Military Review

“Where the Russian flag is raised once, it should not descend there”

13
“Where the Russian flag is raised once, it should not descend there”



August 13 1850, at the mouth of the Amur, captain Gennady Nevelskoy hoisted the Russian flag and founded the Nicholas Post

The rich Amur region has long attracted Russian immigrants. The first Russian settlement on the Amur, Albazin, appeared in the middle of the XVII century.

In 1684, the Albazin Voivodeship was formed here, the eastern border of which passed along the Zeya River. In spite of the fact that the Chinese, who besieged the Russian fortresses of Albazin and Nerchin, and imposed on the Russian kingdom in 1689 a contract by which the developed territories of the Amur region departed to China, did not allow colonization of these territories, the Russians could not be stopped in the Pacific.

At the end of the XVII-beginning of the XVIII centuries, settlers began to appear on the shores of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, they founded the cities of Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and the active development of the Far East began. But Amur, the only waterway connecting the Far East with Siberia, was not used.

It was not known how the river flows into the Pacific Ocean, and whether vessels from Pacific ports can enter. The development of the Amur Basin was hindered by the Chinese, and the Russian government, which did not want conflict situations with its neighbor, did not equip a full-fledged research expedition.

In 1845, only one brig "Konstantin" was sent to the expedition, but the crew did not manage to determine the mouth of the Amur, moreover, the wrong conclusions of commander Peter Gavrilov almost turned against us. Emperor Nicholas I ordered to stop the research of Amur as useless. And only the enthusiasm of individuals who decided to continue the research allowed to open the mouth of this Far Eastern river.

Among these persons, the captain of the 1 rank Gennady Nevelskoy, with the support of the governor of Eastern Siberia Nikolai Muravyov, in June 1849 from the Peter and Paul port of Kamchatka on the ship “Baikal” he set off.

The highest permission for the study was not received, therefore, Gennady Ivanovich assumed all the risks. He studied all the available literature and was sure that the entrance to the Amur from the sea was possible. And I was not mistaken in my assumption. With the help of local residents, he found the entrance to the Amur Liman, and walked several dozen kilometers up the river in rowing boats.
Two centuries of error was scattered, Nevelskoy proved that Sakhalin is an island, and the entrance to the Amur is possible.

1 (13) August 1850, at the mouth of the Amur River, on Cape Kuegda, he founded the military-administrative settlement Nicholas post, named after the living emperor, and hoisted the Russian flag at his post.

"On behalf of the Russian government, the sim is announced to all foreign ships sailing in the Tatar Strait, because the coast of this bay and the whole Amur region to the Korean border with Sakhalin Island are Russian possessions ... "

Under the command of topographer Peter Popov, 6 sailors were left, subsequently the Nikolaev post grew in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.

The foundation of the post did not contradict the Treaty of Nerchinsk, because one of its points said: “... to the rivers flowing from the north side of the Amur and in all directions north of the Khingan Mountains even to the sea with a long life under the power of the Czarist Majesty of the Russian state ...”

Only geographical ignorance did not allow the Russians to come here earlier. Did not know about it in St. Petersburg. The “self-rule” of Captain Nevelskoy could threaten him with very big troubles, since his actions ran counter to the Far Eastern policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The head of department, Karl Nesselrode, proposed to abandon the Amur basin and permanently transfer it to China.

However, the political will of the emperor turned out to be stronger than Nesselrode’s ideas, he called Gennady Nevelsky’s deed well done, and on the report of the Special Committee considering this case, he wrote:

“Where the Russian flag is raised once, it should not descend there.”


China’s plans to colonize these lands were buried, and more recently, after the Cossacks left Albazin, China made loud statements:

"Lands, on several thousand li, lying on the [slopes] of Khingan facing the Middle State, beginning in the far north, and deserted, will entirely belong to the Middle State."

But the act of Nevelsky, approved by the Russian autocrat, and the negotiations on the territories that followed soon, which ended with the signing of the Tianjin and Beijing treaties, put an end to this question.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/wins/gde-podnyat-russkiy-30450.html
13 comments
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 17 August 2017 07: 28
    +5
    Carla Nesselrode did not go extinct today ...
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 17 August 2017 12: 11
      +3
      need adequate settlement and development of those lands. Then there will be no possible claims from a crowded neighbor.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 17 August 2017 07: 30
    +3
    Despite the fact that the Chinese who besieged the Russian fortress of Albazin and Nerchi prevented the colonization of these territories

    Manchus, not Chinese. "The Manchu imperial dynasty of Qing, established in China from the middle of the XNUMXth century, did not recognize the annexation of the Amur lands, which it considered to be its ancestral possessions, but did not actually control before." http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/China/XVI
    I / 1680-1700 / Rus_kit2 / framepred1.htm
    Well, actually the first border treaty on the Amur between Russia and China was the Aigun Treaty of May 28, 1858, and not the Tianjin Treaty. https://topwar.ru/15315-tyanczinskiy-traktat-1858
    -goda-na-puti-k-resheniyu-problemy-amura.html
    Well, everything else is superficial, but pretty truthful
    "On behalf of the Russian government, the sim is announced to all foreign ships sailing in the Tatar Strait, because the coast of this bay and the whole Amur region to the Korean border with Sakhalin Island are Russian possessions ... "

    That's why Nesselrode and the St. Petersburg mosquito proposed to demote Nevelsky to sailors. Thanks to Emperor Nicholas I for not approving this punishment not only to G.I. Nevelsky but also the Governor of Siberia, N.N. Muravyova. Count Amursky N.N. Muravyov will be later.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 17 August 2017 12: 10
      +2
      soon China (in the 2nd half of the 1850s) was not up to the Amur - opium warriors!
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 17 August 2017 14: 46
        +1
        Quote: Mikado
        soon China (in the 2nd half of the 1850s) was not up to the Amur - opium warriors!

        On the contrary. The Qing rulers considered the Russians a lesser evil than the Europeans. The Chinese knew the limits of the requirements and were not afraid that the Russians would go deep into China, but the Chinese were afraid of the British and French penetrating Amur. This is an annotation to the book of M.N. Venyukov "In his book, written from the perspective of an advanced scientist, an ardent patriot of the Fatherland, M.I. Venyukov affirms the priority of Russian science in the discovery and study of Amur and Primorye, exposes the aggressive, expansionist policies of English, French, "American colonialists in the Far East, shows the progressive significance of Russia's affirmation on the shores of the Pacific." https://www.litmir.me/bd/?b=234837
        M.N. Venyukov. "Travels in the Amur Region, China and Japan." Venyukov just in the years 1857-1858 did shooting on the Amur, and then went to China and Japan. So these are eyewitness accounts.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 17 August 2017 14: 49
          +1
          Pikul wrote about this in "historical miniatures." There is no trust in him as a historian, but he gave the general picture. drinks yes, the approaches to "colonization" have always been different between us and the Europeans ..
  3. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 17 August 2017 16: 14
    +2
    Interesting article. I read it with pleasure. That is what initiative and courage mean in resolving state issues. While reading, I recalled the conflict over Father Damansky, when the local commander, at his own peril and risk (no one knows who to google laziness) gave the order to use the BM-21.
  4. Weyland
    Weyland 17 August 2017 17: 56
    +2
    A series of excellent books on the development of the Amur Region and Primorye was written about half a century ago by N. Zadornov. According to the level of talent, the humor son is far from his father ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 17 August 2017 23: 34
      0
      Quote: Weyland
      A series of excellent books on the development of the Amur Region and Primorye was written about half a century ago by N. Zadornov.

      Much earlier. Even in the 30-40s of the twentieth century.
  5. nnz226
    nnz226 17 August 2017 18: 31
    0
    Nicholas 1 th spoke well about the Russian flag, and his son all Russian America prosr @ l !!!
    1. Conductor
      Conductor 17 August 2017 21: 08
      +1
      Dear, we still now hardly master the DV! and give you Alaska. And then they would have served in the Alaskan military district!
  6. captain
    captain 19 August 2017 11: 52
    0
    The great words of our sovereign: "However, the emperor’s political will turned out to be stronger than Nesselrode’s ideas, he called the act of Gennady Nevelsky well done, and on the report of the Special Committee considering this case, he wrote:
    Wherever the Russian flag is hoisted, it should not be lowered. ” We give tribute to the great dictum. The article put a plus, thanks.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Nukesmoke
    Nukesmoke 8 February 2018 11: 10
    0
    Kiselvrode is kicked by everyone. However, it was the excellent straightforwardness of Nikolai Palych that led us to problems. We must also pay tribute to his minister, who stopped many of the sharp visits of the emperor.