We are sure that everyone will agree with the opinion that Sevastopol is a special city. And the hero-city, and the city of military glory. Our история, our memory and our pride.
But we paid attention to one more peculiarity: in Sevastopol, there is no second-part museum of history in Sevastopol, which took place during the years of the Great Patriotic War.
Strange, many will say, and question the reasonability of our statement.
However it is.
Yes, the city has such a museum complex as the Museum of the heroic defense and liberation of Sevastopol. However, let's take a closer look.
The main object is a building with a panorama of the Defense of Sevastopol 1854 — 1855, dedicated, as you might guess, to the events of the Crimean (Eastern) War.
The second is a diorama on Sapun-mount, which now tells about the assault on 7 in May of 1944, that is, it tells about an episode connected with the release. But - about the episode.
The third is a museum on the Malakhov Hill with a defensive tower. Here, part of the exhibition belongs to the first defense, part - the Great Patriotic.
The fourth is the house-museum of the underground, where during the fascist occupation there were representatives of the Sevastopol underground.
There is also a second museum complex - the Military History Museum of the Black Sea fleet.
But, in fact, there is no one thing. Moreover, if you look biased, then just the events of the Great Patriotic War are just something that is paid not so much attention as we would like. There were projects to create a museum of second defense, but they belong to the times of the Soviet Union and were not implemented.
And for 23, the Ukrainian statehood, another museum complex appeared - the 35-I battery. Many different opinions were associated with this place, both positive and not so much. But today it is impossible not to admit that the 35-I battery becomes a historical place on a par with other museums.
July 3 for Sevastopol - a special date, the day when the second defense of the city ended. Then, on July 3, 1942, the fascists took all the key positions in the city, Sevastopol was taken by the enemy. Day of memory and sorrow.
3 of July this year held a commemorative event dedicated to the heroic defense of the city. And they just went on the 35-th battery.
During the day, the 93 fighter found by search engines throughout the year at the last defense line was buried at the museum necropolis. The event is so significant that the acting director of the governor Dmitry Ovsyannikov, the chairman of the legislative assembly Ekaterina Altabaeva, the senator from Sevastopol Olga Timofeyeva, the deputy commander of the Black Sea Fleet Yuri Orekhovsky attended it.
D. Ovsyannikov and E. Altabaeva at the burial of 93 soldiers on the necropolis of the museum complex "35 Battery"
And in the evening of the same day, an evening concert “Remember to live ...” was held on the square of the museum complex where a symphony orchestra played, a choir sang, a group of marines melee fighters performed, and Olga Kormukhina and Aleksey Belov, the former member of "Gorky Park".
Symphony Orchestra of Sevastopol
The museum complex, or rather, the “Private institution for the promotion of the memorial-historical museum complex“ 35-I coastal battery ”, after the annexation of the Crimea and Sevastopol to Russia is often widely heard. Here are the oaths of young warriors, and youth quests, and burial sites raised by the search engines of the soldiers of the Red Army and the Black Sea Fleet, and concerts, and conferences, and interesting expositions, and excursions.
The tour begins on a large area with a story about the milestones of the creation of the museum, it is especially emphasized that "the museum was built with private funds, the main material contribution was made by the industrial group of companies Tavrida Electric and the general director Alexey Chaly."
In the heat, the temperature of the 15-16 degrees is maintained in the casemates of the battery. By the end of the tour from the heard story and seen photos, and maybe from a low temperature, a little shaking.
Here are the most interesting facts from the tour.
Construction of the battery began 104 a year ago. The first city that was bombed by the Germans 22 June 1941 was Sevastopol, the main base of the Black Sea Fleet. The Germans dumped secret bottom non-contact magnetic-acoustic mines in order to lock up the entire fleet in Sevastopol Bay.
In December, the 1941 of the year on the 40-th shot exploded the second battery armored tower. The commission claimed that a premature shot occurred with an unlocked cannon lock.
When Stalin was offered to make a demonstration salvo from all four battery guns, but when he learned that the cost of this salute is equal to the cost of 4 new tractors, he said: “We will not throw money to the wind!”
When the commandant came up to the Kazan doctor in the last days of the defense and offered to evacuate, he refused.
The champagne from the Inkerman galleries (millions of bottles of champagne) came to the rescue of the city at the end of 41: people had to replace water with champagne, drank it instead of water, cooked food, poured it into truck radiators, washed them, washed them.
The newspaper Pravda (July 4, 1942) wrote a lie. Soviet troops did not leave Sevastopol on July 3. According to the historian Vaneev, 35 people could have moved here, to the 79529th battery. Those guys who are captured by the outcome of the battles, they will go through German concentration camps, then at the Soviet checks they will be asked: “How did you guys get captured if Soviet troops left the city of Sevastopol on July 3? Perhaps you are traitors, deserters "<...> Many of these guys will not be able to recover in their posts, in ranks, will not be able to receive blood-earned awards, will not be able to get a normal job, their children will not be able to enter military institutes.
The rate did not give the go-ahead for the evacuation of commanders. October (commander of the Black Sea Fleet) acted in his own way: he summoned all the commanders of battalions, regiments, brigades of marines, divisions, they did not return back to the troops (defending Sevastopol). On the night of July 1, around 800, top commanders and political workers by airplanes, speedboats, and submarines leave Sevastopol. Imagine tens of thousands of fighters on the front line, deprived of commanders, deprived of communication, transportation of ammunition, food ...
Manstein waited for the Black Sea Fleet to come to the defenders to sink him from the air, and he left these guys (defenders of Sevastopol) as a bait. The operation was called "Fishing sturgeon." The command was forced to make a strategic decision - to retain part of the commanders, to retain the fleet, they were forced to leave the thousands of seaside army here.
On July 1, General Novikov tried to organize an evacuation - he sent telegrams to the "mainland", describing how many people gathered here. At 22:40 p.m. he received the last telegram stating that even on the orders of the Black Sea Fleet commander aviation here for evacuation does not fly. That is, Oktyabrsky, having evacuated himself, didn’t even send planes here.
The command, leaving the battery, ordered a special unit to blow up the battery from the inside, people were badly warned about this. As a result of the explosions, hundreds of people here were contused, burned, died.
It must be admitted that the level of drama and emotionality of the excursion is very high. It is interesting to watch the tourists, especially near the end.
It is gratifying that a large number of visitors are entire families who aspire to use the 35 battery to introduce their children to the heroic history of our country. For this, the museum complex has a dramatic tour of the dungeons, a few minutes in the pantheon of memory, the exhibition “The Beginning of Immortality” in the administrative building, the Soviet mass grave of battery soldiers, a necropolis, a chapel and, of course, the territory of the battery town, which offers a beautiful view of the azure peaceful sea.
In our edition, we already wrote about the 35 battery and a powerful cloud of opinions and comments arose around each article.
We collected the brightest of them, wrapped them in questions and instructed our employee, Mokey Rusinov, to ask the museum director, the chairman of the board of CHUS MIMK “35-I coastal battery” Valery Volodin. Mokey did a great job with the assignment, which resulted in a long conversation with the museum director on the eve of the Navy Day. By the way, Valery Ivanovich is a military man, a captain of the first rank. He answered questions not only as a director, but as a person for whom the concept of honor is not an empty phrase.
VO: Valery Ivanovich, our readers, military in the way of thinking, have a lot of questions for you. Thank you for the opportunity to ask them. Questions will be diverse. At the beginning of the conceptual question. Is the museum, after all, a museum, private or state?
VV: Museum historical memorial complex to the heroic defenders of Sevastopol "35-I coastal battery", a legal entity registered. The owner is a public organization, therefore the museum is privately owned, owned by a non-private individual - a public organization. A non-profit public organization, all visits, all exhibitions, all concerts and everything that happens in our territory are free, according to the decision of the supervisory board.
At the same time, perhaps the question immediately arises - where does the source of funding come from? After all, the museum complex and casemates require construction work to support and strengthen. Therefore, the construction and maintenance of the museum, created in 2007-2012. on the initiative of Alexei Mikhailovich Chaly, the industrial group of enterprises "Tavrida Electric" took over. Some more funds come from private donations from people who are relatives of those who died during the defense of Sevastopol.
VO: Our readers were disturbed by the information that, contrary to the “gratuitousness” of the museum, travel agencies pay some kind of charitable contribution. Is this true?
VV: Yes, this is true. It is about this. A huge number of people can not get to our museum. And these are people, not those who are in Sevastopol, but guests of the Crimea.
Tour operators contact us so that we give the opportunity for their group to bring to us. The supervisory board reclaimed 20 contracts allowed for the conclusion that these contracts provide approximately one tour operator from each resort area of the Crimea guaranteed opportunity to bring people from May 1 to October October 30. In this case, the contract provides for free visits, but we need to discipline tour operators. Discipline tour operators, we can only money.
We establish a charitable contribution for them and draw up an agreement. We conclude a contract from the charitable foundation "35-I Coastal Battery". Through this fund money goes to support us and other projects related either to the battery or to the history of the city. For example, now the initiative of Alexei Mikhailovich (Chaly) for the free reconstruction of Matrossky Boulevard and its transfer to the city will be carried out through this fund, through which we are also funded.
VO: How much is this fee?
BB: 1000 rubles from the bus - for the 30 group of people. Roughly speaking, 20 rubles is the cost for a person. Discipline with a tour operator is important: they have to bring groups up to 35 people, and it is on the day that is reserved for the contract, at that time, not later and not earlier. Otherwise, under the contract, we do not provide the group wiring to our museum. We have a huge number of people. Why did we go to this step? Because Sevastopol residents cannot get to the museum, sometimes with us to 11: 30 — 12: 00 tickets from the administrator on duty can end.
VO: Good that you answered this question. And then the people in the head confusion: everything seems to be free, but it turns out that there is not.
VI: We do not receive money. In general, bank notes in the territory of the battery do not roam. Because we are a non-profit organization. The maintenance of the museum is so expensive that it doesn't even make sense to talk about paid tickets today, because even the federal museums in Sevastopol, although they receive money for admission, they still cannot cover their expenses, therefore they are subsidized through the Ministry of Culture , the Ministry of Defense, the city - on accessories.
VO: Readers ask why there is no 35 battery as a museum in the museum registry? Neither in the state register, nor in the private registries.
VV: I don’t know anything about it, I’ve heard for the first time that we don’t have us somewhere. We have a state registration of a non-profit organization, legal entity, museum association, which automatically falls into all mandatory registries. I can show the documents. And who did not make a registry ...
VO: Once and for all, answer the question: how do you exist a museum?
VV: Yes, and we have documents.
VO: Guides in a museum with specialized education? How to become a guide?
VV: We have a regular staff of guides just 6 people. They are "scientific staff guides." Our staff: the head of the excursion and education department, two methodologists and six guides. A large flow of people in the hot season requires a daily number of guides - 9 people.
We additionally conduct 3-month training of people in our programs, then they take an exam, then they develop their own text, protect it. And only after that we get new guides. All this happens inside our museum.
VO: Guides are not limited in the choice of sources?
VV: We have a standard approved guided tour text. To him, each guide can add something of their own, but only related to what is in the exhibition.
For example, the guide's task is an emotional impact, which means that you need to talk about the fate of people in the events we are talking about.
The guide selects an interesting character for himself and tells in detail about him, about his fate. This distinguishes the base tour from the tour that each guide conducts, individually adapting to his excursionists, their interests, their knowledge and hobbies. Someone interested in the history of coastal defense, someone urban underground structures, someone medicine, someone artillery, someone intelligence and partisans. They insert it into their texts, which, of course, all report to the examination board.
VO: You have just said about the emotional impact of the excursion. People who are interested in history and who went on excursions on the 35 battery, had the impression that the guide had one task - to convince people that the command had abandoned the defenders of Sevastopol and ran shamefully.
VV: No way! I want to say that this is a lie! Formation of opinion is when one or two people come on a tour to find confirmation of their opinions. Moreover, we do not just talk about events to future guides, we teach them, we emphasize. I can report to any screen - our position is as follows: what happened here at the end of June - beginning of July 1942 of the year is called the heroic tragedy of Sevastopol.
At the end of May, Oktyabrsky was trying to bring to Budyonny that Sevastopol would be surrounded from everywhere: from land, from the air, blocked from the sea, that the army would not keep. And the task was set - to keep at any cost. Because Sevastopol and the Crimea were the key to Caucasian oil. If the Germans took the Caucasus as a result of Blitzkrieg, then any armed struggle of the Red Army would probably have ended.
VO: Just in the pantheon of memory, the beautiful voice of the announcer says: “We were abandoned, but we did not surrender ...”
VV: Yes, that's right. Because the people who stayed here as a result of the current situation understood far inside themselves, I can say (my father was here, I have his documents), they couldn’t think that they could leave Sevastopol or stay under by the germans.
But when the Germans launched an offensive from the North side as a result of the third assault, there was a clear understanding that the troops should be evacuated. And the evacuation of the command of the North Caucasus Front (Budyonny) was not planned.
Evacuation is a very difficult military operation. Therefore, they hoped that a miracle would occur and a squadron would arrive, just as she had arrived in Odessa in October 1941.
But there was no miracle, and so they continued to fight with the commanders of the middle level, with the elders. That is why in the pantheon "we stayed, we fought, we hoped."
Indeed, after the departure of the command, they still had hope, because on the night of 2 and 3 July, patrol boats began to arrive from Novorossiysk. It was possible to save only about 3 thousands of people. Then they stopped coming.
And then they were forgotten on 70 years. Because in the USSR there was a rule “from the top down” (from Stalin’s son and below): you went to a concentration camp - it means that you are a coward, it means that you gave up. No one was forgiveness or explanation. Until the middle of 80 in the USSR, there was a questionnaire for admission to institutions of higher education, for a civil service, in which there was a column about relatives who were captured or occupied territory.
And this rule was valid until the middle of the 80s. They were silent, they did not say anything, so as not to harm the next generations, their children and grandchildren. That is why it is so hard for us to get the names of the defenders of Sevastopol.
VO: periodically, during the excursion they say that, apart from the concentration camps, the defenders of Sevastopol went through the Soviet filtration camps and, as it were, received spittle in the face from the motherland.
VI: It really is, this is confirmed. It was quite massive, but not one hundred percent, definitely. They were silent for decades. That is why children and grandchildren come to us to learn about the fate of their grandfathers and fathers - well, it was not customary to say, this was the situation. Then the upbringing of the generation went on patriotism, on heroes, but they did not say anything about the surroundings, about the camps. We talk! It is said in other places where similar tragedies took place.
VO: Very important question. There is some rustling about the thumbs for donations installed in the museum. In Russia, this is all strictly: there must be a typo, it should be clear what, where, the reports. A question from readers: who collects it and for what?
VV: We have a “wonderful woman”, a “social activist” Golubeva in Sevastopol, who periodically tries to raise this issue with a bias on crime ?! These are thumbs, where people donate their donations. Once a week, on Mondays, our commission meets, which includes the head of the excursion department, a personnel specialist, an accountant or someone else from the staff, in general, three or four people. In the presence of the security they open these thumbs, take the money, activate the sums. Everything (pedestals) is locked. Everything is going. Money, which is summarized by an accountant, is transferred to the account of the charitable foundation "35-I Coastal Battery", they do not remain with us. Money transferred to travel agencies as a charitable contribution is also transferred there. They are given a blank form of a charitable contribution, they fill out and sign, we stamp, they leave 1000p with the administrator on duty, who, attaching copies of contracts, gives to the accountant, and she transmits to the charity fund again. There are travel agencies that have a seasonal contract. A fee is the same - 1000 p. from the bus.
VO: Another question from readers. July 3 was the solemn burial of fighters, which was the head of the city of Ovsyannikov, the command of the Black Sea Fleet, the Commissioner of the city, then there was a beautiful concert. But people can’t keep two things in mind: “private territory” and “memorial cemetery”. Is it, nevertheless, federal? How is the memorial cemetery in the usual sense?
VV: First. Again, Golubeva is interested in this; according to our data, no one is interested in this anymore. At the time of Ukraine, when our complex was built, it was created by the decision of the city council, not by the decision of the private person Chaly or Volodin. This decision of the City Council was made after public hearings, which approved the composition of the complex, which included a necropolis for the burial of the defenders found here. The state of Ukraine has been allocated a paper to us, I have it, where it is allowed to produce exhumation and burial in this necropolis on the 35 battery.
And in Russia, with our direct participation and the employees of Tavrida Electric, events occurred with historical meetings, where Chaly was elected, and so on. After returning to Russia, all institutions began to bring their documents in accordance with Russian legislation. Where Russia took 20 years, we had to spend urgently. One was given amnesty a year, the other two years, and the third indefinitely. Only in 2016, we received a letter, according to which it was proposed to issue registration cards for burials in accordance with the order of the Minister of Defense. We did not mind. With Ukraine, this was not required. We just requested the form of cards.
For six months the department of urban economy, who turned to us, thought. After that, representatives of the Ministry of Defense (military memorial group) arrived to us, who visited the museum, expressed their admiration for exemplary preservation for everyone else, how memorials should be preserved, clarified and approved the cards we need to fill out.
After that, these registration cards were handed over to the military commissioner of Sevastopol, the second copy to the municipal government, where they are up to date and have not yet been stamped and signed. When stamps are put on the cards, copies will be handed over to the management of the cultural heritage, which I also gave, but they also did not need them! People who need it, it turned out quite a bit. Moreover, I express my sympathy to the military commissioner - he does not have a military memorial group - and he needs these cards in order to be on the position of military commissariats.
Today they asked me to give them the cards in electronic form, without seals, so that they have them, so that if they ask, they have something to show. Well, there is no one to engage in a specific search, and we continue with the search associations of Sevastopol and other museums.
VO: So you are on the way to design a military cemetery?
VI: No, we have already issued it. I turned to the governor and to the Legislative Assembly back in June 2017 of the year. It happened 3 July. In the morning a decision was made on the government, which was initiated first before the chairman of the legislative assembly of Altabaeva, as one of the creators of the complex. And Altabaeva Ekaterina Borisovna turned to the governor. They said there: “If it is necessary, let's do it, since we are all going here (for burial) now, let's go to the government and accept. All the documents we have, why pull ?! ”
But government decree number 585, where the list of cemeteries really ends on the number 60.
Honest answers to not always pleasant questions, is not it? Pretty good clarify the situation. Nevertheless, the feeling of some intrigue still remains. Despite the fact that the director of the museum "35-I battery" shared with everyone and frankly, and interesting facts, for which Vladimir Ivanovich sincere gratitude. Much became clear after his words.