Success in solving any problem depends on an understanding of what it is, what its complexity is and where you should be most afraid of mistakes. Today, the problem of the inconsistency of the structure of methods for assessing the protection and effectiveness of the defeat continues to exist. tanks new forms of warfare. The following methods were created back in the Soviet Union and have not been improved for a quarter century.
The existing methodology for assessing the protection and destruction of tanks is in a deep stagnation caused by the degradation of the school, which in Soviet times achieved some success in assessing the effectiveness of armaments based on studying the characteristics of target vulnerability. The question arises: how to solve this problem? The answer can be obtained using the requirements for the improvement of obsolete and the creation of modern techniques.
For example, the new “Methodology for assessing the protection and armament of a tank on a unified platform” should:
- have a mathematical apparatus to justify the feasibility of developing a promising tank with optimal tactical and technical characteristics in relation to the conditions of contactless wars;
- to provide recommendations on the localization of the impact of the enemy in our armored vehicles due to the achievement of high values of the characteristics of survivability, noise immunity, secrecy;
- to carry out a comparison of evaluations of competing options without conducting full-scale comparative tests;
- to predict the effectiveness of weapons promising tank, taking into account countermeasures of the enemy;
- take into account the contribution of group protection (short-range and short-range air defense systems) to increase the survivability of a promising tank.
If we take into account the cost of the armored vehicle and the long terms of its creation, then the importance of solving this problem is obvious.
Fifteen years ago, Valery Grigoryan, General Director of the Research Institute of Steel, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of the RARAN, noted: “Only a comprehensive account of all factors affecting the protection and survivability of a tank, including common ones, allows us to satisfy modern requirements. A mathematical apparatus is needed on a new methodological basis, which would allow to compare the types of protection and layouts under consideration, taking into account a large number of both dimensionally and dimensionless criteria. ”
US RESPONSE TO RUSSIAN MARKET IN TANK CONSTRUCTION
The additional need to improve the methodology for assessing the protection and destruction of tanks is due to the next stage of the modernization of the American Abrams under the ECP1 program (Engineering Change Proposal 1 - Proposals for changing the design of 1). The serial production of the Abrams began in 1980. Since then, the machine has been repeatedly upgraded, which temporarily increased its combat performance. But by 2009, the modernization potential in the limited internal volume of the tank was almost exhausted. It was necessary to fundamentally change the technical modernization policy by constructively re-arranging the internal equipment with the replacement of the old one, which led to a decrease in the reserve space, an increase in the tank mass and deterioration of maneuverability. In connection with the high armor penetration and effective armored action of the Russian ATGM (Kornets, Chrysanthemums, Hermes), the Americans found it difficult to increase the security of vulnerable units in the armored volume.
Thanks to American technology to dramatically reduce the size of electronic and other devices, it became possible to rearrange the internal equipment to ensure the security of the units that increase the survivability of the Abrams. The Americans chose the path of modernization under the ECP1 program on the basis of the М1 and М1А1 tanks available at the storage bases. But those who are in service with the M1А2 are not going to upgrade. The weight of the Abrams ECP1 will be reduced from 62 to 55 T. The new model will have: an automatic loader, a diesel engine, a smooth-bore gun with the possibility of launching rockets. The US Army Command expected to start small-scale production of the Abrams, upgraded under the ECP1 program in 2017. It is planned that the upgraded tanks will remain in operation until the 2050 year, and, corresponding to the new forms of hostilities, will soon begin to creep near our borders. It can be assumed that the modernization of the Abrams under the ECP1 program is an attempt to respond to the creation of the Russian Armata.
SOVIET TECHNIQUES IS A PAST CENTURY
In the Soviet Union, methodologies were created to assess the protection and effectiveness of tank armaments: “Methodology for determining the integrated indicator of the military technical level of armored facilities” (developed by VNIITransmash at the end of the 70); “Methods for analyzing the survivability of armored vehicles when firing various anti-tank weapons” (developed by VNIITransmash in the middle of the 80); “Methodology for the integrated assessment of the effectiveness of the ATGM warhead taking into account the overcoming of the DZ” (the developers are TsNIItochmash, TsNIIHM and the 42261 military unit in the 1984 year); “The method of experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of overcoming dynamic protection, armor penetration and parameters of the armor-based anti-tank warheads at the stages of preliminary and state tests” (developers - TsNIItochmash, TsNIIHM, military unit 42261 in 1986).
For the organization of a unified approach in assessing the destruction of foreign tanks, a "Baseline data system on the characteristics of the vulnerability of typical elementary ground armored targets and the effect of anti-tank ammunition (SID-83-PTB, 1983 year)" was developed. Since many defense and defense organizations and the Ministry of Defense participated in creating anti-tank ammunition, SID disciplined all participants, avoiding arbitrary changes and interpretations of the Abrams' vulnerability characteristics. SID, being an interdisciplinary document, was approved by the leadership of the Ministry of Defense and defense enterprises. The presence of LEDs in conjunction with the “Methodology for the integrated assessment of the effectiveness of the AF missile warhead taking into account the overcoming of the DZ” made it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the guided weapons of our tanks. Taking into account that the small-batch production of the Abrams ESP1 is scheduled to start in 2017, the revision of the LED should be accelerated with the inclusion of the vulnerability characteristics of DZ, KAZ and other devices of this tank. In general, a more thorough study of the characteristics of the vulnerability of foreign armored vehicles is required.
For the experimental testing of ATGM and other munitions with tandem warheads, as well as BPS, a “Guidance document was created. The composition of complex barriers for assessing the armor-piercing effect of anti-tank ammunition (RD 401.1. 6-454-85) ”(developed by the Research Institute of Steel in 1985). Today, the taxiway is hopelessly outdated, and all of its shortcomings in DZ and multi-layer frontal protection simulators of foreign tanks are well known. Requires the creation of a new taxiway for frontal protection simulators, as well as protection of the roof and bottom of the "Abrams" ESR1. It is necessary to organize the earliest manufacture of simulators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of ammunition shells of the latest Russian tank.
STRUCTURE OF SOVIET TECHNIQUES
"The method of determining the complex indicator of the military-technical level of the tank" is not a simulation model in which the process of defeating an armored vehicle is played by various anti-tank weapons. This technique is applicable at the stage of research to form the appearance of a new tank with the corresponding main combat and operational characteristics. The complex indicator of the military-technical level (KVTU) of an armored vehicle is determined by multiplying the indices of firepower (К0), protection (CG), mobility (KP) and operational capabilities (EC), that is, KVTU = K0хКЗХКХКЭ. This method based on the calculation and comparison of the KVTU of domestic and foreign armored vehicles allows to establish the advantages of a particular machine. But the significant difference in KVTU estimates of the former head of GABTU, Colonel-General Vladislav Polonsky and VNIITransmash Director General Viktor Stepanov (tab. 1) is alarming. Thus, V. Stepanov compared with V. Polonsky's estimates for the KVTU T-90 KVTU is one and a half times less, and for the M1XNNXX tank almost two times less (HBT No. 2 for 37 a year).
Not so long ago, one of the leaders of a well-known defense enterprise announced the addition of the fifth indicator - “command manageability”. At the same time, he noted that special emphasis was placed on "increasing security and survivability." It should be noted that in the methodology the indicator of security (CC) is present, but survivability somehow remains on the sidelines. Let's try to deal with it.
Vitality is the property of a new tank to maintain combat capability, that is, the ability to perform its functions during combat damage. In other words, the tank must have a high degree of protection in order to preserve “mobility” and “firing” in order to ensure its high survivability. The question arises: what can be characterized by vitality in relation to a new tank? What is a fairly representative criterion of survivability can be used in modern conditions? In this case, the vitality has a greater effect on the sample efficiency than all other characteristics.
The values of the characteristics of survivability of our tanks will be determined by the zone of use of foreign anti-tank weapons and their parameters of the damaging effect. Foreign ammunition operating in operational, tactical and combat contact areas have different armor penetration and different armor action. For this reason, the value of survivability of the newest armored vehicles will be different and correspond to the used ammunition in different zones.
You can find answers to questions on the state of survivability of tanks using the “Methods for analyzing the survivability of armored vehicles when firing various anti-tank weapons”, created under the guidance of Anatoly Komyazhenko, a VNIITransmash employee, candidate of technical sciences. He fully comprehended the potential capabilities of Soviet tanks, improving his knowledge by participating in tank “races” for thousands of kilometers in unfavorable climatic zones of the North and deserts of the South. The technique allows to solve the problem of protecting tanks using mathematical modeling, which is a tool for analyzing the survivability of an object during a shelling based on an assessment of probabilistic indicators of invulnerability, evasion and recoverability of the vehicle.
Under the influence of a foreign anti-tank ammunition on our tank of a new project, the probability of its survivability (RJ) is determined by the difference between the probability of full preservation of "firing" and "mobility" equal to "1" minus the probability value (RU) obtained by simulating a tank defeat by criterion loss of "fire" and "progress", that is, РЖ = 1 - РУ. So, for example, if when modeling a shelling with an armor-piercing piercing projectile (armor penetration - 300 mm / 60 degrees) of the frontal zones of the new tank, the probability of its being hit by 0,3 according to the loss of “fire” and “stroke” criterion was obtained, then RC = 0,7. This is an acceptable result.
The applied mathematical apparatus of the method serves to search, select and substantiate the most effective variants of constructive and layout solutions of an armored vehicle, as well as the composition and characteristics of its integrated protection systems. The structural scheme of the technique is presented in Fig. 1. In the course of modeling the processes of hitting, penetration, and defeat, the technique allows us to consider the functioning of various protective devices, including complex combined systems with active and dynamic protection, and also to take into account dynamic loads. At each stage of impact, a range of indicators characterizing the processes of entry, penetration, destruction, the state of operability of the armored vehicle systems and the complexity of its recovery is determined.
In modeling, an object is represented as a complex system with a complex of functional properties, each of which is described by a corresponding operating scheme, including crew and components (instruments, nodes, units, systems). The loss of a property is a consequence of the defeat of one or more elements (including the crew) that provide this property. In turn, the defeat of the internal elements of the equipment of bronzegli depends on many factors accompanying the impact of anti-tank weapons. At the same time, the technique allows analyzing arbitrarily complex functional states of the health of the armored vehicle and its individual subsystems. In general, the method allows to determine the composition of the internal units that ensure the survivability of tanks. In other words, this technique allows you to determine the values of RP in a wide range of combat conditions.
Computer simulation modeling provides experimental conditions for studying the destruction of a target using the “Methodology for the integrated assessment of warhead missiles, taking into account overcoming remote sensing” (Fig. 2), which allows us to solve problems of justifying the characteristics of promising anti-tank weapons. On the basis of the initial data, the stages of destruction are modeled: shooting, interaction of the ammunition with armor protection, early action. At the stage of interaction with armored protection, the conditions for entering the ammunition into it are determined, and the possibility of the external equipment being damaged by this ammunition is also taken into account. Zabronevy action includes an assessment of the impact of the residual part of the cumulative jet, or the remnants of the body of an armor-piercing sub-caliber projectile and fragments of armor on the crew and the internal equipment of the bronzesels.
What does a tank look like in an imitation model? The body of the tank is represented by a set of hexagon elements that have the faces of irregular flat quadrangles. Internal units are represented in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds, given by the values of the thickness of equivalents, characterizing their vulnerability and shielding properties in relation to the action of the residual part of the cumulative jet penetrating into the tank or fragments of an armor-piercing projectile. For a quantitative assessment of the impact of the defeat of various internal units on the combat properties of armor are used a functional diagram reflecting the relationship between the units that provide these properties. Firepower, for example, is represented by a functional circuit, which includes elements of loading, guidance, fire control, as well as the commander, gunner, etc. A simulation model allows you to determine the internal units of the armored vehicle, due to which one or another type of damage is achieved.
But computer simulation is not a rescue from all evils. In this case, what you put into the computer, you will get. In other words, the computer needs reliable initial data on the protection of the Abrams upgraded according to the ЕРХNUMX program to assess the effectiveness of the anti-tank ammunition of the ammunition of our new tank.
The line of new Russian armored vehicles is being created in the period of a high level of development of foreign technologies of reconnaissance, targeting and delivering small-sized with low radar visibility of guided anti-tank weapons operating on long-distance approaches. These foreign technologies negatively affect the most important characteristics of the secrecy, noise immunity and survivability of the tank.
Stealth is the property of the sample not to be detected by the enemy’s intelligence equipment, determined by the state of the tank (column on the march, armored vehicles in the shelter, tank dimensions and the reflecting properties of its surface). Own protection system, which counteracts detection, does not allow making a new tank completely radio-invisible. It is possible only to reduce the likelihood of its detection by foreign reconnaissance means, if the tank is covered with materials that absorb (weaken) the intensity of the dissipation of electromagnetic energy, or to apply low-reflecting forms of the hull and towers. In the conditions of the sixth generation of wars, foreign reconnaissance-strike combat systems (RUB) use the coordinates of the location of moving tanks, determined with the help of optical and radar reconnaissance satellites, as well as DRLO aircraft. Unfortunately, the process of detecting the Armat column by foreign reconnaissance satellites remains unaddressed. But with the help of domestic reconnaissance satellites and DRLO planes, it is time to test the protection of the newest armored vehicles from the radio-visibility.
In this case, the position of the GABTU on the continuation of a negative attitude towards the most important task of detecting tanks by DRLO planes and US and NATO intelligence satellites, which have enhanced detection characteristics, is not clear. Thus, American radar reconnaissance satellites are able to determine the image of the terrain with a resolution of several tens of centimeters in the dark and with dense clouds. At the same time, the increase in the capabilities of the equipment of American optical reconnaissance satellites makes it possible to ensure resolution of the order of 10 – 15, see the detailed survey of the earth’s surface in the daytime.
The available information on the Krasuha-4 complex, which is effective in countering Lacrosse electronic intelligence satellites (USA), gives us hope for the secrecy of our new armored vehicles, but American optical reconnaissance satellites remain without suppression.
Immunity - the ability to perform combat functions in the conditions of creating interference by the enemy. This property is important for radar, radio systems and other electronics operating in the tank. Evaluation of noise immunity is characterized by the probability of normal functioning of the tank’s electronic equipment under conditions of deliberate interference of the enemy. The enemy in the conditions of EW will carry out electronic suppression (REP) of electronics installed on our tanks. In this situation, the domestic electronic protection (REZ), which is a combination of methods and means ensuring the stable operation of the electronics of our tanks under the influence of the enemy's electronic equipment, must act.
In NATO, to suppress the electronics of our tanks and other equipment of the Ground Forces in combat, there are special units and units that are armed with radio intelligence, active and passive radio-electronic interference, anti-radar missiles, devices for using false targets, radar, thermal and optical masking devices. At the same time, the microwave is actively developing abroad.weapons. Installations microwave weapons are created in mobile versions, based on cars and armored personnel carriers, as well as installed on airplanes and helicopters. Particularly noteworthy are samples of microwave weapons developed by Americans, such as electromagnetic bombs (EMB), which were used in military operations. It was quite difficult to develop a device with a length of less than 3,5 m. The Americans achieved that the new EMB has a length of 1,5 m and a diameter of 0,15 m. Microwave weapons can have a disastrous effect on the electronics of the latest domestic development of armored vehicles, damaging and destroying electronic circuits even then when they are off. This should not be forgotten.
INFORMATION TO THOUGHT
When creating new armored vehicles for non-contact warfare (see NVO No. 32 for 2012), it should be borne in mind that the development of foreign long-range highly effective anti-tank weapons necessitates the strengthening of group (GZ) and collective (KZ) protection of our tank units. Short-range and short-range missiles use short-range and medium-range anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM). It should be recalled that promising foreign aviation ATGMs allow enemy planes and helicopters not to enter the zone of our air defense group defense. In this case, even the latest short-range air defense systems are ready to ensure the defense of the tank brigade not only from carriers of anti-tank weapons (aircraft and helicopters), but also from long-range small-sized guided anti-tank ammunition of the enemy? At the same time, new techniques are needed that can assess the impact of group and collective defense of promising tanks on their survivability (see NVO No. 47 for 2015).
There is a need for the following techniques:
- “Methods of checking secrecy in typical combat situations of detecting a column of armored vehicles by US and NATO optical and radar reconnaissance satellites”;
- “Method of testing the noise immunity of the electronics of the newest tank from the effects of electronic means of suppressing the enemy”;
- “Methods for assessing the survivability of the tank under the influence of NATO anti-tank weapons”;
- “Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of a tank’s missile-artillery armament”;
- "Methodology for assessing the contribution of group protection to increase the survivability of the tank."
Today, the T-90С tanks have a tandem DZ Relikt installed, and a tandem DZ, significantly superior to Relikt, is installed in the samples of the latest development. Existing foreign ATGM with tandem warheads "HOT-2T", "Milan-2T", "Hellfire", "Javelin", "Spike-ER", "Brimstone" and others are not able to overcome the tandem DZ our tanks. But we must not forget that foreign ammunition 25 years ago created a version of a tandem remote sensing. It is strange that our Ministry of Defense and design bureaus did not react to this event. Therefore, our ammunition should succeed in the creation of an anti-tank missile system, overcoming the tandem DZ of foreign tanks. In this case, the ATGM variant with two leading charges (LZ) is inexpedient due to an increase in the length of the rocket and a decrease in the operational reliability of the warhead. There is an option to overcome the tandem remote sensing in the presence of a single shot-out LZ at a tandem warhead that can undermine two explosive layers of explosives. At the same time, as experimentally established, LZ should have armor penetration of the order of 400 mm (see “NVO” No. 45 for 2011 year).
The lack of an analogue to modern foreign BPS for conducting State tests on the evaluation of armor protection "Almaty" is alarming. Our THEM is not capable of reproducing an analogue of the German BPS DM63 (the core material is tungsten alloy, armor penetration - 350 mm / 60 degrees). In other words, there is no analogue of a foreign BPS for checking the body armor of a new tank. At the same time, it must be assumed that for him and all Russian anti-tank weapons the typical targets of М1А2 SEP in SID should be added to the characteristics of the vulnerability of МХNUMXА1 tank, which was upgraded according to the ESR1 program and has increased survivability.
It is obvious that the presented analysis of the shortcomings of the methods and accompanying documents does not cover all aspects of the problem concerned. But there is no doubt that specialists at a higher level will deal with the elimination of deficiencies and the creation of new methods.
How to assess the degree of protection and the probability of hitting tanks
- Mikhail Rastopshin