28 Panfilov: Eternal glory to the fallen, the survivors - the camp ...
The real course of events became known - albeit to a very limited circle of people - already in 1948, during the trial of one of the participants in that legendary battle, Ivan Dobrobabin. Panfilovets was tried for cooperation with the German occupiers. The process materials became available to the general public in 1990 thanks to Russian historian Boris Sokolov. As it turned out, in the legend of Panfilov’s, almost everything is not true. The fighters who participated in the battle were not 28, but about 140. The number of those killed tanks greatly exaggerated. A few hours later Dubosekovo was captured by the Germans, so there is no reason to say that the Panfilovites stopped the enemy. There were survivors in the battle, but the very fact of their existence was contrary to legend. And the country for which they shed blood on the battlefield treated them no better than with deserters. The distortion of facts is simply monstrous. And all responsibility for him lies not with the abstract “propaganda machine”, but with specific people: “Red Star” correspondent Vladimir Koroteev and the editor-in-chief of this newspaper, David Ortenberg.
23 – 24 November 1941, Vladimir Koroteev, along with another journalist, a reporter for Komsomolskaya Pravda, talked with Rokossovsky in the headquarters of the 16 Army. The subject of the conversation was the heroism of the soldiers, giving all their strength to the defense of the Fatherland. The journalists were asked to write a report “from the trench,” but they were not allowed to enter the front line. I had to be content with “second-hand” materials. At headquarters, they met with Commissioner Panfilov Division Egorov. Talking about the heroism of the soldiers, Yegorov gave an example of the battle of one of the companies with German tanks and offered to write about this battle. The Commissioner did not know the exact number of soldiers of the company. He reported only two cases of betrayal. In the evening, the editors worked on the material, settled on the fact that about 30 fighters should have remained in the company. The number of 28 obtained by simple subtraction: after all, two were traitors, not heroes. In addition, the next issue came out on November 28, so it was a beautiful title. Neither the editor nor the author of the article could suggest what consequences the output of the note will have ... The topic of Panfilov members quickly became popular. A number of essays about the Panfilov heroes appeared (although Koroteyev himself never returned to the topic, it was transferred to another journalist, Krivitsky). The legend liked Stalin very much, and all 28 Panfilovs were posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
What really happened at the Dubosekovo junction? And what was the feat Panfilov? Historians have the following opinion: in fact, the men of the Panfilov division showed heroism, delaying the advance of the tanks for four hours and allowing the command to pull in troops for the decisive battle. However, the entire battalion deserved fame, and not only the famous 4 Company of the 1075 Regiment of the 316 Rifle Division. And the main feat of the fighters was that, having overcome the fear of tanks, with minimal technical support (according to some information, the entire company had only two anti-tank guns!) Managed to stop the tank convoy.
According to the materials of the investigation, the company 16 of November 1941 of the year was preparing not for defense, but for the counteroffensive. But they did not have time: the Germans went on the attack earlier. Despite the fact that the surviving participants of the battle had to provide accurate information, historians still can not come to a consensus regarding the composition of the German troops involved in the attacks. Some believe that only tanks without infantry support were involved in the battle. Others insist that infantry supported the armored vehicles. And the number of tanks varies from 20 to 70. Even more strange is that the subject of dispute is still the name of the commander of Panfilov. According to one of the versions, I. E. Dobrobabin, the Pomkomvzvod, assumed command, and only after his wound, political commissar of the 4 Company V.G. Klochkov, sent by the company commander Gundilovich, managed to reach the Panfilovs. At the site, which was defended by Panfilov, during the first attack, five or six tanks moved (the 20 tanks included in the legend is the total number of vehicles that attacked the entire regiment). The second platoon, commanded by Dobrobabin, managed to knock out one of them. But in general, on the site of the company, thanks to the courage of the fighters, five or six tanks were destroyed. The Germans retreated. The next attack has already launched several lines of tanks, 15 – 20 each. The second battle lasted about 40 minutes and ended in a complete rout. On the battlefield, 15 German tanks remained (later three more were attributed to them and agreed that all the tanks were hit by the fourth company fighters). And from the company in which before the battle there were 120 – 140 fighters, only a few people remained in the ranks. Some died, others surrendered.
After the battle, the German funeral team passed through the battlefield. I. D. Shadrin (unconscious) and DF Timofeev (seriously wounded) were discovered and captured. There is information that Shadrin lay on the battlefield for six days, until the Germans established that he was alive. Two more seriously wounded - I. M. Natarov and I. R. Vasilyeva - local residents delivered to the medical battalion. G. M. Shemyakin, periodically losing consciousness, crawled, until in the forest he was discovered by the cavalry of General Dovator. There were two other survivors: D. A. Kozhubergenov (Kozhabergenov) and I. Ye. Dobrobabin.
The fate of the surviving heroes was different. Natarov died in the medical battalion of his wounds. The surviving six Panfilovs tried to remind about themselves: Vasilyev and Shemyakin - after discharge from hospitals, Shadrin and Timofeev - later, after all the horrors of concentration camps. To the "resurrected" heroes reacted extremely cautiously. After all, the whole country knew that all participants in the battle at Dubosekov fell the death of the brave. Began ceaseless checks, interrogations, bullying. They were especially hostile to Shadrin and Timofeev: being captured for a Soviet soldier was tantamount to betrayal of the Motherland. However, over time, all four received their Golden Stars - some earlier, some later.
Much more tragic was the fate of two more Panfilovites: DA Kozhubergenov and I. Ye. Dobrobabina. Daniil Aleksandrovich Kozhubergenov was a connected political officer of the 4 Company V.G. Klochkov. In combat, he was contused, unconsciously captured by the Germans, but after a few hours he managed to escape, stumbled upon Dovator's cavalrymen and with them broke out of the encirclement. Learning from the newspapers that he was considered dead, he was the first of the Panfilovites to declare himself. But instead of awarding him arrested. Investigator Soloveychik at gunpoint forced Kozhubergenov to sign the "imposture". He was sent to a marching company, but after being seriously wounded near Rzhev, they wrote off, and he returned to Alma-Ata. And in order to avoid problems in the future, we decided to “correct” the list of heroes. So, instead of Daniil Alexandrovich Kozhubergenov, Askar Kozhebergenov appeared. He even came up with a biography. And the real participant of the battle died an “impostor” in 1976. He has not yet been rehabilitated and is not officially recognized.
I. Dobrobabin during the battle was contused and sprinkled with earth. This is probably why the German funeral team did not immediately find it. At night, he woke up and crawled to the forest. When, trying to find his people, Dobrobabin entered the village, the Germans seized him and sent him to the Mozhaysky camp. During the evacuation of the camp, he managed to escape from the train, breaking down the boards and jumping at full speed. It was impossible to break through to our own: the Germans occupied all the surrounding villages. Then Dobrobabin decided to get into his native village Perekop in Ukraine. There were no Germans in Perekop, and he settled with his ailing brother, Gregory, who helped him, through the sympathizing Soviet power, headman P. Zinchenko, to obtain a certificate of permanent residence in this village. But soon a denunciation followed, and Dobrobabina was sent to the Lewandal camp. Apparently, among the Germans, there were also bribe-takers, because the relatives managed to buy him out. But in August 1942, an order appeared to send specialists to work in Germany. His relatives persuaded him to accept the position of a policeman in the village: they would not have to go to Germany either, and they could be helped. This decision almost became fatal. When in the 1943 year, during the retreat of the Germans, Dobrobabin broke out to his own, and, appearing at the field military registration and enlistment office in the village of Tarasivka, Odessa region, told everything to lieutenant Usov, an indelible suspicion lay in his honor. After checking that there was no fact of treason against the Motherland, he was enlisted as a sergeant in the 1055 th regiment of the 297 division. Dobrobabin more than once distinguished himself in battles and was awarded the Order of Glory of the 3 degree. But the Star of Hero was refused to give him, despite the petition of the head of counterintelligence of the 2 of the Ukrainian Front.
After demobilization, Dobrobabin returned to the city of Tokmak, where he lived before the war. Here the street was named after him and a monument to him in full growth stood. But the living hero was not needed by anyone. Moreover, Ivan Dobrobabin was repressed as a former policeman. He was arrested and tried on 8 – 9 on June 1948. For “treason against the Motherland,” Dobrobabin was sentenced to 25 years of camps. However, this period was reduced to 15 years (after all, one of the 28 Panfilov members). According to the court in Moscow, he was deprived of the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Not a single witness from the village of Perekop (40 km from Kharkov, where the trial was held) was called to the trial, who would confirm his fight with the Germans. The lawyer was not given to the “traitor” either. The Panfilov hero went to the camps ... They cut off his head at the monument to Dobrobabin, welded another, also Panfilov hero, only the deceased.
Dobrobabin was released ahead of schedule after 7 years, and was deprived of all awards. His name was not called anywhere (he was considered dead), and in I960, he was officially banned from mentioning Dobrobabin. For many years, the Moscow military historian G. Kumanev was busy with the rehabilitation of the hero. And he got his way: in 1993, the Supreme Court of Ukraine rehabilitated Dobrobabina. And after the death of Ivan Yevstafyevich (he died on December 19 1996), the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was returned to him the so-called “Permanent Presidium of the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR” headed by Soot Umalatova.
And the catch phrase of Kruchkov’s political instructor is entirely on the conscience of journalists. The Panfilov Division was formed mainly from Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Uzbeks, the Russians in it were much less than half. Many hardly knew Russian (only the main teams). So, political politician Klochkov would hardly be able to make pathetic speeches in front of a company: first, a good half of the fighters would not understand anything, and second, the rumbling from the breaks was such that even the teams did not always hear.
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