not subject to refinement"
                  inserted into the original version of the report, was canceled by the chairman of the commission, Okhotnikov, since the rest of the samples had every right to receive the same conclusion on the number of failures. What do you call "fail miserably"? Pchelintsev himself later became a supporter of the Kalashnikov scheme.
                  Now about Bulkin. What are you rushing about with this Bulkin. It's not about the layout of the barrel, the magazine and the bolt, but at the LOCKING LOCK. In Bulkin, the shutter is fed with the bolt through the cross pin with an oblique angle, this leads to the phenomenon of mashing the shutter in the presence of dirt. A similar glitch in all arborny mechanisms.
                  In the Kalashnikov locking assembly, the shutter is fed with a transverse cut in the shutter frame. In addition, due to the design of the node, the shutter stroke during unlocking is approximately half the stroke of the shutter frame. This is the so-called straining of the sleeve, which until now cannot be realized in their pieces of iron by either Americans or Germans or Jews.
                  Compared to the locking unit developed by Kalashnikov, everything else is complete nonsense.
                  1. 0
                    29 August 2017 22: 17
                    The moving parts of the Zaitsevsky KBP-580 reloading mechanism (shutter and bolt frame) repeat Bulkin AB-46 one-on-one - see photo above.
                    With the exception of one detail: for the original AB-46, the frame and the shutter interact via a detachable pin, for the modified KBP -580 - through the protrusion in the shutter and the reciprocal cutout in the frame.

                    On the other hand, the mobile parts of the Kalashnikovsky AK-46 recharge mechanism did not lie next to the KBP-580 and AB-46 - see again the photo above.
                    1. +3
                      29 August 2017 23: 42
                      Quote: Operator
                      The moving parts of the Zaitsevsky KBP-580 reloading mechanism (shutter and bolt frame) repeat Bulkin AB-46 one-on-one - see photo above.


                      The Dunning-Krueger effect is detected.
                      1. 0
                        30 August 2017 00: 41
                        You are a humanist in life, definitely.
                  2. +1
                    31 August 2017 08: 19
                    "What are you rushing about with this Bulkin" - it’s just for people to find the first example of a Bulkin assault rifle from the 1944 contest ...
                2. +1
                  31 August 2017 08: 17
                  How funny - "with a bang" .... but nothing that the AK-46 was the only barrel that fully fulfilled the terms of reference of the competition?
                  1. 0
                    31 August 2017 17: 00
                    "The barrel was fulfilling the terms of reference" - how is it?
                    1. +1
                      31 August 2017 18: 05
                      And it’s just at least somehow familiarizing yourself with the history of contests for the creation of an armament complex under the 1943 model cartridge.
                      1. 0
                        31 August 2017 18: 11
                        Quote: mat-vey
                        like that

                        Clear laughing
                    2. 0
                      31 August 2017 19: 57
                      As the future showed - the AK-46 scheme was the most correct)
                      It is a pity that then Kalashnikov threw this layout
        2. +4
          29 August 2017 19: 32
          another fabulist zadolbali already with this fake! am
  11. 0
    31 August 2017 15: 38
    Quote: kugelblitz
    Most likely, in about ten years, the first samples of the pre-production 6,5 mm automatic weapon will appear, combining the range of a direct shot, a portable ammunition, energy, and accuracy.

    Are you talking about a machine gun or something?
  12. +1
    31 August 2017 18: 17
    Operator,
    This is also understandable as a "hare" with a capital letter ... You would still read Krylova ...
  13. 0
    1 September 2017 07: 55
    A very interesting article, but I thought that the Beetle is the pinnacle of information! But what was the original cartridge developed by Fedorov for his machine gun?
    1. 0
      1 September 2017 08: 45
      http://ww1.milua.org/bullets1916.htm - это для винтовки,а для "автомата" патрон 6,5х51sr .... "Арисака" с российским порохом ....
      1. 0
        1 September 2017 14: 12
        About Arisak’s cartridge, I know that it was a necessary measure, the cartridge was suitable in caliber and abundant, and the development and production of a new cartridge during the war was undesirable. So what was Fedorov’s new cartridge? Some of the characteristics have already been announced except for the length of the sleeve!
        1. 0
          1 September 2017 14: 30
          Once again - Fedorov’s automatic rifle and Fedorov’s “assault rifle” are different weapons for different tasks. There was no 6,5x51sr cartridge “forced measure”, it just allowed to make an assault from an automatic one .... But you mean you ignored the link ...
          1. 0
            2 September 2017 15: 15
            I’m sorry, there’s just no time, I’ll come by,
    2. +1
      1 September 2017 10: 07
      Here it is not necessary to roll on Alexander Borisovich! Do you even know when he worked on the Encyclopedia of Small Arms ??? Do not know? Then I will tell you: the end of the 90s - the beginning of the "zero" !!! How much time has passed ... much more archival material has opened up, other sources have become available. And by the way, he began work on a book about machine guns, but did not manage to finish and release it ... I urge you to respect this person! He is more than worthy of it. Nobody has created such a global small arms encyclopedia except him !!! Good memory to Alexander Borisovich. And to compare this "little article" with his works is like an ass with a finger! Sorry, but somehow like that ...
      1. +1
        1 September 2017 14: 19
        If you are talking about me, then in vain, his book, two volumes in one, my tabletop has revealed a lot to me about the history of weapons, but you must admit that the topic is truly inexhaustible and it is impossible for one author to cover everything, there’s always something new. you know what, thanks for the response.
  14. +1
    2 March 2018 05: 27
    Quote: bunta

    Compared to the locking unit developed by Kalashnikov, everything else is complete nonsense.


    Sorry, I'm about the locking node: and John Garand has nothing to do with it? love