Military Review

“The first was bought by our patent Steve Jobs”

38
“The first was bought by our patent Steve Jobs”“A laser installation on ships will reduce transportation costs along the Northern Sea Route and when developing the Arctic shelf. For transportation in the Kara Sea instead of three nuclear-powered icebreakers of the Arktika type and two Taimyr types, three ice-breakers with a laser complex will be enough, ”one of the creators of the laser equipment for icebreakers Sergey Popov told THE VIEW newspaper.


In November of this year, sea trials will begin on the Dikson icebreaker, a unique laser facility for breaking ice, developed at the National Center for Laser Systems and Complexes (NCLSC) Astrophysics (part of the Shvabe holding of the Rostec State Corporation) together with scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of St. Petersburg.

What attitude does Steve Jobs and his “iPhone” have to do with laser technology developed in Russia, how the creators of this laser persuaded skeptics who do not believe in the possibility of laser prickling the ice, and how these technologies can save from floods and oil spills, told the VZGLYAD newspaper first Deputy Director General for R & D and Innovative Development of Shvabe Holding, Dr. Sc., Associate Professor Sergey Popov.

QUESTION: How did such an idea come about - to create a laser unit for cutting ice?

Sergey Popov: It all started in 2011, when a television report showed an operation in the Arctic to free a ship from ice captivity by two of the most powerful icebreakers. And together with scientists and laser engineers from Astrophysics NTsLSK, we thought how to make the development of the Arctic more efficient with a laser. How to help ensure uninterrupted transportation of minerals and supply of equipment for their extraction in the harsh climatic conditions of the Arctic Ocean?

The prototype of the idea of ​​cutting ice with a laser can be called the technology previously developed by us, which almost everyone now uses. But few people know that this is a domestic technology. The first to notice this invention and bought our patent is Steve Jobs. Now

All screens on the "iPhone" and "Aipad" are cut using our method and equipment. We use this invention for industry, and Steve Jobs - for the mass consumer.

We are talking about the invention of the company "Sapphire" (now it is "Shvabe - Photosystem") in conjunction with the Institute of Thermal Engineering of the method of controlled laser thermal cracking of fragile materials. Prior to this, the screen for smartphones and telephones was cut out with the help of a diamond wheel, but this method produced a seam, the screen borders required grinding, and this is a rather laborious work.

We invented another technology: local points are heated by a laser, small lines are formed on the glass, and then a coolant (water-air mixture or nitrogen, for example) is superimposed on the heated surface. As a result of rapid heating and rapid cooling cracks of small dimensions occur. This method allows you to manage the process of cutting glass and get a seamless screen for your smartphone. In addition, it allows you to remove an edge of 0,5 mm or even less, which makes the cut glass more durable. And it can be not only the screen of a smartphone, but also sapphire or other fragile materials.

LOOK: And how does this technology work when cutting ice? Probably one of the drawbacks - the need for enormous power for the operation of a laser machine when cutting ice?

S. P.: Many people really think that it is impossible to cut ice with a laser because of the low thermal conductivity of ice, the conversion of water into steam, and other factors. Rather, it is possible, but in order to cut the ice the thickness of the entire 20 cm, it will be necessary to spend such power as two power plants produce. In fact, this is how to cut glass with a hacksaw: a lot of energy has been expended, but there is little confusion. How is glass cut at home? A diamond or a glass cutter disc, passing over the surface of the glass, leaves a scratch from which a crack is born. To cut glass with a thickness of 5 mm, a crack in 0,05 mm is sufficient. Ice splitting technology is similar to glass cutting technology.

In order, for example, to cut sapphire or glass for a smartphone screen using laser thermal splitting, the laser power must be just 20 – 200 Watts. This is an ordinary light bulb. Therefore, to cut the ice, not so much power is required.

Another important point for understanding technology. How is overcoming the ice obstacles now? Icebreaker picks up speed and its gravity with the wedge shape of the bow breaks through and pushes the ice.

The essence of the invention is that

ice is incised by a laser beam, like a glass cutter, in those places where stress concentration points occur, along which ice breaks.

To do this, we do not need to cut all the ice like a glass with a hacksaw; it only needs to be cut like a glass cutter into one tenth of the thickness of the ice. Therefore, the laser machine does not need much power. Optical design and laser head making is an art. Our know-how is to form the beam of rays that will cut the ice at a given distance from the icebreaker.

VIEW: What tests have already been carried out, what difficulties have you encountered, what do you expect from the first open-water test in Arctic conditions, which is planned to be held in November?

S. P.: At first we modeled this method mathematically. Then he conducted experiments with ice frozen in a refrigerator from ordinary water. He pricks without problems. But a number of scientists objected: salt water freezes in the northern seas, therefore there are splashes of water in the ice. This is the so-called pack (non-uniform) ice.

Therefore, to demonstrate the effects obtained, we invited scientists and practitioners from more than 20 organizations and conducted an experiment with a pack ice from salt water as a video. We have demonstrated to everyone that low-power laser radiation is capable of breaking ice of a meter thickness.

Six months later, we completed this technology at the St. Petersburg Central Research Institute. Academician A. N. Krylov. There is a large pool to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of models of vessels up to 3 meters in length, where you can create ice conditions. And an experiment was conducted with a laser installation on a model of an icebreaker at a reduced scale. The result also turned out to be positive.

VIEW: At what depth did the ice break?

S. P.: At a distance of 10 meters from the vessel, pack ice is one meter thick. More have not tried.

VIEW: And where will be the laser installation on the ship?

PS: For some reason, everyone thinks that the laser system should be on the bow of the ship. In fact, it can be anywhere. It can be mounted on the upper deck or inside. And the laser radiation is transmitted over a fiber optic cable of large diameter.

VIEW: In November, you plan to conduct tests in the winter navigation on the Dixon icebreaker with a laser installation. What concerns are the real challenges?

S. P.: There are many of them, and for this we need a full-scale experiment. For example, from the icebreaker are vibrations. Ideally, the laser beam goes in a straight line, but in practice, if the source on which the laser is mounted vibrates, then we can get another picture. We tried to take into account the vibration mathematically, came up with a gyrostabilization of the laser head. Gyrostabilization is generally our strong point, we can do it. Not the fact that in practice everything will be one to one as in theory. Therefore, I can not say that tomorrow it will work. But in that it will work, I am sure. It is just necessary to test and modify in practice.

VIEW: What is the practical significance of such a laser installation? Is it announced that it will increase the ice passability and icebreaker class?

S. P.: The icebreaker "Arktika" can overcome the ice 3,5 depth meters, because it has a powerful power plant and a huge mass. And there are small vessels that can pass the ice with a depth of no more than 1 meter. But with the help of a laser system, they will be able to overcome the ice depth as far as 1,5 – 2 meters without special load. Formally, the ship's class rises. The icebreaker will not become harder and more powerful from this, but its ability to overcome the ice field will increase.

VIEW: The state in the framework of the State Program for the Development of the Arctic is investing huge sums in the construction of expensive powerful icebreakers. But if the laser system can increase the class of the icebreaker, then maybe such expensive ones are not needed anymore, there are enough small class icebreakers?

S. P.: An interesting question. I think that large vessels of the class "Arctic" will still be needed. Despite the high level of scientific forecasting, it is not always possible to calculate the depth and movement of the ice field until the end. Periodically, the ice still clamps the vessels. For example, on the way of an icebreaker with ice penetration depth up to 1,5 meters thicker ice appeared, to release him from the ice captivity it is necessary to organize an expensive rescue expedition. And the presence of such a laser system will help the icebreaker to maintain permeability in more severe weather conditions than meteorologists have calculated, which will reduce the number of rescue operations.

According to economic calculations, a laser installation on ships will reduce transportation costs along the Northern Sea Route and in the development of the Arctic shelf. For example, they considered that instead of three nuclear-powered icebreakers of the “Arctic” type and two nuclear-powered icebreakers of the Taimyr type, three icebreakers with a laser complex would be enough for transportation in the Kara Sea. That is, instead of huge icebreakers, there will be enough smaller class icebreakers. Our technology will help to quickly implement the tasks set by the state: to increase the season of ship transportation along the Northern Sea Route, make it year-round, and increase the freight turnover.

VIEW: Are there any other ways to apply this technology?

S. P.: We have directly “squeezed” another development out of the same laser. Based on the same laser, another idea emerged for new development. It helps to quickly deal with oil spills on water. Oil film now collect special equipment. In the Gulf of Mexico, spilled oil was attempted to be collected in various ways over a long period of time, due to which enormous damage was done to nature, many fish, marine animals and birds were killed. And using a laser system to solve this problem can be much faster.

We carried out pilot tests with small oil spills - you can remove several hundred square meters of oil pollution per hour.

The laser beam is directed to the spot and focuses just below the surface of the water, then the oil spot lights up and rises with the steam. Steam-water mixture burns with almost no residue. Combustion products are minimal. Environmentally it is safe: nothing happens under the surface of the water. This technology is developed and patented.

There are pessimists who believe that if a large area of ​​spilled oil is scorched in this way, then an oil cloud will turn out. But you just need to find a middle ground so that the oil on the water burned manageably. And for this we need practical tests.

We showed this development to oilmen. They ask for the finished product. But the finished product requires investment, and this is only the development.

Another of our inventions can help flood control. There are many northern rivers in Russia, and each spring the ice thaws in their mouths later than in the southern latitudes, floods occur. To prevent them, the Ministry of Emergency Situations conducts ice blasting measures using aviation, as well as specialists in this field to crush the ice field and raise the water level. These are not the most environmentally friendly and safe methods of control for marine life.

VIEW: There are already potential customers of laser systems?

S. P.: At least two customers are available. This is the Northern Shipping Company (this organization will provide an icebreaker for full-scale tests in November), as well as the Ministry of Emergency Situations.

After the presentation of the laser machine at a conference on flood control, representatives of the Emergencies Ministry, as well as the government of the Yakutsk region, expressed interest in this development. At present, the stage of scientific research on all three inventions has been completed, but there is no mass production yet. It is necessary to complete the development phase.

VIEW: Is there an export potential?

S. P.: After carrying out experiments at the Institute named after academician A.P. Krylov project was nominated in 2013 year for the competition in Geneva, where he was awarded the gold medal of the International Innovation Salon Inventions Geneva. At the same event, representatives of the Canadian company became interested in the development. In Canada, ice conditions are very similar. However, after the introduction of sanctions, interaction ceased.

In 2017, representatives of the People’s Republic of China also became interested in the project.

VIEW: How many have already passed from the beginning of the idea?

S. P.: The idea originated in 2011 and was patented in 2012 by our company NTsLSK Astrophysics. Since then, we are gradually implementing this innovative project.

VIEW: Not enough funding? As part of the state program, funds were allocated ...

S. P.: The money allocated for scientific research is not enough. And since the success of this project was doubted by many, the funds allocated were only enough for modeling.

VIEW: Now believe?

S. P.: Believe. But now we are talking about the development work, practical tests, requiring new tools. While we are trying to find money from different sources. Due to the fact that funds are allocated from disparate channels, we can not do it all right away. Now we are trying to join the program of development of maritime transport to 2030 year and enter the program of development of the Arctic as a separate segment.

VIEW: How much money is needed to bring the project of a laser machine for icebreakers and two other laser projects to mass production?
S. P.: This is not a cheap pleasure, but the amounts are far from transcendental. We are talking about several hundred million rubles for an icebreaking project, and about the same amount is needed for two other projects - to remove oil stains on the water and to destroy ice in the mouths of northern rivers to reduce the risk of flooding. And then within one or two years we could bring all three projects to a commercial product.

VIEW: How much will the finished product cost?

S. P.: Not ready to say exactly. But it will most likely be tens of millions of rubles. A laser machine for an icebreaker, which will raise its ice class, will cost only about 5% of the icebreaker cost.
Author:
Originator:
https://vz.ru/economy/2017/8/14/879470.html
38 comments
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  1. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 20 August 2017 16: 05
    +3
    "Engineer Hyperboloid Garin" in the XXI century.
    1. Titsen
      Titsen 21 August 2017 10: 05
      +1
      Quote: 16112014nk
      "Engineer Hyperboloid Garin" in the XXI century.


      Rather, "CUTTING THE BUBBLE BOTTLE", and not "The Engineer Hyperboloid Garin"!
      1. 16112014nk
        16112014nk 21 August 2017 14: 15
        0
        Both versions have a right to exist. 50 to 50.
  2. Karen
    Karen 20 August 2017 16: 09
    +3
    Well, the “iPhone” we have shown in the Union in the BTR-31. "Cross" on the display - a shot will follow at the specified address from the desired machine; "zero" was still there, and more scrawl with meaning.
  3. ved_med12
    ved_med12 20 August 2017 16: 27
    +5
    I have two questions.
    First, how will the laser cover the snow cover that certainly exists above the ice?
    And second, the laser melts the ice and converts it into water. which, in turn, in the conditions of the Arctic will immediately turn back into ice ...
    1. Ilya_Nsk
      Ilya_Nsk 21 August 2017 11: 27
      +3
      The laser is most likely a pulsed one. The strength of the pulse is such that the ice, bypassing the liquid phase, will immediately turn into steam, and even into plasma .. The vapor pressure will be high enough that will facilitate the removal of the liquid phase (which will be all too soon) and, most likely, the demolition of the cover. .
      1. ved_med12
        ved_med12 21 August 2017 17: 05
        +1
        ATP, there are people! sensibly lucidly explained everything!
      2. brn521
        brn521 22 August 2017 10: 43
        0
        Quote: Ilya_Nsk
        The laser is most likely a pulsed one. The strength of the pulse is such that the ice, bypassing the liquid phase, will immediately pass into steam, or even into plasma.

        I have a strong suspicion that such a laser will be cooler than those that drones are now knocking down on drills. It is about melting, or at least overheating. But so that ice is in steam, and even at a distance - it's overkill. I think the matter is much simpler - weakening the strength of the ice cover. Let's say a ship with a 2-meter-thick ice will be able to overcome a solid ice class with a capacity of 1,5 m by cutting ice before breaking it.
  4. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 20 August 2017 17: 49
    0
    Quote: ved_med12
    I have two questions.
    First, how will the laser cover the snow cover that certainly exists above the ice?
    And second, the laser melts the ice and converts it into water. which, in turn, in the conditions of the Arctic will immediately turn back into ice ...


    There is such a thing as "thermal inertia." Ice simply will not have time to freeze. Have you ever cut glass? Here the same principle, click and you're done!
    1. ved_med12
      ved_med12 20 August 2017 19: 08
      +2
      The most interesting thing is that I really had to cut glass repeatedly. But not the point ...
      As I understand it, the ice will be “loaded” first, and then an “incision” will be made ... Otherwise, at an ambient temperature of -30 and about the same ice temperature, the freezing speed will be almost instantaneous ...
      The tongue freezes to metal already at minus 15 ...
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 21 August 2017 06: 52
        +2
        Quote: ved_med12
        The tongue freezes to metal already at minus 15 ...

        Earlier, believe from personal experience .... laughing
  5. vlad007
    vlad007 20 August 2017 18: 45
    +2
    In 2011, an idea arose, in 2012 it was patented and there are still no practical results - some experiments. Everything is very slowly being done.
    1. Ilya_Nsk
      Ilya_Nsk 21 August 2017 11: 29
      0
      some things must "mature" .. From squeaks to Kalashnikov hundreds of years, at least one principle ..
      1. Paranoid50
        Paranoid50 24 August 2017 21: 40
        +1
        Quote: Ilya_Nsk
        some things need to "mature."

        Damn it, I recall the topic of seven years ago, when we scoffed at Matvienko, who suggested in St. Petersburg "to knock down the icicles from the roofs with a laser." yes
        1. zhekazs
          zhekazs 26 August 2017 23: 07
          +1
          And it was just in the 11th or 12th year, maybe these guys went to the dam and tried to advance their project at the very beginning of their development. There really was a lot of laughter then ... Although somehow it is doubtful all with this laser.
  6. Self
    Self 20 August 2017 19: 10
    +2
    Quote: ved_med12

    1
    ved_med12 Today, 16:27 New
    I have two questions.
    First, how will the laser cover the snow cover that certainly exists above the ice?
    And second, the laser melts the ice and converts it into water. which, in turn, in the conditions of the Arctic will immediately turn back into ice ...

    In the first case, by focusing the beam under the snow cover, since there are no corners and bushes in the sea, the layer is uniform. Secondly, well, you read the text, or what? A laser does not melt ice. It only cuts ice into 1 / 10-1 / 20 thickness. Further, the icebreaker itself breaks it. But since it is much easier to break incised ice, so “weak” icebreakers will cope with thicker ice that would not be available to them without a laser.
    1. ved_med12
      ved_med12 20 August 2017 20: 01
      +1
      "The laser does not melt ice" ... Sorry, but what does he do with it? Not mechanically, does he “process” it with a milling cutter? When they do deep drilling in permafrost so that the cutter does not harden, they add kerosene, which forms an emulsion and does not allow water to crystallize ...
      1. Self
        Self 20 August 2017 23: 32
        +2
        For those who do not like to read, but love to argue without understanding. Brief squeeze from the article. ".. local points are heated by the laser ... as a result of sudden heating and sudden cooling, a small crack appears." As you can see, there is nothing to do with thermal melting by heating the surface of the ice. In this case, just a line of small cracks.
    2. Alceers
      Alceers 20 August 2017 22: 31
      +2
      Quote: Self
      In the first case, by focusing the beam under the snow cover, since there are no corners and bushes in the sea, the layer is uniform.

      You are carrying nonsense. God forbid the ice in the picture google "ice keels, hummocks and hummocks, as well as the movement of pack ice ... And it will be clear that this method is complete nonsense
      1. Self
        Self 20 August 2017 23: 24
        +5
        Rather, you are nonsense, trying to challenge the method, which has already passed even the test stage. People already in November mount the installation on an icebreaker, and you repeat like a mantra "it is clear that this method is complete nonsense."
  7. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 20 August 2017 19: 52
    0
    China does not need to sell development, then you’ll bite your elbows yourself.
  8. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 20 August 2017 20: 58
    +1
    I am very wary of "innovative projects." And with “Schwabe” dealt a couple of years ago, left a vile impression.
    1. forty-eighth
      forty-eighth 21 August 2017 11: 22
      +1
      I agree that the Swabian telescope generally had to be manually selected and given to specialists for calibration and adjustment.
  9. rehev931
    rehev931 20 August 2017 21: 41
    +1
    as I understand it, the laser creates a critical voltage region in the ice, along which, under the pressure of the icebreaker’s hull, breakdowns occur
  10. Vladimir SHajkin
    Vladimir SHajkin 21 August 2017 00: 00
    +2
    I was in 4 poles, if this experiment is confirmed by full-scale tests, I will only be glad for our scientists.
    I would like to introduce.
  11. Normal ok
    Normal ok 21 August 2017 01: 28
    +3
    Bravo!!!! Really: can own Platonians and fast mind Nevtonov and Russian land give birth. These are real people who are doing the real thing. And not shit Rogozin. And not gavnosrach about Ukrainians. Once again, Bravo!
  12. Mar.Tirah
    Mar.Tirah 21 August 2017 05: 21
    +1
    There is such a thing as "thermal inertia." Ice simply will not have time to freeze. Have you ever cut glass? Here the same principle, click and done! [/ Quote]
    I spent most of my life in the ice. The temperature of air, water, and the wind create such conditions that literally behind the stern it starts to solder IMMEDIATELY !!!!!! In such ice, an icebreaker, or an ice class vessel, carries a dry cargo ship, with a rigid coupling I will say this about the laser. One offers the product, the other takes it. In the conditions of our economy and mentality, this number will not work. I do not consider the comparison of glass and ice to be correct. And if you think that ice is a glass surface, you are mistaken .
    1. brn521
      brn521 21 August 2017 09: 52
      0
      From the literature I have some vague recollections that in difficult cases manual labor and consumables were used to violate the integrity of the ice structure. Up to the point that ditches were cut through with sledgehammers and saws. Under such conditions, a laser can be a good alternative.
      Quote: Mar. Tira
      The temperature of air, water, and wind create such conditions that literally behind the stern it begins to solder IMMEDIATELY !!!!!!

      It is most likely about piloting vessels during the navigation period, when things are better with air temperature. We do not cut ice to water, but only cut from above. And we are talking about the possibility of significantly reducing the class of icebreaker needed for wiring. Nuclear-powered icebreakers won't be enough for everyone.
      1. Mar.Tirah
        Mar.Tirah 22 August 2017 10: 06
        +1
        I wanted to add that we don’t have such a concept as ice. There is ice conditions. Hummock congestion is such that even an icebreaker can’t overcome them. There are vague recollections in vague recollections and compressed air work under great pressure. One can sometimes see how around the case an icebreaker sandwiched by ice, the water boils, as it were. A beautiful sight.
        1. brn521
          brn521 22 August 2017 11: 00
          0
          Quote: Mar. Tira
          we don’t have such a thing as ice

          But there is such a thing as an ice class of a ship. In the description of which appears the thickness of the ice and the navigation period. The navigation period should be taken into account, as Winter-spring ice is about 1,5 times stronger than summer-autumn ice.
  13. cariperpaint
    cariperpaint 21 August 2017 10: 56
    +1
    funny komenty to read)))))) no one knows the technology but argue anyway))) maybe you should still judge to start when there will be more information?)))
    1. ved_med12
      ved_med12 21 August 2017 17: 08
      +1
      Laser alcohol meters came to mind, which were supposed to identify drunk drivers from a distance ...
  14. Mar.Tirah
    Mar.Tirah 22 August 2017 09: 40
    +1
    Quote: brn521
    From the literature I have some vague recollections that in difficult cases manual labor and consumables were used to violate the integrity of the ice structure. Up to the point that ditches were cut through with sledgehammers and saws. Under such conditions, a laser can be a good alternative.
    Quote: Mar. Tira
    The temperature of air, water, and wind create such conditions that literally behind the stern it begins to solder IMMEDIATELY !!!!!!

    It is most likely about piloting vessels during the navigation period, when things are better with air temperature. We do not cut ice to water, but only cut from above. And we are talking about the possibility of significantly reducing the class of icebreaker needed for wiring. Nuclear-powered icebreakers won't be enough for everyone.

    You got to the point with the wiring during the navigation period. As usual, we start soon, but end badly. It seems that everything is taken into account, and the weather conditions of navigation, and financing for the rental of tugboats, and bulk carriers, for loading. But then the fun begins. That supplier I’ve let them down, then the money was lost somewhere along the road. And the fleet is standing, waiting, only nature is not up to the lantern. Here at the end of navigation, so short north, the rumble begins, running around, when it already starts to make ice out of the rivers. the “heroic” everyday life of the northern skippers begins, and the Northern delivery must be carried out. Because all coastal cities, villages and towns, the military bases of the Arctic live on this for the whole year, which they can deliver by the Northern Sea Route.
    1. brn521
      brn521 22 August 2017 10: 54
      0
      Quote: Mar. Tira
      Either the supplier of goods failed, or money was lost somewhere along the way.

      This is not the only point. The ice situation without human factor is unstable. And here, relatively speaking, we take horseradish, we hook it on the bow of the vessel, and connect it to the generator. And the ship, which before that went through 2m of ice, also began to cheerfully go through 3m of ice.
  15. nikvic46
    nikvic46 22 August 2017 20: 14
    0
    I have a question. What is more profitable to have a patent for an invention or to have high technology.?
  16. Mar.Tirah
    Mar.Tirah 23 August 2017 06: 36
    +1
    Quote: brn521
    Quote: Mar. Tira
    we don’t have such a thing as ice

    But there is such a thing as an ice class of a ship. In the description of which appears the thickness of the ice and the navigation period. The navigation period should be taken into account, as Winter-spring ice is about 1,5 times stronger than summer-autumn ice.

    Who told you this? It is in autumn that ice is much more dangerous for hulls because it is harder in structure due to surface temperature. It is in autumn that the largest number of vessels are steamed. Spring ice is thicker, but softer in structure. You don’t tell the skipper please, about classification. This is the name of the type and design of ships of a certain class of navigation according to the rules of the Register. I can give you a lecture, with practical examples, the structure of ships. What are the differences between icebreakers, ice-class vessels with an ice belt, tankers designed to work in ice, and no. Many things. I don’t want to get involved. Let's finish the skirmish. Sorry if I offended.
  17. Djusha
    Djusha 24 August 2017 12: 07
    0
    And didn’t these people offer icicles with a laser to bring down?
    Not bad then someone welded ...
  18. Dikson
    Dikson 5 September 2018 09: 51
    0
    The experiment with a piece of ice from the refrigerator is of course a weighty argument .. Especially in the Arctic .. With its endless downstream drifts, winds under 25 meters per second, carrying dry snow crumbs .. Again, this is fog and frosty steam, and natural icing of structures .. Do testers take these factors into account in their refrigerator? A long time ago, the communist science fiction writer Kazantsev described a similar ship .. True, they used hydraulic cannons like those with which the prospectors wash the rock .. In the end, the author's gloomy genius wedged the icebreaker in the ice, and the captain decided to detonate a nuclear mine, supposedly to clear the way for his caravan .. And you can also hang a couple of giant circular saws on the stem - so that, it means, these same cuts on the ice are made .. They added salt to the ice .. Arctic ice is often the most powerful perennial layers, it is a heterogeneous mixture of sea and river water, they viscous, heavy and completely unlike fragile glass .. "Yes, I can blow up a huge railway bridge with a kilogram of ammonal!" - the explosives expert captain Voronin was indignant when "Alexander Sibiryakov" was hopelessly stuck in the ice trying to pass the NSR ... - but on the Arctic ice a kilogram of explosives left only small potholes .. Read the history of the expedition O.Yu. Schmidt ...