Finishing the series about the evolution of fighters in World War II, he came to the conclusion that this should be organized for all types of combat aircraft without exception. And it is worth starting with bombers, since it is this type of aircraft that provided the maximum impact on the enemy. Naturally, in conjunction with fighters and attack aircraft, but nevertheless, the "contribution" of bombers to the destruction of manpower, equipment and infrastructure of the enemy is obvious.
Since the bombers of the countries under consideration have traveled a rather peculiar path of evolution, I decided to arrange them in chronological order, from the moment they appeared.
It is worth saying that both the Soviet Union and Germany, in principle, started at the same time. Having recovered from the change of ruling regimes and defeat in the First World War. But behind the backs of the Germans there was some kind of experience in aircraft construction at the beginning of the century, but the Soviet Union had to start the way from the very beginning.
Russian aircraft designers, who could continue aircraft building in the USSR, had left the country (Sikorsky, Lebedev) by that time, and it is worth once more to bow to Sikorsky for Polikarpov, and Lebedev for the aircraft factories built in Penza, St. Petersburg, Taganrog and Yaroslavl.
We begin, of course, with the aircraft that took part in the first phase of the Great Patriotic War.
The aircraft was the last development of Walter Rethel to the transition to Messerschmitt, so his refinement was already engaged in Walter Blum. Initially, the Arado Ar-66 was developed as a fighter, but had flight performance much lower than necessary.
At the beginning of 1933, an experienced Ar-66 specimen first flew into the sky. And at the end of 1933, mass production was organized at the Arado factory in Warnemünde. A total of 1456 aircraft of this type were built (6 units exported to Spain).
Crew, pers. - 2
Takeoff weight, kg - 1330
Engine - 1 PD Argus As 10C x 240 hp
Maximum speed, km / h - 210
Cruising speed, km / h - 175
Practical range, km - 715
Practical ceiling, m - 4500
Armament: bombs up to 100 kg.
The German Arado Ar.66 aircraft was adopted by Germany since 1934 (according to some sources - since 1933). Before the start of World War II, it was used as a training center for training pilots and assault bombers aviation.
Since the beginning of the war, Ar.66 aircraft were used as night light bombers (similar to the Soviet U-2 aircraft) as part of night bombers on the Eastern Front from autumn 1942 to the end of 1944.
At the end of 1933 of the year, under the direction of A. Kalkert, the Go-145 initial training aircraft was designed in the design office of the Gotaer Waggon Factory. In February, the X-NUMX of the first time went to the sky prototype Go-1934V145.
The production of Go-145 was carried out at the Gotha, AGO, Bayerishe Flugcoygwerke and Focke-Wulf plants in Germany, CASA in Spain (like CASA 1145-L) and TNCs in Turkey. Whereas in Germany, the production of Go-145 was completed in 1944, in Spain, aircraft were produced until the end of 40's.
In total, about 12 000 Gotha Go-145 aircraft were created.
As light night bombers used aircraft modifications:
Go-145А - without small arms (the initial serial training aircraft, which had a duplicated control system).
Go-145C - equipped with 2x7,9 armament (aircraft for training shooters, with MG 15 machine gun of 7,92 mm caliber mounted in the rear cockpit on a hinge).
The main characteristics of the aircraft Go-145A
Takeoff weight, kg - 1380
Engine - 1 PD Argus As 10C x 240 hp
Maximum speed, km / h - 212
Cruising speed, km / h - 180
Practical range, km - 630
Practical ceiling, m - 3700
Bomb load - up to 100 kg.
Since the fall of 1942, light night bombers fought on the Soviet-German front. In October, 1943, the night bomber squadron was renamed the night attack group, which worked on the Eastern Front until the end of the Second World War. German Gota Go-145 aircraft were part of the six groups of night attack aircraft and the Eastern Air Group, which used light bombs, machine guns, rockets and loudspeakers. The last case of widespread use of this type of aircraft was noted in 1945, in the Budapest region.
It should be noted that at this stage all the bombers of Germany were a legacy of the First World War, that is, they were biplanes with a very small bomb load.
In the USSR, which, in general, did not receive the heritage, everything developed a little differently.
Polikarpov, being not the worst student of Sikorsky (irony, of course, the best), based on the groundwork for the only Russian bomber "Ilya Muromets" first created TB-1, and then TB-3.
It is not entirely correct to compare TB-3 and German cars, because in essence the Soviet aircraft was heavy (17 tons) and, in fact, a strategic bomber. But this, as they say, is not our problem.
The take-off weight of the aircraft is more than 17 tons, the useful (bomb) load is up to 5 tons, the maximum flight distance reaches 2500 km, and the speed is up to 200 km / h. The full crew of the TB-3 11 man. The aircraft had machine-gun armament on stationary and sliding turrets, which provided almost complete spherical fire.
Crew: 11 people
Normal takeoff weight: 17 200 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 19 500 kg
Powerplant: 4 M-17F × 715 hp
Engines power: 4 (4 × 533 kW (take-off))
at height: 177 km / h on 3 000 m
at the ground: 197 km / h
Practical range: 1 350 km
Ceiling: 3 800 m
Small: 4-8 × 7,62 mm machine gun YES
The combat load:
normal: 2 000 kg
Maximum: 5 000 kg
in bomb bay: 28 × 50 kg or 82 kg or 100 kg bombs
under the wing: 4 × 250 kg or 500 kg or 1000 kg bombs
By the beginning of World War 22 June 1941, the USSR Air Force had 516 ready planes, not counting the 25, which were subordinate to the Soviet Navy. 23 June TB-3 began night bombing of enemy territory. It should be noted that the TB-3 aircraft did not actually suffer in the early days of the war, as they were based far enough from the borders (by August 1941, the TB-3 was 25% of all Red Army bombers) 1941 year for all reasons, including non-combat losses and abandoned during the retreat, less than 40 aircraft were lost.
Forced attempts to use the TB-3 in the afternoon completely failed: despite the very high survivability, low speed made the aircraft vulnerable to anti-aircraft guns, and the circular, but frankly weak, defensive weapons left virtually defenseless against modern fighters.
However, as a night bomber the TB-3 proved to be a very good option, as the low speed contributed to the accuracy of the bombing. It is important that initially the most experienced pilots were selected for the TB-3 crews, and in good weather, one crew could make up to three combat missions during the night. Given the total number of aircraft involved, this made a significant contribution to the night bombing in the first half of the war.
TB-3 took part in all the important battles of 1941 — 1943, including the Battle of Smolensk, the Battle of Moscow, the Battle of Stalingrad, the breaking of the siege of Leningrad and the Battle of Kursk. By 1 July 1945, the 18 airborne division still had ten TB-3 airplanes on alert.
Y-2 / Po-2
Another brainchild of Polikarpov. The aircraft was not planned as a combat aircraft, it was produced from 1928 to 1954 years, in total more than 33 thousand cars were produced.
But his place on the list is indisputable, since during the war years it was in the image and likeness of the Po-2 that the Germans began to create squadrons of night bombers from among their obsolete aircraft.
So, all the aircraft of this period participated in the war on the sidelines, as night bombers. Which indicates a certain combat potential of the machines. But the place on the battlefield was after all quite different machines.
The prototype machine took to the air 4 November 1934, the year in Dessau. It was a bomber with two star engines Siemens SAM 22. He was added a dorsal machine gun in the open position, the same as being in the ventral gondola to protect the lower hemisphere. Other prototypes followed.
Development of the bomber continued Ju-86 V5 with a modified wing, eliminating undesirable controllability on early models, this aircraft began to be considered as a serial predecessor for the Ju-86А bomber.
In February, thirteen Ju-1936-86s arrived for the evaluation of the Luftwaffe in February, followed immediately by the Ju-0-86, which became the basis of the Hindenburg bomber squadron, later renamed 1-bombing squadron.
The crew of the bomber consisted of four people, the plane could carry eight bombs SC 100. Ju-86 bombers acquired many countries.
Although the Ju-86 practically disappeared from the front line on the eve of World War II as an average bomber, it was the fate of the high-altitude bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. The high-altitude Jumo 207 engine with a two-stage centrifugal supercharger and cab sealing systems was developed.
In 1941, the high-altitude Ju-86 made unpunished flights over Moscow, conducting aerial reconnaissance. The aircraft in service with the USSR turned out to be unprepared for conducting combat at high altitudes at low temperatures. It was necessary to urgently arm the air defense of the Red Army with high-altitude fighters and oxygen equipment.
Crew: 2 person
Maximum takeoff weight: 11 540 kg
Powerplant: 2 × diesel Jumo-207B-3 x 1000 l. with.
420 km / h at an altitude of 9000 m
370 km / h at an altitude of 14 000 m
Cruising speed: 250 km / h at an altitude of 13 700 m
Practical range: 1000 km
Ceiling: 14 400 m
Bombs: 4 x 250 kg or 16 x 50 kg
17 September 1935 of the year at the factory Dassau airport took the first flight of the Ju-87V1. No one thought then that literally in 4, this aircraft would become the symbol of the "blitzkrieg".
Despite the low speed and mediocre aerodynamics (the landing gear was non-retractable), was one of the most effective combat aircraft of the Luftwaffe due to the ability to bomb with a steep dive.
Ju-87 at the beginning of the Second World War was used to directly support the troops and fight against ships. These aircraft formed the basis of air raids during the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and Norway in 1940. In May, 1940, the Ju-87, was instrumental in a blitzkrieg against the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Strong, accurate and very effective against ground targets, the Ju-87 aircraft, like many other dive bombers, were vulnerable to modern fighters. During the battle for Britain, there was a lack of maneuverability, speed and defensive armament, the Ju-87 raids demanded strong fighter cover.
When the Luftwaffe lost air superiority, the Ju-87 again became an easy target for enemy fighters. Since the aircraft was not a replacement, this model continued to be produced up to the 1944 year. By the end of the war, the Junkers mostly replaced the assault modifications of the Focke-Wulf FW-190 fighters, but the dive bombers were used until the last days of the war.
Ju-87 production of all versions from 1936 to August 1944 of the year is estimated at 6500 units.
Crew - 2 people.
Maximum take-off weight - 3324 kg
Engine: Junkers Jumo 210D x 720 hp
Maximum speed - 310 km / h
Distance - 800 km
Ceiling - 9430 m
Course machine gun 1x × 7,92-mm MG 17, machine gun 7,92 mm MG 15 at the shooter.
Maximum bomb load - 500 kg (without arrow)
Standard bomb load - 1 × 250 kg (under the fuselage)
"Stuck" went through a series of modifications, which will be worth mentioning in the next section.
Ju-88 was truly the "workhorse" of the Luftwaffe during World War II. He performed tasks of so different nature that he can rightly be called one of the first multi-purpose aircraft. However, such flexibility of combat use was not the result of a conscious choice, but rather an accident.
10 April 1937 of the year made its first flight Ju-88. The plane was tested in Rechlin and showed good results. The bomber received the Junkers Jumo 211A engines, which developed the 1000 l power during takeoff. with. and 975 hp at an altitude of 4200 m. The speed reached 517 km / h. Take-off weight was 8500 kg.
In 1939, Ju-88A went into the series. The bomber was equipped with two Jumo 211В-1 engines, but three-bladed propellers were replaced with four-bladed, and the new chassis reduced the nacelle capacity.
The crew consisted of 4-x people, take-off weight increased to 10 250 kg. Defensive armament consisted of three MG-15 machine guns, the bomb load in the bomb bay reached 500 kg. Air brakes and external suspension bombs became the standard for the first serial Ju 88А-1 and subsequent models.
Crew - 4 people.
Normal take-off weight, kg - 12 105
Maximum take-off weight, kg - 14 000
Engine - 2 × Jumo 211J-1 x 1410. with.
Maximum speed at height, km / h (m) - 470 (5300)
Practical range, km - 1700
Practical ceiling, m - 9800
Small - 3-4 machine gun 7,92-mm MG-15
Combat load, kg - 2400
Ju-88 was manufactured in quantities of more than 15 000 units in 67 modifications.
Heinkel He 111
The first prototype of the Non-111A was ready in February of the 1935 year. Flights have shown that we have a plane with good flight data. In parallel with the first prototype, two more copies were built: Non-111B (prototype bomber) and Non-111C (prototype passenger aircraft).
A total of over 7300 instances of Non-111 in 59 modifications were built.
The non-111 went through the whole war, becoming on a par with the Junkers-88 the main bomber of the Luftwaffe. The machine is constantly undergoing modifications and improvements.
Crew, pers. - 4
Normal take-off weight, kg - 8600
Maximum take-off weight, kg - 10 000
Engine - 2 × DB 600CG
Engine power, l. with. (kW) - 2 × 930 (684)
Maximum speed at height, km / h (m) - 370 (4000)
Practical range with load, km (kg) - 1630 (800)
Practical ceiling, m - 7000
Small - 3 × 7,92-mm MG-15
Bomb, kg - 1500
Nicknamed the "Flying Pencil" for the long narrow fuselage, the Do-17 was designed exclusively for commercial purposes, and above all as a high-speed mail plane that can also take six passengers on board. In this capacity, the Do 17 VI first flew at the end of the 1934 of the year, after which the second and third prototypes were handed over to Lufthansa for testing.
A fourth prototype was ordered with a bomb bay in the fuselage, as well as two keels-washers at the ends of the stabilizer. It was followed by five similar prototypes, three of which were distinguished by glazing of the bow, and the last three provided for the installation of one MG-15 7,9-mm caliber, operated by a radio operator, behind the cockpit to protect the rear hemisphere. This design was approved for mass production.
The first production model was the Do-17-1, which was built in parallel with the almost similar Do 17F-1, designed for long-distance reconnaissance. On both planes, the MG-15 machine gun was installed for firing down through the hatch, located in front of the bomb bay.
In the E-1 version, the bomb bay contained up to 750 kg of bombs, although a more typical load was the weight of the 500 kg, and in the F-1 it contained a pair of cameras. The Luftwaffe quickly formed four squadrons, arming them with new types of aircraft. The reconnaissance air group received Do-17F-1.
In the spring of 1937, these machines were sent to Spain as part of the Condor Legion. The 15 aircraft of the 122 th reconnaissance air group F joined the 1.A / 88. They, like twenty Do-17-1 from 2.K / 88, have demonstrated the ability to escape from enemy fighters.
Do-17 participated in raids on Poland and France, played a major role in the Battle of Britain, where they confirmed their superiority in speed over the majority of fighters in the canopy dive. Nevertheless, the losses were significant - defensive weapons turned out to be weak.
Do-17 made a series of impressive massive low-level strikes with overflying obstacles, but some parts began to rearm even more advanced Ju-88 before the end of the battle, and by the time Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, only KG 2 remained fully equipped with airplanes Do-Xnumx. Initially, on the Eastern Front, three air groups flew Do-17. The last one was III / KG 17, which transferred its Croatian aircraft IV / KG 3 (a unit similar to the squadron), which continued to operate them until in November 3 of the year was redirected to combat partisans in Croatia.
Do 17 disappeared from the war fronts by the middle of the 1942 of the year, then the substitution with Yu-88 began. All were released 2139 aircraft.
Crew - 4 person
Engines - two BMW VI 12-cylinder V-engines
Take-off weight - 7040 kg
Maximum speed - 355 km / h
Practical ceiling - 5100 m
Flight range (with maximum bomb load) - 500 km
7,92-mm machine gun on the starboard,
7,92-mm machine gun in the lower lamp,
7,92-mm machine gun on the turret at the back of the cab,
7,92-mm machine gun under the fuselage,
Bomb load - 750 kg
This German WWII multipurpose bomber is designed to replace the Do 17 aircraft. The prototype of the Do-217 V1 made the first flight of 4 on October 1938 of the year. The aircraft was built serially from the modification Do 217E-1 to May 1944 of the year, starting in November 1940. In total, 1905 vehicles were produced, which, depending on the modifications, were used by the Luftwaffe as photo reconnaissance aircraft, bombers, night fighters, and also as carriers of radio-controlled planning bombs and for the installation of naval mines.
The new aircraft was created as a larger and more powerful variation of the Do-17. A large number of basic units and structures were repeated on the new aircraft or were similar to the old ones. Even the appearance of the new bomber did not initially differ too much from the last modification of the former Dornier Do-17Z aircraft.
This plane was notable for the new type of Waftenkopf (combat or armed head), where the entire crew was concentrated in one cabin and even the thought arose that this new modification of the “old” Do-17 appeared precisely under the influence of the “Do-217” project. . Both aircraft turned out very similar to each other. But, despite the external similarity and numerous borrowings, the Do-217 had many differences from its predecessor and was completely new in design and in aerodynamics.
A total of 1905 machines were built.
Crew - 4 person
Maximum take-off weight - 16 700 kg
Engines - 2 × 12-cylinder DB 603A × 1 750 hp (1 287 kW)
Maximum speed - 557 km / h at a height of 5700 m
Cruising speed - 400 km / h
Practical range - 2 145 km
Practical ceiling - 7 370 m (with maximum bomb load)
Rate of climb - m / s 3,5
4 × 7,92 mm MG 81 machine gun in the bow and side point
2 × 13 mm MG 131 machine guns in the back and bottom point
Bomb load: up to 4 000 kg
Compared to the Do-17Z, the Do-217E-2 defensive armament was significantly enhanced. The planes were equipped with an electrified DL131 type top turret, in which an 13-mm Rheinmetall-Borsig MG.131 machine gun was installed with tape feed and 500 rounds of ammunition. The turret provided a circular fire on the horizon and an angle of vertical guidance from 0 to 85 degrees.
In addition to the DL131 turret, the aircraft’s defensive armament included one 15-mm (or 20-mm) Mauser MG.151 / 15 cannon with 250 rounds of projectiles in the bow fixed installation (intended for firing at surface targets), one Rnhemethe 7,92-mm machine gun, intended for firing at surface targets). MG.15 (ammunition 750 ammo) in the nasal mobile installation. An 13-mm MG.131 large-caliber machine gun was installed in the lower lens installation, and one MG.7,92 15-mm machine gun was placed in the two side blisters of the cabin.
The aircraft could carry up to 4000 kg bombs, of which 2517 kg were suspended in the internal bomb bay. The nominal bomb load included four 500-kg or eight 250-kg bombs. There were other possible battle load options, for example, two LMA non-contact sea mines or one LTF5b torpedo.
The Fokke-Wulf FW200 and Dornier Do-215 conditional bomber did not make the list, as they were used in the bulk as reconnaissance aircraft. About scouts worth talking specifically. For the same reason, the Heinkel of the Non-50, which was used on the Eastern Front in the same incarnation, did not make the first part of the list.
Obviously, the German designers, having broken off the Versailles Treaty chain, and often creating dual-purpose machines, made just a giant leap and created airplanes, which, if they did not become outstanding, then allowed to implement the blitzkrieg tactics.
Adopted by the Soviet Air Force five years before the start of World War II, the DB-3 and DB-3 (IL-4) aircraft were the main type of combat aircraft of the Soviet long-range and mine-torpedo aircraft until the middle of the 1940.
The planes took part in the Soviet-Finnish war in the winter of 1939 — 1940 of the year, in the Great Patriotic War and in the Soviet-Japanese war as the main long-range bombers of the Red Army air force, as torpedo bombers in the Naval Air Force, and also as transport planes, gliders and reconnaissance towers . The DB-3 and its modifications turned out to be the most massive long-range Soviet bombers of the USSR during the war period.
The first combat sorties of the Great Patriotic War were carried out by long-range bombers during daylight hours, without escorting fighters and at facilities located in the front line. Losses were monstrous. By order of July 3, the highest Soviet command prohibited the use of DB-3 during daylight hours, but the order was not carried out everywhere and not always. At the beginning of August 1941, as a part of four long-range aviation corps, only 75 operational DB-3 and DB-3F remained.
Units produced: 1528
Crew: 3 man (pilot, navigator, side-gunner)
Normal takeoff weight: 7000 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 9000 kg
Powerplant: 2 × M-85 × 760 l. with.
at height: 400 km / h on 4500 m
at the ground: 327 km / h
Cruising speed: 310-320 km / h
Practical range: 3100 km (with 1000 kg bombs)
Service ceiling: 8400 m
Shooting: 3 × 7,62 mm ShKAS machine gun (2500 patr.)
The combat load:
normal: 1000 kg
Maximum: 2500 kg
DB-3f / IL-4
Further development of the DB-3, with a new navigator cabin, a new fuselage (for a different production technology developed for the Li-2), a wing with a new spar and pneumatic control of the landing gear.
IL-4 has become the main tool of influence on the enemy in the far distance. 5 256 units were produced.
Crew, pers. - 4
Maximum take-off weight, kg - 12 120
Engine - 2 M-88B x 1100 HP
Maximum speed, km / h on the ground - 332
Maximum speed, km / h at a height of 5000 m - 400
Practical range, km - 4000
Practical ceiling, m - 8300
one 12,7 mm BT machine gun, two 7,62 mm ShKAS machine guns
Bomb load normal - 1000 kg, limit - 2500 kg
Light bomber, the fate of which could be very different. It is believed that the aircraft was underestimated, ceasing production. The aircraft, called Su-2 (or BB-1 - short-range bomber), was commercially produced from 1940. In November 1941, the Su-2 was modified and received the name Su-4. The new modification of the bomber-attack aircraft began to be produced with the engine M-82 (ASH-82) with a capacity of 1400 l. with.; with him the speed of the aircraft reached 486 km / h.
Su-2 and Su-4 production was discontinued at the beginning of 1942, when the vehicle sets that had been evacuated from Kharkov ended.
Sukhoi’s decision to build a dual-controlled aircraft immediately was also a success. When preparing for flight personnel, there was no need for special training vehicles, and in combat conditions, if necessary, the navigator could always replace the pilot.
A total of about 800 Su-2 and Su-4 warplanes were built.
Crew - 2 people.
Maximum ground speed - 430 km / h
Maximum speed at the height of 5850 m - 486 km / h
Flight range - 910 km
Practical ceiling - 8400 m
Empty weight - kg 3220
Weight curb - 4700 kg
Engine M-82A x 1330 hp
4 × ShKAS motionless and 2 × ShKAS movable
Bomb load: 400 kg
Suspended armament: 8 NURS PC-82 or PC-132
Su-4 was actually a modification of the Su-2 bomber with a more powerful engine (ASH-82F). In addition, this attack bomber had more effective armament - large-caliber guns were installed instead of conventional machine guns.
Having made about 1941 sorties on the Su-5000 in 2, the Soviet Air Force lost all the 222 of these aircraft in the battle and was missing, that is, one loss fell on the departure 22,5. At the same time, the average combat irretrievable losses of Soviet bombers in 1941 amounted to 1 aircraft on 14 sorties, that is, there were more times in 1,61.
In the units that had both Pe-2 and Su-2 in service at the same time, there were also significantly fewer losses of the latter, despite the formally better TTlyak Petlyakov machines: 66 departure, while the Su-1941 on 2 had a loss 1 departure.
Yak-2 / Yak-4
From 1938, this twin-engine double bomber was developed, which was first given the designation "22 aircraft". The machine was built on the principle of minimizing the size and weight of the structure, which, in combination with powerful engines, was to provide high speed characteristics. In the development was used the experience of creating a twin-engine training aircraft UT-3, which, however, was not commercially available.
Crew - 2 person
Curb weight - 5 380 kg
Engines - 2 × M-103 × 960 HP
at the height of 5000 m - 515 km / h
on the ground - 439 km / h
Practical range - 800 km
Practical ceiling - 8 900 m
Machine-gun - 1 × 7,62 mm ShKAS machine gun
Bomb load - 600 kg (400 kg in bomb bay, 200 kg on external sling)
In 1940, 111 aircraft were built.
Crew - 2 person
Curb weight - 5 845 kg
Engines: 2 × M-105 × 1100 hp
Maximum speed - 574 km / h
Cruising speed - 545 km / h
Practical range - 960-1200 km
Practical ceiling - 9 500 - 10 000 m
Machine-gun - 3 × 7,62 mm ShKAS machine gun
Bomb load: 400-800 kg
90 airplanes were released (27 in 1940 and 63 in 1941).
Mass production did not last long and ended due to the fact that the leadership of the Air Force decided that the aircraft did not represent the combat value.
The question of the name of these aircraft is rather complicated than it may seem at first glance. For many years, in the publications of various authors, telling about the aircraft of the Security Council, there was a certain confusion in the definition of designations of various modifications. SB-2 and SB-3 are known, various combinations of the bis index, most likely introduced for quick identification. During the operation of the aircraft such designations were not.
The official documents of TsAGI used the designation ANT-40 and later when defining the SS aircraft. In 1937, after an unexpected arrest of A.N. Tupolev, his initials were banned, so the plane was called TsAGI-40.
The first SS production aircraft was released in the spring of the 1936 of the year. Over the years, the serial construction of the Security Council has repeatedly modernized. In total, until the serial production was discontinued in 1941, 6656 aircraft of various modifications were produced.
Crew - 4 pax
Engines - 2 x M-103 x 960 hp
Flight weight, kg - 6380
Maximum speed, km / h - 450
Flight range, km - 1900
Ceiling m - 9300
Bomb load, kg - 1500
The defense armament of the Security Council includes three rifle points.
The bow installation consists of two ShKAS machine guns of 7,62 mm caliber, while shooting could be carried out from a single machine gun.
The aft upper turret of the TUR-9 with one ShKAS machine gun had almost circular shelling of the upper hemisphere. The shooter was located in the seat, mounted on the movable part of the turret using curved steel pipes. Below, to the rolling ring of the turret was attached cartridge box for 1000 cartridges. The turret had a transparent cap, in the upper part of which aerodynamic compensators were equipped, facilitating its rotation in flight.
Luke installation - LU under the ShKAS machine gun was intended to fire the rear lower hemisphere. It was brought to the combat position after the opening of the lower hatch. Shooting was conducted from the seat TUR-9, in some cases from the knees.
The first case of combat use of the Security Council took place on the afternoon of October 28 on 1936, when the Security Council four struck a Franco airfield in Tablada (near Seville). For a long time (before the advent of the Me-109) they were almost invulnerable to German and Italian fighters. The Security Council was also used against the Japanese in China, on Lake Hassan, and on Khalkhin Gol. He participated in the Finnish war.
By the beginning of World War II, the SB was considered obsolete, but formed the basis of the Soviet front-line bomber aircraft. In June, the 1941 was on the western border of the Soviet Union as part of the Red Army Air Force, there were more than 1500 SB aircraft assembled in the 27 bomber and 4 reconnaissance regiments. During the first two days of hostilities, only ground aviation lost around 400 SS. Over the next six days, some more 200 machines were lost.
Sat actively used on the front to 1943 year. It was used not only for its intended purpose as a bomber, but also for towing gliders and targets, as a liaison, for flying over the front line to the partisans, was used in the GVF as a mail and transport.
The plane had several versions of the names: "H" PK, PK, SB-RK - the final version was fixed Ap 2 in accordance with the name of the chief designer of Arkhangelsk. Art-2 was the last modification of the SB bomber, embodying the achievements of several previous machines, starting with the aircraft of the International Modeling Force.
Art-2 was created as an attempt to modernize the SB aircraft by converting it into a dive bomber. Two M-105P engines were installed on the aircraft.
The first flight experienced SB-RK made in 1939 year.
According to some estimates, in terms of its combat capabilities, it was not inferior to the Pe-2 dive bomber: exceeded it in bomb load, placing bombs inside the fuselage and having an automatic withdrawal of bombs inside the aircraft. For comparison, during a dive, only bombs suspended on external hangers were dropped on the Pe-2, however, for several reasons, they did not go into a large series.
Crew - 3 people. (pilot, navigator, gunner-radio operator)
Normal take-off weight - 6 600 kg
Maximum take-off weight - 8 150 kg
Engines - 2 × M-105 × 1050 HP
on the ground - 415 km / h
at the height of 4700 m - 475 km / h
Cruising speed: 320 km / h
Practical range - 1500 km
Practical ceiling - 10 000 m
Small: 4 × 7,62 mm ShKAS machine gun
Bombs: up to 1 500 kg
in the bomb bay: 6 × 100 kg or 4 × 250 kg or 3 × 500 kg
The report’s final material stated that the SB-RK aircraft, manufactured on the basis of the Security Council, is significantly better than the SB aircraft in its flight tactical data, but lagging behind modern foreign and domestic twin-engine bombers in speed (the latter were understood to be SPB, BB-22 and first of all Pe-2, which showed the maximum flight speed of 540 km / h).
Improvements of the Ap-2 dive bomber continued in 1941. Nevertheless, they decided to remove the aircraft from serial production, replacing it with a new diving Pe-2, which not only had higher flight characteristics, but also had significant reserves for subsequent improvement.
A total of about 200 units that were in service with the air regiments using the SS were released.
The most massive dive bomber made in the USSR.
Development started by the forces of designers and engineers led by V. M. Petlyakov in a special design office of the NKVD, SKB-29 in the middle of 1938.
Created on the basis of an experienced twin-engine high-altitude fighter "100" (VI-100), Pe-2 made the first flight of 22 in December 1939 of the year, at the end of the tests began to be mass-produced at the end of 1940 of the year.
The aircraft had an intra-body compartment with four suspension points (two on each of the Der-21 cassettes), and two more compartments in the rear of the nacelle, in which one DZ-40 bomb rack was mounted. Four FAB-40 bombs, or two FAB-250 bombs could be hung on the external sling on four DZ-500 holders. The bomb load in 600 kg was considered normal, up to a maximum of 1000 kg.
Dive bombing was only possible with an external suspension. Pe-2 could carry all the main types of bombs that were in service with the Soviet Air Force - high-explosive, fragmentation, incendiary, armor-piercing and special caliber to 500. For precision bombing, the navigator used the OPB-1М day sight and the night NKPB-3 sight. From a dive of a bomb, the pilot dropped a PBL-1 sight.
Inherited from the 100 high-altitude fighter on the Pe-2 dive bomber, there was the option of loading bomb-cassettes with K-76 cassettes and K-100 cassettes developed some time later. The K-76 cassette was loaded with non-warped 76,2-mm projectiles with aviation fuses, and fragmentation bombs from AO-100 to AO-2,5 were loaded into K-20. After testing, the use of K-76 cassettes was considered dangerous and prohibited, and K-100 cassettes were considered ineffective.
The small arms of the machine initially consisted of four ShKAS machine guns of rifle caliber. The navigator was turret TSS-1. From the bottom of the cockpit of the gunner-radio operator under the fuselage mounted the rifle installation MB-2, similar to that used on the SB and DB-3F. Two fixed machine guns provided shelling forward. Already with the 13-series, the ShKAS hatch was replaced with a large-caliber turret machine gun of the Berezin design BT with 200 ammunition ammunition. The right front SHKAS was also replaced by the heavy machine gun Berezina BK.
A revision was made on the 110-series airplanes - the ShKAS on-board unit appeared in the cockpit of the radio operator.
After the 275 series, the DAG-10 grenade launcher with 10 anti-aircraft grenades AG-2 began to be installed on the plane.
The second Pe-2 salvo, armed only with ShKAS, was 1,152 kg, and with the Berezin machine guns it almost doubled and became equal to 2,2 kg.
Crew - 3 man (pilot, navigator, gunner-radio operator)
Normal take-off weight - 7 550 kg
Maximum take-off weight - 8 500 kg
Engines: 2 × M-105 × 1100 l. with.
at height - 540 km / h on 5100 m
on the ground - 452 km / h
Practical range - 1200 km
Practical ceiling - 8700 m
Units produced - 11 247 in 22 modifications
TB-7 / Pe-8
For the first time, the question of building a high-altitude heavy bomber (not yet high-speed) was raised by the military in front of the domestic aviation industry in 1931. On June 23, 1931, the Red Army Air Force Research Institute informed TsAGI of its tactical and technical requirements for a high-altitude bomber designated in this document as TB-7. According to preliminary requirements of the Air Force, the aircraft was intended for the destruction of state and strategic targets, attacks on bases fleet enemy and landing operations. According to the requirements of the Air Force Department, the future TB-7 was supposed to have: a combat flight altitude of 7000 m, a maximum flight speed of 250 km / h, a radius of 1500-2000 km, a bomb load of 10000 kg, the crew should consist of 10-14 people.
The design of the aircraft was supposed to allow the use of the aircraft as an escort cruiser. In this case, due to the removal of bomb weapons and the abandonment of the bomb load, additional firing points were established. The cruiser was supposed to be used to escort long-range bomber formations of the main base modification.
Defensive weapons offered extremely powerful. It provided reliable protection from almost all sides. The rear hemisphere was especially strongly defended, as the most likely for fighter attacks.
The option with a stern turret under the gun ShVAK was offered. In addition to it, the upper part of the rear hemisphere was covered by a cannon mount mounted on the back of the fuselage behind the ATSN compartment. The lower part of the rear hemisphere was effectively defended by two Berezin 12,7-mm machine guns, located in the chassis fairings. The upper gun mount also defended the entire upper part of the front hemisphere. In the nose of the fuselage in the ball tower there was a Spark machine gun ShKAS. This whole set of defensive gunnery weapons made this bomber a real “flying fortress”.
Crew - 11 man
Flight weight, kg - 18500
Maximum ground speed, km / h - 305
At the height of 5 000 m, km / h - 443
Practical ceiling, m - 9300
Flight range, km - 7200
Engines - 4 x V-12 AM-35A x 1350 l. with.
The list of weapons and equipment of the aircraft: (In both versions of the aircraft - the crew of 8 people).
a) The commander of the ship is navigator-scorer - 1 man.
b) Pilots - 2 person.
c) Radioman - 1 man.
d) On-board technicians - 1 man.
e) Gunners-3 man.
2 × 20-mm guns
2 × 12,7-mm machine gun
2 × 7,62-mm machine gun
Bombs caliber from 50 kg to 1000 kg with internal suspension, total weight 2000 kg, in the overload version - 5000 kg.
Mass production of TB-7 was launched at the end of 1939 of the year. On the armament of the Red Army Air Force aircraft entered the spring 1941 year. In 1942, all airplanes TB-7 received the designation Pe-8. Discontinued at the end of 1944. In total, taking into account two experimental prototypes, 97 aircraft were built.
During World War II, the Pe-8 aircraft was used mainly for strategic bombardment of enemy rear facilities: Berlin facilities (the first raid was in August 1941 of the year), Königsberg, Danzig, and Helsinki. Along with the distant medium-sized twin-engined bomber DB-3, Il-4 and Ep-2, the heavy Pe-8 was also used to strike in the frontline zone and operational rear of the enemy: in August 1942 of the year - in the Battle of Stalingrad and in the summer of 1943 - in Kursk the battle. The aircraft was in service with parts of long-range aviation. After the war, was used to transport goods in the Arctic. Decommissioned by the Air Force at the start of the 1945 of the year.
Long-range bomber, twin-engine monoplane with a reverse-seagull wing. The plane was designed in the OKB-240 under the direction of R. L. Bartini, but in connection with the arrest of the chief designer, VG Ermolaev continued the work.
Mass production started in October 1940. Ер-2 was produced at the factories № 18 in Voronezh and № 125 (39) in Irkutsk. Production was interrupted in September 1941 and resumed in 1944 year. Total 462 instance was built. In August and September of 1941, the Yer-2 and TB-7 aircraft took part in a series of air raids on Berlin.
Bomb weapons were placed both on the inside and the outside of the suspension. In the bomb bay there were six cluster holders: in the front and rear parts - two KD-2-240 (for bombs in caliber up to 100 kg), and in the middle - two KD-3-240 (from 250 to 500 kg).
On CD-2-240, it was also possible to hang up ampoule cassettes of ABK-240 (two for each). In addition, the bombs could be hung on two external beams Der-19-20 (for bombs up to 1000 kg). Normal bomb load in the bomb compartment did not exceed 1000 kg and allowed in the following variants: . The suspension of the bombs on the internal cassette holders was carried out with a manual winch BL-10, which was located in the cockpit of the radio operator.
Outside, a suspension of two bombs of caliber from 100 to 1000 kg or two pourer chemical devices VAP-500U or UHAP-500 was allowed. The maximum bomb load reached four tons. The bombing was carried out during the day with the help of OPB-2M with electric heating, and at night - NKPB-3.
Defensive armament Er-2 consisted of three machine guns. In the forward part of the fuselage there was an installation of type DB-3F, on which a 7,62-mm ShKAS machine gun was attached to the ball joint.
In the lower hatch there was an MB-2 retractable unit with a second ShKAS machine gun. In the stowed position, it was hidden in the fuselage, but in the combat position it went down (the hatch had to be opened first). The shooter fired from his knee, aiming through the OP-2L periscope sight. The overhanging part of the installation was covered by a fairing, the side flaps of which were made of Plexiglas. Pin-limiter did not allow to direct the barrel to the tail wheel.
On top of the fuselage was a shielded TAT-BT turret with an 12,7-mm BT machine gun. She had a retractable aerodynamic compensator.
Crew - 4-5 people
Curb weight - 12 000 kg
Maximum take-off weight - 13 460 kg
Engines: 2 × M-105 × 1100 hp
at height - 445 km / h
on the ground - 395 km / h
Practical range - 4 100 km
Practical ceiling - 7 700 m
normal: 1 000 kg
Maximum: 5 000 kg (for later versions)
462 units released.
An interesting and promising aircraft was simply destroyed by the lack of a proper engine, and gained fame as a not very reliable machine. However, more 200 machines took part in the Great Patriotic War.
Results The results are very original. Despite the fact that the Soviet designers did not have such a past as their German counterparts, the planes that were created before the start of the war in the USSR, at least, were not inferior to the German ones.
Moreover, a heavy long-range bomber was created in the USSR, which the Germans never did. For which, in fact, paid when they could not work on enterprises evacuated beyond the Urals. Another issue is that our industry could not create Pe-8 in amounts comparable to the US. But that's another topic. As the one in which it will be said about the expediency of the use of bombers.
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Shunkov V.N. Luftwaffe Aviation.
Shunkov V.N. Red Army.
Shavrov V. B. History designs of aircraft in the USSR 1938-1950
Yudenok V.Ye. USSR Aircraft of the Second World War.