Military Review

US Air Force F-22 prototype upgraded to full-fledged combat aircraft

82
US Air Force decided to replenish its combat strength aviation in an original way. According to the portal flightglobal.com, The US Air Force removed from storage the prototype of the F-22 Raptor fighter and ordered Lockheed Martin to upgrade it to a full-fledged combat aircraft.

The prototype F-22, numbered 91 – 4006, was stored at Edwards Air Base, California, and has already been transferred to Lockheed Martin. The pre-serial "Predator" is equipped with outdated Block 10 configuration avionics, while most aircraft in service with the United States Air Force are equipped with Block 30 / 35 configuration electronics, Warspot reports.

US Air Force F-22 prototype upgraded to full-fledged combat aircraft


By the end of this year, Lockheed Martin should replace the combat system, as well as almost all the hydraulics and electrical systems of the aircraft. Since the F-22 under the number 91 – 4006 is a pre-production model, it can only be upgraded to the Block 20 configuration (which allows the aircraft to make full use of the main types of weapons). The cost of the upgrade is estimated at $ 25 million.

The F-22 Raptor (“Predator”) is a fifth-generation multipurpose fighter developed by Lockheed Martin, Boeing and General Dynamics in 1997 to replace the fourth-generation F-15 Eagle fighter. In 2005, the F-22 entered service with the US Air Force, during mass production (from 1997 to 2011 year), 187 serial units and 8 prototypes were produced. Due to the reduction in the US Department of Defense order from 384 to 188 units and the ban on exports, the F-22 Raptor has become the world's most expensive production fighter - $ 146,2 million per aircraft.
Photos used:
http://www.globallookpress.com/
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  1. svp67
    svp67 11 August 2017 16: 05
    +3
    Since the F-22 with the number 91-4006 is a pre-production model, it will only be possible to upgrade it to the Block 20 configuration (which allows the aircraft to fully use the main types of weapons)

    Not so much for Korea?
    1. DEPARTMENT
      DEPARTMENT 11 August 2017 16: 10
      +2
      Quote: svp67
      Not so much for Korea?

      Yes, they scare ... Such an expensive airplane will be cherished, like the apple of an eye and God forbid a bird flying by spoiling ..))))
      1. svp67
        svp67 11 August 2017 16: 18
        +4
        Quote: DEPARTMENT
        Such an expensive airplane will be cherished, like the apple of an eye and God forbid a bird flying by spoiling ..))))

        So they already have a lot of them, and soon it will become the main one. If not for them, then what else will they fight?
        1. newcomer
          newcomer 11 August 2017 16: 27
          +4
          Did the Yankees unreserve the line at 22mu? something about 200 pieces, not enough for the main in their air force.
          1. svp67
            svp67 11 August 2017 16: 32
            +3
            Quote: newbie
            Did the Yankees unreserve the line at 22mu? something about 200 pieces, not enough for the main in their air force.

            Actually, 187, in total ... but they planned 780 .... Obviously not enough.
            1. newcomer
              newcomer 11 August 2017 16: 40
              +5
              as I understand from inform. flow over the past six months, the air forces of almost all countries, including advanced and lagging, are betting on increasing production of 4 generations and modernizing the existing fleet. Well, the five so far, fun, like a dessert dish.
              1. Walanin
                Walanin 11 August 2017 18: 05
                +5
                The air forces of all advanced countries rely on the 5th generation fighter. And this is far from fun, but objective reality.
                1. newcomer
                  newcomer 11 August 2017 18: 43
                  +5
                  yes reality. the fifth generation of the air forces of the “advanced countries”, as they said, should have been saturated about ten years ago. can’t.
                  1. Walanin
                    Walanin 12 August 2017 13: 14
                    +1
                    In the United States, there are already more than 400 such fighters — more than all Russian fighter units in total, including rusty rubbish. In China and a bunch of countries, saturation is in full swing.
                    What about this case in Russia?
            2. NEXUS
              NEXUS 11 August 2017 17: 32
              +4
              Quote: svp67
              Actually, 187, in total ... but they planned 780 ....

              How many of them are on alert?
          2. Panzermensch
            Panzermensch 11 August 2017 17: 30
            +1
            And 230 finished F35 in the ranks, if that.
            1. newcomer
              newcomer 11 August 2017 17: 35
              +3
              are you ready?
              1. Panzermensch
                Panzermensch 11 August 2017 17: 40
                +5
                Ready, of course. Negotiators would not buy around the world. Remind me how many Su-35s are in service now? I'm not talking about PAK FA.
                1. newcomer
                  newcomer 11 August 2017 17: 57
                  +4
                  ready to ring their own pilots?
                2. Lex.
                  Lex. 11 August 2017 18: 04
                  +4
                  Ready, of course. Negotiators would not buy around the world. Remind me how many Su-35s are in service now? I'm not talking about PAK FA.
                  What about the s-400, s-300 that will support aviation?
                  And it’s not known how many Americans in the ranks of f-22 times prototypes rolled out probably not from a good life
                  1. newcomer
                    newcomer 11 August 2017 18: 24
                    +4
                    Yes, everything is fine. our c300 / 400 miss, wait. why did you touch on the topic of our air defense, or are you hoping for that?
                    1. UAZ 452
                      UAZ 452 11 August 2017 20: 12
                      +1
                      But what about the curvature of the earth's surface?
                      1. Setrac
                        Setrac 11 August 2017 22: 53
                        +1
                        Quote: UAZ 452
                        But what about the curvature of the earth's surface?

                        And what's wrong with her?
                  2. lance
                    lance 11 August 2017 19: 07
                    +3
                    the su-35 is now 70, in 2018--140, but the su-30mk stretches well with the raptor animal, and the rest of the family is 50 with the a-27, and it is not yet known how the animal will like our reb
                    1. Walanin
                      Walanin 12 August 2017 13: 19
                      0
                      Quote: Lance
                      but with the raptor animal the su-30mk is well stretched,

                      don't stretch. It will be about the same as it was with the 4th generation when it appeared. All sorts of Mig-23 lost dry.
                      Quote: Lance
                      it is not yet known how the little animal will like our reb

                      The converse is also true. The animal also knows a lot of things.
                  3. Boa kaa
                    Boa kaa 12 August 2017 08: 16
                    +2
                    Quote: Lex.
                    time prototypes probably roll out not from a good life

                    Somehow quickly, the States * gingerbread * period came: do you have to scrape through the gimbal in order to finish the prototype in a combat aircraft? bully
          3. karabas-barabas
            karabas-barabas 12 August 2017 00: 17
            +2
            Not enough ??? For what and in comparison with whom? Does anyone have a couple of hundred F-22 aircraft? Most air forces in the world generally do not have as many fighter interceptors of all generations. F-22s are just needed to gain dominance in the air, the first wave, which is also followed not by any tin cans with wings, but by hundreds of aircraft of the F-15/16/18 type, which can follow at a distance. So those are almost 400 5th generation aircraft, the F-22 and F-35, which is quite an impressive figure now.
        2. DEPARTMENT
          DEPARTMENT 11 August 2017 17: 24
          +1
          Quote: svp67
          Quote: DEPARTMENT
          Such an expensive airplane will be cherished, like the apple of an eye and God forbid a bird flying by spoiling ..))))

          So they already have a lot of them, and soon it will become the main one. If not for them, then what else will they fight?

          But for some reason they are afraid to try in a combat situation (but there is where ..) The fighter is certainly serious, but let it be driven under Syrian air defense (we’ll check, even by agreement) hi And the sale is "a pig in a poke .." ..he heh
          1. Ararat
            Ararat 11 August 2017 17: 54
            +4
            He had already flown in Syria and bombed more than once there. And on duty against the Iranian Air Force in the bay.
            1. lance
              lance 11 August 2017 19: 09
              +5
              and didn’t even see how he was accompanied by su30mk
              1. Ararat
                Ararat 11 August 2017 22: 10
                +1
                He did not see that he was accompanied? This is how they saw him that he didn’t even know about it?
        3. Skifotavr
          Skifotavr 14 August 2017 18: 00
          0
          Quote: svp67
          So they already have a lot of them, and soon it will become the main one.

          He won’t because the production was turned off and they are not going to resume it yet. It also does not carry out its planned phased modernization, which was originally planned - in particular, building up the capabilities of the radar and installing an optical-location station, similar to that on the F-35. To top it all, the aircraft suffers from constant minor failures and malfunctions - for example, oxygen equipment, which is why it was even imposed operating restrictions.
      2. Do not care
        Do not care 11 August 2017 16: 36
        +6
        The cost of manufacturing aircraft has two aspects:
        1. When exporting military equipment, as a characteristic of competitiveness in the world market. Here, the price of the aircraft is determined in dollars. In this regard, American equipment is losing to Russian because production costs are one and a half to two times higher.
        2. To equip your own army, As a burden on the budget. Here, the price of the plane in dollars does not make any sense. And it should be determined in the amount of labor. For example: the average salary at Lockheed and supplier companies is about $ 80K per year. This means labor costs per F22 of the order of 1800 person-years. For comparison, take the average salary in the Sukhoi corporation - 500000 rubles per year.
        The purchase price of su 35 - 2.000.000.000 rubles. it means labor costs per plane - 4000 man-years. Therefore, from this point of view, F22 is half as much as even Su 35, I'm not talking about PAFFA

        If we compare the cost of aircraft as a percentage of GDP, then the difference will be much greater
        1. newcomer
          newcomer 11 August 2017 16: 44
          +7
          that's probably why the Yankees turned their 22, and ours do su35. they themselves understood what they wrote?
          1. Do not care
            Do not care 11 August 2017 16: 52
            +3
            Why? Didn’t I fit into your template? Or do you like to hear only that the ear is nice?

            Production was completed due to the fact that the quantity released was enough to fulfill the tasks for the next 10-15 years. And the finances were redirected to the program F 35
            1. newcomer
              newcomer 11 August 2017 17: 05
              +5
              the template then just does not fit “torn to shreds”. Yes, the reason you noted, your dreams are visible. as far as I know, the Yankees simply did not pull the price.
              1. Panzermensch
                Panzermensch 11 August 2017 17: 33
                +1
                Why maintain the production of obsolete F-22s if they have now switched to active production of F-35s? F-22 for more than fifteen years.
                1. newcomer
                  newcomer 11 August 2017 17: 37
                  +7
                  and you already put 35 in a row 22?
                  1. Panzermensch
                    Panzermensch 11 August 2017 17: 44
                    +5
                    Why put them on a par? Cars of different eras. F 22 is the first device of the fifth generation. F 35 - the development of fifth-generation technologies even further. And now there are almost 500 F-22 and F-35 and 0 PAK FA.
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 11 August 2017 17: 47
                      +5
                      Quote: Panzermensch
                      F 22 is the first device of the fifth generation.

                      Yes? I thought it was a sinful thing that here it is the “test of the pen” of the 5th generation
                      1. Walanin
                        Walanin 11 August 2017 18: 00
                        +6
                        Quote: svp67
                        I thought it was a sinful thing that here it is the “test of the pen” of the 5th generation

                        F-117 is not a fighter at all and the concept of “generation of fighters” in principle does not apply to it.
                        So it is F-22 that is the first serial fighter of the 5th generation.
                      2. DEPARTMENT
                        DEPARTMENT 11 August 2017 19: 40
                        +2
                        Quote: svp67
                        Quote: Panzermensch
                        F 22 is the first device of the fifth generation.

                        Yes? I thought it was a sinful thing that here it is the “test of the pen” of the 5th generation

                        Unsuccessful, the Serbs checked ...

                        Well and here's their much-vaunted invisibility super expensive .. hehe

                        So I very much doubt their invulnerability .. soldier
                    2. Michael newage
                      Michael newage 11 August 2017 17: 54
                      +3
                      Are you in kindergarten? Understand, troll, while we have a nuclear shield on our drum, how many toys your owners have. Fershteyn?
                      1. Panzermensch
                        Panzermensch 11 August 2017 17: 57
                        +2
                        Ahahaha, a strongly scoop nuclear shield saved. There is a nuclear shield, but no toilet paper.
                    3. newcomer
                      newcomer 11 August 2017 18: 28
                      +3
                      Yes, all the rules, partners. our su35 not bad hold your f. and on the way, and a moment. so we’ll hold the blow.
                    4. lance
                      lance 11 August 2017 19: 16
                      +1
                      Well, if a prototype is taken as a unit, then we have eleven of them, in 2018--24
                    5. newcomer
                      newcomer 11 August 2017 19: 16
                      +3
                      and you do not measure your f with our pack fa. You measure with with su30 / 35. Pak fa will come soon.
                      1. Panzermensch
                        Panzermensch 11 August 2017 21: 04
                        +1
                        F35 technologically over 50 years ahead of Sushki. Neither Aegis nor AESA in the form of APG-81, nothing even close similar. Technically, there is nothing innovative in the SU, while the F35, thanks to the ultra-modern avionics, is fully integrated into the combat control system, using in battle, working for all purposes, and sending information to all military branches and types of troops.
                2. Lex.
                  Lex. 11 August 2017 17: 55
                  +3
                  Why maintain the production of obsolete F-22s,
                  But why did Japan and Australia prefer the obsolete f-22 rather than the super-duper f-35?
            2. lance
              lance 11 August 2017 19: 13
              +4
              however, how is everything started with your finances, if the United States recognized the fu-35 and its possible resignation as expensive ... to continue further, with our torn economy to no avail?
        2. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 11 August 2017 16: 45
          +5
          Wow!
          IQ level pilots and technicians have not tried to compare?
          fool
        3. cniza
          cniza 11 August 2017 16: 47
          +4
          Have you counted through Magdak yet, have you heard about the competitive price in the arms market?
        4. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 11 August 2017 16: 57
          +13
          Quote: Do not care
          For example: the average salary at Lockheed and supplier companies is about $ 80K per year. This means labor costs per F22 of the order of 1800 person-years. For comparison, take the average salary in the Sukhoi Corporation - 500000 rubles per year.
          The purchase price of su 35 - 2.000.000.000 rubles. it means labor costs per plane - 4000 man-years.

          But in parrots it is still longer :)))
          Sorry, but you can’t measure like that. To understand the fallacy of your thesis is a simple example. Russia's GDP in 2016 exceeded 86 trillion. rub. The average salary is 36 rubles. According to your logic, almost 200 million people work in Russia :)))))
          1. HEATHER
            HEATHER 11 August 2017 17: 03
            +7
            Almost 200 million people work in the Russian Federation: Original! I applaud! fellow 147 million people work 60 million more. Including infants and the elderly! Andrei! hi This is not a stone in your garden. Just a great comment is yours! hi
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 August 2017 19: 13
              +1
              Thank you :))) It seemed to me that such an explanation would be as intelligible as possible :)))
          2. NEXUS
            NEXUS 11 August 2017 17: 36
            +4
            Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
            According to your logic, almost 200 million people work in the Russian Federation :)))))

            But we do not consider guest workers or are they not at all?)) (Just kidding) ...
          3. jonhr
            jonhr 11 August 2017 23: 22
            0
            86 trillion is 1,3 trillion dollars? and three years ago was 2 with a penny trillions of dollars
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 August 2017 19: 12
              0
              And in 2014, he was roughly 79,2 trillion. rub.
              Quote: jonhr
              86 trillion is 1,3 trillion dollars?

              If you count in dollars at the rate, then yes, but you need to do this according to purchasing power. If a plant produces a tractor per day for 2 million rubles at a dollar exchange rate of 30 rubles / dollar and the same at a rate of 60 rubles / dollar, this does not mean that the plant began to produce one and a half tractor per day wassat
              1. jonhr
                jonhr 12 August 2017 21: 18
                0
                but this indicates the depreciation of the ruble with all that it implies. and sooner or later the plant will ask for more in rubles.
                or do you think that prices for everything are just rising so much?
                1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                  Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 August 2017 21: 30
                  0
                  Quote: jonhr
                  but this indicates the depreciation of the ruble with all that it implies. and sooner or later the plant will ask for more in rubles.

                  It is true that due to price increases, sooner or later, GDP at the same production volumes will be pulled up to its pre-crisis dollar equivalent.
                  And the ruble depreciated, the ruble to dollar exchange rate is excellent, I do not see point-blank why GDP is needed :)))
                  1. jonhr
                    jonhr 12 August 2017 21: 34
                    0
                    so simple statement of fact.
        5. The comment was deleted.
        6. Dead duck
          Dead duck 11 August 2017 21: 43
          +10
          Quote: Do not care
          $ 80K per year. This means labor costs per F22 Order of 1800 man-years. For comparison, take the average salary in Sukhoi Corporation - 500000 Rubles per year.
          The purchase price of su 35 - 2.000.000.000 rub. means labor costs for one plane - 4000 man-years. Therefore, from this point of view, Ф 22 is twice cheaper than even sou 35

          What is your interesting "arithmetic" good laughing
        7. Herman 4223
          Herman 4223 11 August 2017 22: 28
          +2
          Write with a pitchfork on water, your salary on dry days is slightly higher, and it’s not determined exactly as you wrote.
        8. Filxnumx
          Filxnumx 12 August 2017 19: 26
          +2
          that is, in your opinion, if at a factory number 1 a unit of production costs 100 cu, and the average salary is also 100 cu (100 cu: 100 cu = 1 person / year), and at a factory number 2 the cost of a unit of production is 100 cu, and the average salary is 50 уе (100 уе: 50 уе = 2 people / years), then does plant No. 1 work twice as efficiently? Who taught you such an economy? I hope you never lit up with your "insights" anywhere else? Now, if we do the opposite division (cp salary / cost per unit of production), then this attitude gets at least some sense (shows the share of costs in the form of labor costs of plant personnel in the cost of the product), but however, it cannot pretend the completeness and objectivity of evaluating the effectiveness of a particular production process, since it is only one of many indicators. That's just by this indicator the production of the Su-2 is more than 35 times more effective than the "2nd animal". Sit down at the factory, work for about 22 years, you can understand what's what. hi
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 August 2017 20: 07
            0
            Quote: Fil743
            Sit down at the factory, work for about 5 years, you can understand what's what.

            I fully agree :)
    2. Maz
      Maz 11 August 2017 18: 25
      +2
      Will give to Israel, for training pilots
  2. spirit
    spirit 11 August 2017 16: 24
    +3
    They’re doing the right thing, I’ll think we have 50 prototypes of which as many as 11 pieces will also be brought to production samples winked
    1. Sergey-8848
      Sergey-8848 11 August 2017 17: 01
      +4
      He will fly, he will teach pilots, he will be in the general classification, he will scare our generals and deputies with a total number, and they will scare us. One plane was added at the heap, and a good one (in spite of everything). 1 piece!
      1. san4es
        san4es 11 August 2017 17: 31
        +5
        Quote: Sergey-8848
        One plane was added at the heap, and a good one (in spite of everything). 1 piece!

        ... and one diminished soldier

        ... not F-22 hi
        1. Boa kaa
          Boa kaa 12 August 2017 08: 42
          +2
          Quote: san4es
          ... not F-22

          F-18 is also not bad ... But, damn it, for some reason it did not turn out to be an envelope, and then it slipped, enemy ... You can see a solid set of the case of this bird ... you can’t hit with a stick!
  3. HEATHER
    HEATHER 11 August 2017 16: 58
    +3
    The cost of modernization is estimated at $ 25 million. Just the salary cut in the embassies.
  4. fa2998
    fa2998 11 August 2017 17: 19
    +1
    Quote: spirit
    They’re doing the right thing, I’ll think we have 50 prototypes of which as many as 11 pieces will also be brought to production samples winked

    Absolutely correct! Aviation equipment has become very expensive, the time of museum prototypes has passed. All pre-production samples should be brought to combat aircraft after testing. The money went great hi
    1. UAZ 452
      UAZ 452 11 August 2017 20: 19
      +2
      That is yes. A modern airplane literally goes for the price of gold. The poor countries even try to put prototypes into operation, but the rich have the opportunity and desire to use even production cars for circus air shows.
  5. Michael newage
    Michael newage 11 August 2017 18: 04
    +5
    Quote: Panzermensch
    Ahahaha, a strongly scoop nuclear shield saved. There is a nuclear shield, but no toilet paper.
    Do not have toilet paper? Well, ask your American masters then. Boots lick them with your tongue, maybe a couple of rolls will give lol .
    1. newcomer
      newcomer 11 August 2017 18: 49
      +6
      Colleague, do not waste time on this jaunty child.
  6. svp67
    svp67 11 August 2017 18: 06
    +2
    Quote: Walanin
    F-117 is not a fighter at all and the concept of “generation of fighters” in principle does not apply to it.

    Actually, the concept of “strike aircraft” is now being used, since it is far from being a pure fighter, but an aircraft capable of fighting both air and ground targets. And generations already apply specifically to AIRCRAFT, which, depending on the equipment, can be "shock", "reconnaissance", "special" ...
  7. Turist1996
    Turist1996 11 August 2017 18: 22
    +1
    What a news!!! What would a prototype bring to a serial model for input into combat units ?!
    This is really an example of the striking difference between current Americans and former "Yankees" !!!!
  8. lance
    lance 11 August 2017 19: 23
    +1
    Panzermensch, well, why isn’t your industry capable of producing enough for our backsides, for this you are created.
  9. Vlad5307
    Vlad5307 11 August 2017 19: 51
    +1
    They upgrade and vparit, for example to the Poles - to them and such as fiction!
  10. Operator
    Operator 11 August 2017 21: 08
    +2
    Panzermensch,
    What is a Jew doing in Germany? laughing
    1. kirgiz58
      kirgiz58 11 August 2017 21: 40
      +4
      Quote: Operator
      What is a Jew doing in Germany?

      He honestly fulfills pay in a famous center in Frankfurt am Main. lol
  11. newcomer
    newcomer 11 August 2017 23: 27
    +3
    Panzermensch, we beat you with hosheny, we beat and we will beat with simplicity, reliability and originality. Yes, the assertion that in su 35 there is nothing technologically advanced, yes. my child, go to sleep.
  12. Alexander Petrov1
    Alexander Petrov1 12 August 2017 05: 03
    0
    Late my friend caught on! It was necessary before - when there were no Russian and Chinese competitors! Time is gone forever! USA lost the race! But he was the only one in 90 years with a 5th generation airplane! And now, according to the logic of things, they should have been ready for the 6th generation! But their self-confidence as always failed and we are good! Like we - as Mr. Obama used to say, "An Exceptional Nation" Well - well! Laughs the one who laughs last!
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 12 August 2017 08: 52
      +3
      Quote: Alexander Petrov1
      Time is gone forever! USA lost the race!
      Unfortunately, the States still continue to lead the arms race ... This is the only country that already has 5-generation cars in service ... And they give odds to all drones ...
      So, the enemy is serious and defiantly arrogant ... All in ambition and completely hung with Wishlist. Because - exceptional!
      1. Alexander Petrov1
        Alexander Petrov1 12 August 2017 14: 09
        0
        I meant that the United States should now, according to the logic of things, upgrade the 6th generation of aircraft !? And they abandoned the project by making only 187pcs - F-22 - like we are the leaders! And now we realized - when our project SU-57 is better! And the Chinese are on their heels! By the way, RUSSIA already has a project for the 6th generation of fighters! And as for the drones - now the Chinese are over there and many have already copied them - and even sell them to the US allies - the same SAUDI ARABIA! Because the United States does not want to sell them in the Middle East - even to its allies and wants to dominate there!
  13. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 12 August 2017 08: 31
    +2
    Panzermensch,
    It was nuclear shield that saved Russia in the 90 years from being divided into specific principalities ...
    About the toilet paper. We have it. But you, zatsam, still can’t get rid of previous experiences. (Whoever hurts - that’s what he says!)
  14. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 12 August 2017 14: 54
    0
    Quote: karabas-barabas
    Not enough ??? For what and in comparison with whom? Does anyone have a couple of hundred F-22 aircraft? Most air forces in the world generally do not have as many fighter interceptors of all generations. F-22s are just needed to gain dominance in the air, the first wave, which is also followed not by any tin cans with wings, but by hundreds of aircraft of the F-15/16/18 type, which can follow at a distance. So those are almost 400 5th generation aircraft, the F-22 and F-35, which is quite an impressive figure now.


    Oh, how scary! drinks Do not roar. during the threatened period, a special forces group will simply destroy the flyers on earth and the mustache, the violin is over! tongue and let the effective managers sit at the helm ... wassat tongue laughing
  15. Kyzmich
    Kyzmich 14 August 2017 14: 37
    +1
    Quote: UAZ 452
    But what about the curvature of the earth's surface?

    The concept of "horizon" you do not know?