Incubator named after Suvorov
The fashion for reform, which has embraced all our spheres of life and activity, has not bypassed military education. Therefore, in the development of the Suvorov school there were experiments, shyness, achievements and mistakes. I propose a comparison of how it was in Soviet times, with what is now in some, in the author's opinion, important positions.
The first position. I want to Suvorov!
How it was? During the war years, many boys became orphans. Their fathers gave their lives, fighting for their homeland. The boys hated fascism, had a life quenching, accustomed to difficulties and hardships. Some were themselves combatants (sons of the regiment, partisans, underground fighters). The difficult fate of the children created fertile ground for their transformation into warriors. The desire of the state to help them determined the minimum age for entering IEDs - 10 years. But as time passed, the situation with the “children of war” leveled off. The problem of their social adaptation has lost its former urgency, and from 1964, the IED switched to a three-year preparation (8 – 10 classes). Since 1969, the study period has been reduced to two years (9 – 10 classes). This made it possible to make a larger number of output (two or three companies simultaneously in each IED while maintaining the standard “capacity” of 500 – 600 people), which means it is more intensive to replenish the ranks of the cadets.
In this regard, I recall two points. First: my teachers and educators called the best period for training a Suvorov student for three years. And second: my admission to the VCA after the 8 class was conscious. In the 15 age, choosing a profession is already possible and necessary. From here and smaller human "losses" to release (health of the teenager was formed, the dream of becoming an officer is sustainable).
As it is? Directive of the Minister of Defense Serdyukov (No. D-30 from 21.04.2008) the seven-year training period has been reintroduced into the SVU. They recruit children after 4 class of secondary school. What is the plus here? A child whose entire childhood has passed in uniform and in the ranks will most likely choose the profession of a military man, since he does not represent anything else. He will be accustomed to the requirements of the statutes and the army mode of life. But what is the danger? The choice of profession at such a young age is not deliberate. The parents either send the child to the IED, or it attracts external attributes (beautiful form, shoulder straps, delight from what they saw in the parade of Suvorovs). If after a few years he realizes that he was mistaken with the choice of the path, it will be a vital tragedy. Starting positions for him and the ordinary student will be equal. But one lived among parents and friends “on the other side of the fence,” and the other lived in a system of artificially created restrictions. In this case, for what?
Second position After the ball
As it was? Suvorovets graduate was obliged to continue his studies in one of the higher military educational institutions of the USSR Ministry of Defense. But besides the duty (fixed by the subscription of parents at the time of admission to the VCA), he had the deserved right to be accepted there without exams. Even in the SVU, he sewed a cadet uniform according to the kind of troops of the selected military school. And in it, he arrived at the university. Which one? This depended on the rating for which the Suvorov student fought throughout his studies (based on academic performance, behavior, military research, achievements in sports, social activity, etc.). The rating was updated monthly, was public. The resulting “places” of graduates determined their order of entry into the distribution commission. Its main tool was the distribution list screen (the number of places “under Suvorov’s” from military schools). The first in a rating Suvorov could choose any higher command military school. Last picked up the remnants. It motivated. And the system worked!
In some higher education institutions, the Suvorov school was counted for the “course of the young fighter” (KMB). It also served as a definite “bonus” to a VCA graduate. Unlike a civilian young man, a suvorovets could shoot, use means of chemical protection, walk in order, make forced marches, etc. Therefore, after the credentials committee, the guys would go home and return to the school in oath.
How come? Every 9 of May, Russia is proud to watch the ranks of Suvorov marching along Red Square. But few know what happened before the parade, and what awaits these guys after. All year round, in any weather, they train on the school ground. Then, for a month and a half, they leave for one of the military units of the Moscow garrison, where the trainings take place as part of the general parade calculation. At the same time study continues, but there is not enough time and energy for it. Boys perform a state task, but naturally lose in the quality of knowledge. Hence, the uncollected USE points and the chance not to go anywhere, since the graduate of the VCA no longer has benefits when enrolling in a university. It’s hard to imagine what a young man feels like, who wore a uniform for seven years, who has three medals for participating in parades, when he is sent to serve as a conscript soldier with an IED ...
Here we have the result of ill-conceived legislation. Entered into force on 1 in September, 2013 of the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” turned out to be so oak-reinforced concrete that there are no exceptions. In the two ministries - education and defense - should jointly develop a bill (amendment, annex), restoring justice in relation to children who wish and already prepared (for a lot of money of Russian taxpayers) to serve the Motherland.
The above-described “bonus” with the KMB is also forgotten, and the Suvorov students, having become cadets, master the initial military training on a par with those who first see the machine gun, OZK, and a sapper shovel. But at least the schoolboy arrived at the school from home. And a Suvorov student in the year of admission is relocated from one barracks to another, not being able to stay with relatives.
The third position. Life - Motherland!
Not only to give knowledge, but also to educate the future defender of the Fatherland - the meaning and purpose of the Suvorov Military School.
As it was? I will answer simply. Nowhere and never: neither in the highest military school, nor in military units in the course of the officer service, nor in the military academy - I have not met such a clear statutory organization of life, service of the troops, internal order and exactingness on the part of commanders, as it was in the SVU. In the distant 70-e, I was given such a push in the fifth point (in a good sense of the word), the inertia of which was enough for 34 years of further service. Parenting was fatherly, but tough. We were made of men. And not one of my classmates had a thought to complain about anything, to call for help from parents, prosecutors or guardians about some kind of injustice or rigor of educators, teachers. The boys not only studied, but worked, served themselves, served in clothes and were responsible for offenses. For the deduction of a Suvorov student, the decision of the teachers' council was sufficient, which was taken upon the use of alcohol, smoking, theft, absenteeism, fighting. From the intruder before the formation scarlet shoulder straps broke, and he went to the school, from which he entered the SVU. Upon receipt of the fourth “two”, the Suvorovets “flew” with the holidays. With repeated "unsuccessful" - goodbye IEDs. It was a harsh school of life that tempered characters.
How come? The same Federal Law “On Education” completely equated Suvorov students to ordinary schoolchildren in the sense of rights and obligations (there are many rights, no duties). The military component in the life of Suvorov has weakened. The outfits are turned into a formality, and the functions of the daily are limited to a level that creates a false view of life in the barracks. And how can you understand what a company outfit is if there is no school outfit (instead of the duty officer, an officer of the private security company). Labor education - outside the law (cleanliness in the premises provide cleaners). A teacher is to blame for poor performance. Any severity of the educator or teacher is perceived as an insult. As a result, complaints from parents, often anonymous, are pouring into the address of the prosecutor's office and command for any reason. It is virtually impossible to deduct a Suvorov student, no matter what offense he committed (the same Federal Law allows the transfer of a child from one school to another only at the request of the parents). Get into the Suvorov team random boy, and the big trouble the school is guaranteed. And if, moreover, his parents occupy a weighty position in society? The teacher, the teacher, the head of the VCA will always be guilty. In such an atmosphere, a graduate of the school is worse adapted to the future service than its civilian peer, paradoxically. After all, a schoolboy entering a military educational institution is initially tuned in to the fact that it is difficult in the army. And a Suvorov student thinks that the conditions of the last seven years of his life are the army. But he takes an oath in a military school. And he sees that there are no more nannies, and for studies and actions one must answer. This is stress! And laid down in the institution, designed to eliminate such stress.
This should be taken without indiscriminate generalization. Many Suvorov in the current system, as in the former, become real officers and deserve the name of the great Generalissimo.
Fourth position. Who will you be, son?
As it was? In Soviet times, a Suvorov student was preparing to choose one of the military schools of the Ground Forces, which is justified in the name of the commander who stormed Ishmael and stepped over the Alps. However, those who really wanted to become a pilot or a seaman, as a rule, sought direction to the appropriate educational institutions. There were no big problems here.
How come? Today, all Suvorov military schools are distributed by types and types of troops of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Such a beginning of military specialization is useful to those who "guess" with the profile of the VCA. For other children (and how in 11 years not to be mistaken?) It would be more useful to expand the general military outlook, to orient in the range of military professions and specialties, to make the choice consciously, based on their inclinations. In recent years, the reorganization of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation took place so often that the same Suvorov student, studying within the same IED, during the years of study turned out to be in different types of armed forces of the Russian Federation. And each new submission changed the vector of his career counseling. How useful such zigzags - leave no comments.
Fifth position. Who will make a Suvorov defender of the Fatherland
As it was? All company commanders, educators, and part of the teachers were active officers who have, besides the military, a pedagogical education. The head of the VCA is a full-time general. Most teachers are men. No wonder they raised men.
How come? TV commentators, representing the chiefs of the SVU, marching at the head of the ceremonial "boxes" on Red Square, call them by military ranks (Major General or Colonel). But forget to say stock or retired. Alas, there are no more military posts in the VCA state. All commanders and educators are certainly worthy people who have gone through the officer's school of life. Some have combat experience. But all this is in the past. Caught under the "Serdyukovskiy" reduction or laid off according to age, they objectively moved away from service, although they donned military uniforms. Most of the teachers are women. This situation makes the IED less and less a military school, more and more - an ordinary boarding school.
The sixth position. Be healthy, son!
As it was? The competition in the SVU was huge not only because of the exams in mathematics and Russian, but also in the requirements for the state of health. Through three medical boards (in the district, regional military registration and enlistment offices and in the SVU) 10 – 20 percent of candidates “leaked” on the strength of. After two or three years, having grown stronger and tempered in the school, they were even fit into the marines, at least in the airborne forces.
How come? First, the “pass-through” health criteria for admission to IEDs are hardened. This level is lowered lower than the requirements for applicants to universities of the Russian Defense Ministry. Secondly, in 11 years, it is impossible to predict how the health of a Suvorov student will change after transitional age. And some of the graduates of IEDs are outside the Armed Forces for medical reasons. The expediency of such a seven-year study from the standpoint of the costs of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation and the fate of the adolescent himself is not indisputable.
Seventh position. Is there life behind the fence?
The personality of a person is formed in childhood. And it is very important that there are no missed stages of development.
As it was? Enrolling in IED after 8 class, my peers had time to accumulate some experience of interaction in the "ordinary environment". Take at least communication with the opposite sex: sit at the same desk with the girl, run after her at recess, exchange “secret” notes, take home from school, hold a briefcase, etc. All these “nonsense” are a legitimate school of physical maturation and social maturation.
How come? If you miss such an important stage of life, do not live through it, replace it with something else, in the future this may unpredictably affect the personality traits. How exactly? I will not fantasize, but I assume that the isolation of a boy from the 11 age from the outside world harbors a number of psychological dangers aimed at his future. Inside their "own" military environment, they are not so acute. But the social adaptation of the former Suvorov "in the outside world" may be difficult. How much? This should be investigated by professionals.
There are much more real problems in the upbringing and training of future defenders of Russia. And far from everything can be solved at the local level, in a specific VCA, NVMU, PAC, etc. Many issues are systemic. Answers must be sought at the level of state institutions. And do it consistently and carefully, so as not to break new firewood ...
All of the above is not an official position of the management or work collective of any pre-university educational institution. This is the point of view of the author, which can be taken into account, but you can pretend that everything is so good ...
School of Russian elite
The idea of turning children into knights goes deep stories. In ancient Russia, there were rituals of “war vestment”, “landing on a war horse”, “sword encircling”, meaning certain stages of military maturation. A short childhood ended with the arrival of the 15-year-old youth in the prince's retinue. Peter I decided to raise the issue of improving the quality of the army by recruiting the most educated class into its ranks, for which compulsory service was introduced from 16 years. The so-called young plants, successfully examined by special commissions, were sent to study in the guard regiments. The rest were “written by the soldiers” or went to another state service. It was possible to evade it only with the simultaneous deprivation of a noble title, land and privileges.
Over time, there was not enough training in the training regiment for the performance of officer duties. New weapon, strategy and tactics required special education. Cadet corps appear on this wave in a number of countries. "Cadet" means minor. So called young nobles, enrolled in the service, but not yet made an officer. From France, the name migrated to many states, including Russia.
For nearly three centuries, the elite of the Russian people was formed from graduates of the cadet corps. The cadets were field marshal Rumyantsev and Kutuzov, generals Tormasov, Brusilov and Karbyshev, admirals Ushakov and Nakhimov, artists Vereshchagin and Bogolyubov, geographers Kruzenshtern, Bellingsgausen and Kropotkin, writers Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and Kuprin, designer and designer, geographists Kruzenshtern, Bellingsgausen and Kropotkin, writers Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and Kuprin, designer and designer, geographists Krusenstern, Bellingsgausen and Kropotkin, writers Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and Kuprin, designer and designer, Geografy
Soviet power in the midst of the Great Patriotic War revived the cadet education in the format of the Suvorov military schools (SVU) and the Nakhimov naval school (NVMU). From 1943 to 1990, their number changed to a maximum of 12. After the collapse of the USSR, along with IEDs and NVMU, presidential cadet schools, naval and Cossack cadet corps, cadet schools, NVMU branches, boarding school pupils appeared in the system of pre-university education. In the Soviet Union, similar institutions were significantly smaller.
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