Military Review

Poisoned Feather. Poverty, wealth, and the Zemsky seal (continued)

80
“I walked past a field of a lazy man and past a vineyard of a man of a feeble mind: and, behold, all this was overgrown with thorns, its surface was covered with nettles, and its stone fence collapsed. And I looked, and turned my heart, and looked and got a lesson: sleep a little, sleep a little, sit down a little, lay down, and come, like a passer-by, your poverty, and your need — like an armed man.
(Proverbs 24: 30-34)



It should be noted that the underestimation of the role of raising the material well-being of certain strata in society that existed in Russia was directly related to the traditional lack of financial resources. Money in Russia is constantly lacking. There was no money for new ships, and they borrowed money from France, for a decent remuneration of the faculty’s staff, for self-sacrificing labor of regional doctors and teachers, and even for their support - the officer corps - the tsarist government was constantly underpaid! Many historians at the regional level expressly point out that this deficiency did not allow satisfying the literacy needs of workers, as well as their children, and also raising the production itself to a higher level.

Poisoned Feather. Poverty, wealth, and the Zemsky seal (continued)

"Every artisan" (a term beginning of the twentieth century) and policeman.

In Russia of the end in the 19th - the beginning of the 20th century, it was required to have a rank not lower than the rank of colonel and to certainly get a nobility in order to be a respected person and at the same time not need money. But only the general's rank made it possible to feel a financially independent member of society, since the money allowance gap in the imperial army between the junior officers and the generals sometimes differed 9 - 10 times.


Russian women peasant women of the early twentieth century.


Peasant family.

The situation began to change somewhat just in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which was immediately noted by A.P. Chekhov. Professor Serebryakov, a man of humble origin, put out by him in the play Uncle Vanya (1896) marries the daughter of the senator just to get upstairs. Moreover, the historian S. Ekshut on the pages of the magazine “Rodina” noted that Professor Serebryakov, in addition to vulgarity, was an example of a new social mobility: not only individual, but also corporate. But even he, having a high social status of a professor, does not have high incomes and, accordingly, does not have material independence. That is why, having retired, Serebryakov decides to sell the estate that his first deceased wife brought him as a dowry. For the heroes of the Chekhov's drama "Three Sisters" (1900) of the Prozorov sisters (although they are all generals' daughters!), Moving to Moscow, where their brother Andrei must become a university professor, is of the same importance. But, alas, this time of a certain material wealth and social stability was very short for this category of Russian society. In October 1917, it ended once and for all.


But this is already the intelligentsia: a circle of Moscow philosophers, authors of the journal Issues of Philosophy and Psychology: Solovyov Vladimir Sergeevich, Trubetskoy Sergey Nikolaevich, Grot Nikolai Yakovlevich, Lopatin Lev Mikhailovich. 1893.

However, it was necessary to encourage not only the Russian professorship, but also the Zemstvo and municipal publications, freeing them from taxes, as well as by issuing substantial lifting amounts to the publication. Accordingly, the publications pursuing the pro-government policy should subsequently be fully supported, and journalists should be helped materially. It was necessary to organize the release of free editions for peasants and workers, containing all sorts of crossword puzzles and raffles with prizes, as which to present gifts on behalf of the royal family, etc.


Migrant peasants, 1910 year. Siberia.

Extremely low in Russia and the educational level of its population. If you compare it with neighboring Japan, which took the path of market relations at about the same time as its northern neighbor, the data will be simply depressing: in 1902, out of every 100 boys in Japan, 88 went to primary school, and 1907 went to 97. In Russia, for every 100 people, on average, there were only 3,3 people who were literate. “You will not find in the country even the most seedy village, in which there would be no primary school!” - Former Japanese Prime Minister Sigenobu Okuma said proudly in 1909, and in Russia they couldn’t even dream of something like that . At the same time, on average, every third resident of Russia received criminal experience in 1914 in Russia, the increase in crime almost 10 times the growth rate of its population.


Female students of the Higher Women's Architectural Courses E. Bagaeva in St. Petersburg.


Well, this is a female student at home. And surely there was such a kerosene lamp on the table under a green lampshade ...

It is interesting that many moments similar to those that appear today, the newspapers noted even then. You can give an example with children's entertainment reading. Many figures of our culture, as well as VO readers, talk about the alleged dominance of Western films and literature in our country. Let's not argue with this statement, but what is interesting is that the same was said in 1910 year! For example, in his review of the new catalog of children's literature M.O. Wolf in 6 No. 1910 for the year the newspaper Penza Provincial Gazette wrote that for some reason books about the life of “Western European peoples, Americans, Asians, the novels of J. Verne, Cooper, Mariet and Mein Reed dominate, and there is almost nothing about Russian the people. There are books about the life of France, but not about Lomonosov. While the books of Charskaya are “when the mountaineers are fighting for freedom, this is possible, and when Russia is fighting with Tatarism ... this is harmful.” On the basis of this, the newspaper concluded that, reading such books, the child, they say, becomes a foreigner in the soul, and it is not surprising that our children grow up as enemies of their homeland. Journalists have always liked such harsh phrases and statements based on hasty conclusions, haven't they? Although indeed, schoolboys, and Penza among them, literally starved in order to buy editions of pamphlets with stories about the adventures of American detective Nat Pinkerton, despite the fact that teachers unanimously condemned these publications, stating that these brochures were “immoral, dirty and they can only respond to rude requests of an illiterate reader. ” All this is true, but they have never found a substitute! We tried to act only prohibitive methods. But it is well known that many of the Pinkertons were the work of A. Kuprin, who did not disdain to write them for the purpose of earning money. But to hire writers so that from the number in the number in the same provincial, provincial or municipal newspapers to publish better analogs would not occur to anyone, so the inability to carry out information policy in society is evident even in this example.


High school students. Not "kids", but just some stallions ... Also, "Pinkerton" was read out ...

Surprisingly, it turns out that, although the Russian state tried in every way to regulate and control the life and spiritual thoughts of its citizens, the information and social policies of tsarism in the last years of the empire did not at all take into account the magnitude or the demands of society. In the end, all her historical development (as before!) followed the extreme strain of available social resources and, even more dangerous, exacerbated all the contradictions that had arisen in Russian society to the extreme, which led the Russian autocracy to such a sad end in 1917.


Teachers of the early twentieth century. All in uniform. Cane in the hands. Watches (they are not visible here, however) on chains and with hooks.

Interestingly, the above, although in other words, was noted in the Penza district press. The newspaper wrote, for example, over the years of its activities in the province 40 increased the number of literate. And it was good, right? But at the same time “our peasant lives in the same dirty, miserable hut with a thatched roof, constantly suffers from malnutrition, crop failure and hunger strikes turned into a chronic economic illness, and that, in general, he is extremely ignorant, and as a result he finally lost his sense of legality and respect for authority ... " We emphasize only the words “lost the sense of legality”, which once again shows that a systemic crisis of autocracy took place in the country, both in the economy and in politics, and in the sphere of education and culture.


Higher education climbed even in the wilderness ...

Well, the conclusion from all of the above can be unambiguous. And, so to speak, at the “level of two capitals,” that is, Petrograd and Moscow, and at the level of such a blessed provincial city as Penza, the journalists, starting with the appearance of Doctor Diatropov's “Notes”, tried as best they could to do everything possible or else, to blacken the existing power in Russia and Russian statehood. At the same time, they managed to do this even in cases where they spoke from pro-government positions! For example, they printed the loyal letter of sailor Belenky, and right there they criticized the generals and admirals, and, in general, the entire military department, which allowed the defeat of Russia in the Russian-Japanese war. Meanwhile, it was absolutely clear that they had to write about the fact that the main blame for the defeat lay with the revolutionaries, who decomposed the rear of the army, selling our military secrets to the Japanese, organizing strikes at our factories with the money they received from the Japanese!


Schools and district hospitals were built. Well, such as this, for example.

But the government is also to blame, because it neglected the information security of its own security and did not even think that “water wears away a stone,” which means that sooner or later the amount of negative information will turn into another quality and result in the February and then the October revolution. . At the same time, he was distinguished by astounding good nature, strange as it may sound, in relation to his enemies, even if some of them happened to be hung up, held in the Peter and Paul Fortress, or banished for three years to Shushenskoye under the “lamp with a green lampshade ". Meanwhile, the conditions of the reference there the same Ilyich were more than preferential: decent maintenance at the expense of the treasury, so that on the table he always had meat there. He hunted there, wandered through the taiga with a gun, again, he discharged his wife to him, and in the end he wasn’t at all exhausted, but on the contrary, he recovered his health and finished eating! Meanwhile, it was enough to introduce the death penalty for just one membership in the party of the Socialist Revolutionaries or the Bolsheviks and ... everything - no one would dare to join them. And there is no party, and there is no unifying mass of force!


Women appeared in Russia who were not afraid to fly on the then airplanes. Note that the passenger "flyer" legs are connected. "For moral and moral reasons!"

And, of course, all of our Russian intelligentsia, and the newspapers were not published by men at all, for some reason, for all their education, they did not understand at all, and perhaps they did not want to understand that if they would give ordinary people freedom, then ... no maids no polomoyk, no cooks (which even the families of the gymnasium teachers had then, not to mention the “poor professors” of universities - authors' note) they will not have, and they will have to wash themselves and the floors in the apartment themselves wash, besides and also write to the newspaper or lecture, standing behind the chair ! The simple feeling of self-preservation should have told them that the people would surely remember all this “their superiority of mind” and social status and punish them for “dissimilarity”. And although they couldn’t foresee the “professorial steamboat” at that time, they should know better the boorish and envious type of many of our people, their envy of the people of “pure labor” - “I put on my glasses and think that everything is possible, but also wearing a hat! ”- and not to let the genie out of the bottle.

Moreover, history by that time had already clearly and more than once managed to prove that those who should be enslaved, enslaved anyway ... but ... our journalists either didn’t know this, or simply didn’t want to know, and acted like people who burned the house, just to warm yourself a little by the fire! Of course, they deliberately did not oppose Russia and for the most part did not want what happened then, but everything turned out right according to the popular saying: “a bad head, it doesn’t give rest”, and in the case of our domestic journalism, the end of the ХIX - the beginning of the twentieth century in a different way, well, you just can’t say it!


Well, and plowed for the most part is still like this ...

PS A very interesting factual material about the Penza zemstvo and the reflection of its activities in the periodical press of that time is contained in the dissertation of Anna Yuryevna Piterova “Penza provincial press about zemstvo activities in the period from 1864 to 1917: On the example of“ Penza provincial sheets ”and“ Penzensky Bulletin zemstvo ": dissertation ... candidate of historical sciences: 07.00.02. - Penza, - 248 p., Protected in 2005 year.


The interior of the noble house "Silver Age".

To be continued ...
Author:
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  1. Cat
    Cat 16 August 2017 07: 15
    +11
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, you raised the topic! Well then, keep the punch.
    Two points that I want to complement.
    1. The fundamental difference between a monarchy and a republic is the principle of unity of command. In the state where the monarch rules, it is not Vanya Tratur that is responsible, but the anointed of God.
    1. Cat
      Cat 16 August 2017 07: 51
      +10
      2. You correctly said that the foundation of progress is education. But how many ordinary children of workers and peasants could receive it? Units!
      And one cannot say that in the Russian Empire there were no socio-economic elevators! They were, but they were tied to the personality of the sovereign (Menshikov, Demidov) or to knowledge (Lomonosov).
      Moreover, the people knew this and by any means tried to secure their children in parish schools, real schools, etc. But how many could afford it?
      An example from my family tree, my great-great-grandfather at the N. Serginsky mining and metallurgical plant worked in the 4th generation as a gigoreman (coal miner), he was able to give his sons “three” classes of the parish school, which was essentially extraordinary! Moreover, he was proud of it!
      1. kalibr
        16 August 2017 10: 56
        +3
        Well, my great-grandfather is the same. He was promoted to master of steam locomotive workshops and educated all 5 surviving children, 4 sons and 1 daughter. But he didn’t drink or smoke, he worked like a damn. And level: you had a coal-burner - mastered 3 classes. I have a master - children mastered the gymnasium, and the teacher's institute. So the steps that people climbed on average depended on the wealth of their ancestors.
    2. Boris55
      Boris55 16 August 2017 08: 12
      +6
      Quote: Kotischa
      In the state where the monarch rules, it is not Vanya Tratur that is responsible, but the anointed of God.

      It’s interesting, but it’s not like a monarchy here, but who is blamed for all mortal sins? laughing

      Quote: Kotischa
      it cannot be said that in the Russian Empire there were no socio-economic elevators

      1887. The decree "on cook children" virtually canceled all elevators.
    3. kalibr
      16 August 2017 11: 19
      +1
      This is not a topic. This is a chapter from a forthcoming monograph. Yes, in any way she will not be published. Therefore, what got there - according to the materials of the newspapers, that's the point!
  2. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 16 August 2017 07: 28
    +7
    Oh Glory, Glory, not a simple one, and you raised the topic. It is not customary today to tell that before the revolution, not everything was completely bad. Peck with. laughing By the way, exactly the same way now most of the media and mass media imagine life in the “scoop” boring and dull. And smart and bright people fighting her (just watch the movie “Hipsters”) Each next power does everything in order to defame and discredit the previous one.
    Meanwhile, it was enough to introduce the death penalty for just one membership in the Socialist-Revolutionary Party or the Bolsheviks
    The revolutionaries did not make the mistake of the tsarist government, and did not step on the same rake. After coming to power, they started shooting just for belonging to certain classes, for gold epaulets, and the competitors were not deprived of the same attention.
    Thank you for the article. hi
    1. kalibr
      16 August 2017 10: 59
      +2
      This is not quite a topic. These are chapters from the monograph, which is ready for publication, but will not be printed in any way. And you won’t erase a word from a song. True, we have to reduce the number of footnotes. In the original, it is half a page A4.
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 16 August 2017 07: 39
    +5
    The author very carefully described the social stratification of the RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
    Class differences were simply irresistible. Despite the wealth, many wealthy people were limited in the rights and opportunities for developing their own enterprises.
    The aristocracy were either foreigners or * calic * with foreigners * RUSSIAN last names *.
    * The best minds * and writers felt that this could not be endless, therefore there were so many calls for solving social problems. In addition to social problems, the RUSSIAN EMPIRE annually had hunger, which was not always the result of crop failure.
    The fact that in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE education was subordinated to Western ideology resulted in the February Revolution with the arrest of the tsar and the division of RUSSIA into zones of occupation by the allies, and then into the bloody excesses of the refined aristocracy and nobility in relation to RUSSIAN PEOPLE.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 16 August 2017 13: 33
      +2
      Vasily 50 (it used to be: Ivanov-3, Orlov-7, and now?) "The aristocracy were foreigners or" Kali "with foreigners" if: Golitsins, Dolgoruky, Vyazemsky, Vorontsov, Tols
      those, the Yusupovs and the other foreigners, then where are the Russians?
      I recommend you: "Velvet book" of your province (should be archived, Library) there you will find 6 sections and read how many foreigners
      1. kalibr
        16 August 2017 13: 41
        +2
        By the way - yes, an excellent source for improving self-education! Gives a lot!
        1. Cat
          Cat 16 August 2017 14: 17
          +6
          It depends on what you look for!
          For example, beyond the Ural Mountains, foreigners are a dime a dozen, but mainly Tatars, Bashkirs, Vaguls and other local peoples!
          By the way, the barons of the Strogonovs and Demidovs in the Middle Urals are more than aristocracy! For example, after the sale of Serginsky plants by Dimidov to the merchant Gubin, demand for iron fell. The reason is in the brand "Old Sable", which was put by N.N. Demidov. Such a disaster affected all Demidov factories after selling them to outsiders.
          The aristocracy in Serginsky plants did not serve. Every serf worker had the opportunity to climb, and education was one of the springboards. But one thing is the Strogonovsky Bilimbaevsky factory where the first school appeared in 1742 or Nizhneserginsky where a real school was created only 150 years later with a hook, in the first years of the reign of Nicholas II and then with the money of society. In this connection, simple Gamayun people saw the aristocracy only in the waters and even after the opening of the hydropathic.
          I don’t see the point of blaming in the darkness of my countrymen, moreover, ordinary workers found opportunities and sent their children to study in a parish school, and with the advent of real schools in the latter. It is only necessary to remember another thing, for example, that the request for the establishment of a school in Sergas has been lying in the county Yekaterinburg for 30 years! Yes, three decades! At the same time, Tatar youth could study in Arakaevo in Mercedes. 20 versts from Earrings.
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 16 August 2017 15: 00
      +3
      to the monarchist
      More than weird comment. Are you a descendant of a nobleman?
      Industrialists were never aristocrats, they could consider themselves anyone, but only in the family circle. Therefore, the king was demolished by those who were oppressed despite wealth and titles. Even Prince. Lviv did not belong to aristocrats, unlike their own ancestors.
      1. Cat
        Cat 16 August 2017 20: 51
        +1
        Vasily!
        Just two examples:
        The Demidovs are the family of the richest Russian entrepreneurs (breeders and landowners), advanced under Peter I thanks to the creation of arms and mining enterprises in Tula and the Urals. The founders of many Ural cities, who made an invaluable contribution to the development and development of the Ural land.
        In the XIX century, the Demidovs departed from entrepreneurial activity and joined the ranks of the European aristocracy (with the title of princes of San Donato bought in Italy). Of these, the mother of the Yugoslav regent Pavel Karageorgievich came from. In 1873, one of the branches of the clan inherited, in the person of Major General Nikolai Petrovich Demidov, the name and title of His Grace Princes Lopukhins (his grandfather, Grandmaster Grigory Alexandrovich Demidov, was married to Ekaterina Petrovna, the nee Serene Princess Lopukhina).
        The genus of the Demidovs was introduced in the I, II, III parts of the genealogy books of the Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and St. Petersburg provinces (Gerbovnik, II, 135 and XIII, 66).

        The Stroganovs (Strogonovs) are a kind of Russian merchants and industrialists from whom large landowners and statesmen of the 1923th – 1917th centuries came. Natives of wealthy Pomeranian peasants. Since the XVIII century - the barons and counts of the Russian Empire. The family stopped in 1817. The Stroganovs were the largest landowners in the Kama region from the 1917th century until 1,5. In XNUMX, the Permian possessions of the Stroganovs were transformed into a mayorate, the area of ​​which remained unchanged until XNUMX - about XNUMX million acres of land.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 16 August 2017 07: 58
    +5
    All this is true, but they have never found a substitute!
    ..Why, the answer was our answer to Nat Pinkerton - Action stories about the famous Russian detective I.D.Putilin, written by Roman Lukich Antropov, who was known to readers in the late XIX - early XX centuries under the pseudonym Roman Dobry. Everything by Roman Dobry was written forty-eight detective brochures. The author imitated the style of writing stories about Sherlock Holmes, and the doctor who helps Putin in his searches resembles Dr. Watson. Although Antropov died in 1913, the stories about Putin were reprinted until 1917 .. It seems to be the first to be published in the years of Soviet power in at the end of the 80s. Then in the 90s I published, I wanted to buy somehow, but my hand trembled .. It seems that one of the stories was printed in the Slovo or Literary Study magazine, and it didn’t make a special impression on me.
    1. kalibr
      16 August 2017 11: 17
      +2
      You wrote it well. But ... the entire text of the article (and books!) Is based on newspaper material of those years. Quotations are given even in "". And there is nowhere (!) This author and his books were not mentioned !!! That is, I heard about him. But ... "not in the press"!
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 16 August 2017 15: 34
        +3
        But did the Moscow Leaf in Penza not be written out and not distributed? It was necessary to say that the newspaper was popular, probably all the intelligentsia of Russia wrote it out, outlining the material, overshadowed the humorous magazines of those years, especially when Nikolai Pastukhov was the editor-in-chief of this newspaper, twice in a week on the pages of the “Moscow Leaf” published his novel in four books “The Robber Churkin”.
        1. kalibr
          16 August 2017 17: 13
          +1
          He probably wrote out, but we took only local newspapers.
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 16 August 2017 14: 44
      +2
      Sailboat, you are right before the revolution, a lot of similar literature was published about Russian peasants. Moreover, the literature was of two levels: a) a primitive copy of the same Pinkerton and (b) quite good quality "Putilin's notes." I had to read one and the other literature: pre-revolutionary newspapers leafed through the archives and there came across such primitivism (I looked through the top and read, I can drink it better (remember "urine therapy"). I took the impression of Putilin in the library positive
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. bober1982
    bober1982 16 August 2017 08: 17
    +4
    I liked the article and photo, thanks to the author.
    I watched with interest the photos of female students, pretty girls, smart and beautiful faces. Apparently the same female students of Bestuzhev courses congratulated the Japanese emperor on the victory of the Japanese at Tsushima and Mukden (sent a telegram), Russian society was morally decomposed, not only female students were rejoiced.
  7. San Sanych
    San Sanych 16 August 2017 08: 46
    +3
    I don’t believe that in Russia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries out of 100 people, only 3 were literate, although of course there was a lag from advanced countries, but not to the same extent
    1. IvanTheTerrible
      IvanTheTerrible 16 August 2017 09: 18
      +5

      Table from the first edition of TSB (1929-30gg)
      Politruk as always juggles and lies.

      Grammar schools were available in all district cities, which many European countries could not boast of. Universities under Nicholas II had such freedom that they had never had under Soviet rule (and still do). In terms of the number of women enrolled in higher education, Russia ranked first in Europe, if not all over the world. [Brazol B.L. The reign of Emperor Nicholas II 1894-1917 in the figures and facts of 1958]
      On the eve of the war in Russia there were more than one hundred universities with 150 students (in France at that time, about 000 students). Many universities in Russia were created by the relevant ministries or departments (military, industrial, commercial, spiritual, etc.). Education was inexpensive: for example, at prestigious law schools in Russia it cost 40 times less than in the USA or England, and poor students were exempted and paid scholarships [Nazarov M. Russia on the eve of the revolution and February 000. Our contemporary "N20. 1917]. It should also be noted that in Tsarist Russia students paid from 2 to 2004 rubles a year, that is, from 50 to 150 dollars a year (the tsar’s exchange rate was 25 dollars) - this fee was less than in the USA or England at that time.
      By social origin, in 1914, students from non-Russian students, workers \ guilds \ peasants, etc. were: in secondary technical schools - about 80%, in technical universities - more than 50%, in universities - more than 40%. The proportion of students from the common people increased every year. [S.V. Volkov. “The intellectual layer in Soviet society” (Chapter I, The intellectual layer of pre-revolutionary Russia)]
      1. alebor
        alebor 16 August 2017 10: 38
        +3
        Of course, 3% is a very low figure, but the table above is also somewhat crafty, since it takes into account only young men, while the literacy of women in the villages was several times lower than men's. About 30% in men and about 10% in women (at the beginning of the 20th century). Literacy among the elderly was lower than that among young people. In addition, literacy in the eastern "national suburbs" was lower than in the central provinces of Russia and significantly lower than in the western provinces. So for 1897 year, literacy in the Estland and Livonia provinces is higher than 77%. Pererburgskaya 55, Moscow 40, Nizhny Novgorod 22, Oryol and Smolensk 17, Kursk 16, Penza 14. In Siberia, literacy among men is about 19% and women about 5% - on average 12%. In Central Asia, men are 8%, women -2%.
        Across the entire population of the empire, men have literacy of about-29,3%, women-13,1%, and on average 21%.
        http://istmat.info/node/86
        1. IvanTheTerrible
          IvanTheTerrible 16 August 2017 11: 02
          +4
          Meanwhile, it is obvious that the tsarist government did not "keep the people in the dark," as many red-brown authors and commentators write here, but systematically worked to solve the problem of illiteracy. Moreover, given the dynamics, this problem would be solved even earlier. Without terror and massacres.
      2. kalibr
        16 August 2017 11: 10
        +2
        The figure is taken from: Pavlov D, School of ambition // Around the World 2009. No. 12. S. 140.
        And verified by: Zotkina N. A. The phenomenon of deviant behavior in the everyday life of Russian society at the turn of the 07.00.02th - 2002th centuries: crime, drunkenness, prostitution (based on materials from the Penza province): Dis. Cand. East. Sciences: 235 / Penza State Pedagogical University named after V. G. Belinsky. Penza, XNUMX.S. XNUMX.
        1. San Sanych
          San Sanych 16 August 2017 11: 25
          +1
          why did you take the figure from this particular source? I’ve never been interested in numbers, but “walked” on the Internet, but I didn’t find less than 21% (the lowest number), in most of the rest it’s an average of 25 to 30, and then, on average, in the country, and in the western and central provinces this figure is higher
          1. kalibr
            16 August 2017 11: 29
            0
            But because there it was given along with the Japanese data. And there was no sense in sharing them.
            1. San Sanych
              San Sanych 16 August 2017 11: 44
              +1
              that's how myths are born)
            2. Curious
              Curious 16 August 2017 12: 54
              +5
              Literacy in Russia. We open the book.

              See page 82 for a table. Literacy of the population of the Empire in the provinces.
              The average for the Empire is 21,1%.
              The highest percentage in the Privisle Territory -30.5
              European Russia 22,9%.
              The most illiterate of the Caucasus, Siberia and Central Asia. 12.4, 12,3, 5.0% respectively.
              1. kalibr
                16 August 2017 13: 30
                +4
                This is a good source link! Thank you Victor Nikolaevich! The text for printing will be amended.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 16 August 2017 14: 15
                  +4
                  On the same page, on page 115, there is also the number of students per 1000 people with a breakdown by educational institution, up to spiritual ones. Just a useful thing.
  8. Curious
    Curious 16 August 2017 09: 41
    +6
    "In Russia, the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries required to have a rank no lower than the rank of colonel and to certainly receive the nobility in order to be a respected person and at the same time not to feel the need for money. "
    Colonel - rank of 6th grade according to the Table of Ranks. The state equivalent is a college adviser.
    The monetary maintenance of the colonel of the RIA in 1913, if he did not serve in a remote area, amounted to 2460 rubles a year. If in a distant, like Kemsky volost, 2796 rubles a year. The issuance of money was carried out as a rule once every 4 months (the so-called issuance "in a third of the year").
    For comparison, the salary of a qualified (I emphasize-qualified) worker, for example, a driver or an electrician in 1913 amounted to 1168 rubles a year, the highest artisans 762 rubles a year.
    Well, the faculty.
    According to the staff of the Voronezh Agricultural Institute, established in 1912, the professor's salary was 4500 rubles. (3000 rub. Salary and
    750 rubles each canteen and apartment), associate professors received 3000 rubles, full-time teachers - 2100 rubles, senior assistants and laboratory assistants - 1500 rubles, junior assistants and laboratory assistants - 1200 rubles (Report on the state of the Voronezh Agricultural Institute of Emperor Peter I for 1913 // Notes of the Agricultural Institute of Emperor Peter I in Voronezh, Volume I. - M., 1916.)
    As you can see, the colonel in the Russian Empire is by no means the ultimate dream. For the same money, you could wipe your pants in the Voronezh agricultural technology.
    Anyway, material independence is a philosophical question. Consumer morality and dependence on consumption were not born today. And they can bring to the degradation of the identity of anyone, not like a colonel.
    1. kalibr
      16 August 2017 11: 12
      +1
      In Russia, there were only 404,7 thousand people who received an annual income of more than 1000 rubles. Generals of various ranks and positions received 4000 - 18 rubles. In addition, they could have additional income associated with lecturing in various military schools or with the leasing of land, forest land, houses, etc. Some generals owned property such as factories and factories (Shatsillo M.K. The social composition of the bourgeoisie in Russia at the end of the nineteenth century. M. 000. S. 2004); The general sitting in the State Council had a maintenance, as a rule, of 195 thousand rubles. The chief of the General Staff received the same amount. The commander of the troops of the Kiev military district and at the same time the Kiev governor general, adjutant general V. A. Sukhomlinov had 18 thousand rubles. annual income. In addition, according to contemporaries, the general (in the future, the Minister of War) was sophisticated in the art of covering expenses, practicing, in particular, distant business trips, which traditionally relied on additional payments and calculation of horse riding, while these trips have long been made by train . Knowing who to get advice on the stock exchange game, Sukhomlinov managed to “save” and put 51 rubles into the bank for six years, although his salary for this period (702 - 737) amounted to 1909 thousand rubles. In general, the revenues of the generals during the reign of Nicholas II were large, and sometimes simply huge. (K. Zhiltsov. The social status of the general in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. // Questions of history, 1915. No. 270.
      1. Curious
        Curious 16 August 2017 23: 42
        +1
        "In Russia, there were only 404,7 thousand people who received an annual income of more than 1000 rubles."
        This figure was determined by the Commission on the introduction of income tax under the Ministry of Finance, created in May 1905. The figure is empirical, some authoritative comrades are in doubt.
  9. kalibr
    16 August 2017 11: 26
    0
    Quote: Boris55
    It’s interesting, but it’s not like a monarchy here, but who is blamed for all mortal sins?

    Greece also had democracy. And how many rules did Athens Pericles have? From 461 to 429 !!! Not every king has so many rules! Yes, and Themistocles. From 493 to 471 years! His catchphrase, which the Athenians did not forgive him: "Are you already tired of receiving blessings from my hands?"
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 16 August 2017 17: 41
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      С 461 by 429!!!

      Vyacheslav - do not find a failure in the logical chain?
      1. kalibr
        16 August 2017 21: 35
        0
        I do not understand what the failure is, what?
      2. albert
        albert 16 August 2017 21: 45
        +2
        BC means.
        1. kalibr
          17 August 2017 05: 41
          +1
          Exactly, but what do they think? In descending order! This is still in the 5th grade pass.
        2. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 17 August 2017 06: 42
          0
          Quote: albert
          BC means.

          Got it. feel
          Quote: kalibr
          This is still in the 5th grade pass.
          But when they write about BC, they usually make a footnote "BC" Indication of dates without a footnote by default marks our era. request
  10. kalibr
    16 August 2017 11: 40
    +1
    Quote: Ingvar 72
    Each next power does everything in order to defame and discredit the previous one.

    But this, by the way, is wrong. Any power has continuity. Continuity is important and necessary. Growing out of the mud is stupid! In any society, there is something good and bad. Unfortunately, our story was not oriented, roughly speaking, to the search for% of what scientific, technical and SEPARATE social progress gave society. In the USSR, this was considered inextricably. And it’s clear why. Meanwhile, since 1917, the welfare of Russian citizens has grown and is now growing continuously. The question is what gives society + scientific and technological progress and what gives ... scientific and technological progress + society.
    Example: I just got a horizontal-vertical elevator for people with disabilities in Penza, in the underpass at the Penza-1 station. Conveniently. Foreign elevator! Question: Until 1991, we had no disabled people? Hands reached them only in the 2017th? And there are many such examples. And it is advisable to separate the flies from cutlets. Where are social accomplishments, where is just NTP.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 16 August 2017 17: 55
      +2
      Quote: kalibr
      Any power has continuity.

      No. not any. The 1917th and 1991th proved the opposite. Maybe the definition should sound like this - "Must have continuity"?
      Quote: kalibr
      Meanwhile, starting in 1917, the welfare of Russian citizens

      Note - it grew not only in Russia. It grew in general, in the world. At different rates. but still growing.
      Quote: kalibr
      : Until 1991, we had no disabled people? Hands reached them only in the 2017th?

      But you are in vain. Disabled people, if any (!), Should be taken care of by NON-INDIVIDUAL neighbors, not elevators. The state is now purposefully changing the mentality of people, encouraging consumption (my hut from the edge), and offsetting this by the obligation of developers to install elevators for the disabled. Reminds farce of the obligation of supermarkets (ugh on English!), On the device parking for the disabled. They are what. want to. what would really be so many people with disabilities? Sounds like yes. hi
      1. kalibr
        16 August 2017 21: 33
        0
        I don’t care what they want. I know that people with disabilities were up to 91 years old, but then they did not have what there are now, ramps, elevators. A disabled person couldn’t get into my PSU physically. Now they are studying on an equal basis with others. It's good? In my opinion, good! And all people with disabilities, by the way, will say the same thing. They ... and rightly so!
        And you are wrong! Just 17 and 91 proved just that. Any power has continuity to a greater or lesser extent, but any. Smart power uses it. Stupid is shy about her!
  11. San Sanych
    San Sanych 16 August 2017 12: 25
    +3
    and what does it have to do with the commentary: “they mostly plowed like that”, that is, with the help of horses? in Japan, for example, in 1896, there were 240 thousand rickshaws, and as a phenomenon, they ceased to exist only after WWII
    1. kalibr
      16 August 2017 13: 25
      +2
      The article is not about Japan, and the picture is good!
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 16 August 2017 13: 28
      +1
      Take a closer look at the photo The horse is ONE !!! And the second draft animal, then-COW !!!!!!
      1. kalibr
        16 August 2017 13: 39
        +1
        Especially a picture in the subject!
        1. Curious
          Curious 16 August 2017 14: 45
          +3
          I did not understand a little why the horse in the plow raised questions from the Tractors of the row cultivators then. Even in the USA.
          1. San Sanych
            San Sanych 16 August 2017 16: 37
            0
            Quote: Curious
            I did not understand a little why the horse in the plow raised questions from the Tractors of the row cultivators then. Even in the USA.

            that's it
        2. San Sanych
          San Sanych 16 August 2017 15: 49
          0
          Quote: kalibr
          Especially a picture in the subject!

          to this topic? please explain
          1. kalibr
            16 August 2017 17: 11
            +1
            What to clarify something? What is incomprehensible? It is a question of media coverage. Including the poverty of the village. Then there were already inexpensive plows. But the man plows plow. What else to explain?
            1. Koshnitsa
              Koshnitsa 17 August 2017 10: 01
              +1
              This is a wheeled plow and this, judging by the clothes, is not Russian, at best a labus or Chukhonets, or maybe a Swede with a German.
              On the cows did not plow, it is harmful, she will stop giving milk.
              1. San Sanych
                San Sanych 19 August 2017 17: 16
                +1
                Afftor is not important for reliability, it is more important for afftor to impose his point of view, and he uses the methods of modern CNN, and how they reliably reflect reality is now not a secret for many
  12. Monarchist
    Monarchist 16 August 2017 13: 12
    +1
    Quote: kalibr
    Well, my great-grandfather is the same. He was promoted to master of steam locomotive workshops and educated all 5 surviving children, 4 sons and 1 daughter. But he didn’t drink or smoke, he worked like a damn. And level: you had a coal-burner - mastered 3 classes. I have a master - children mastered the gymnasium, and the teacher's institute. So the steps that people climbed on average depended on the wealth of their ancestors.

    And I would add determination.
  13. kalibr
    16 August 2017 13: 23
    0
    Quote: Monarchist
    And I would add determination.

    This is 100%. Grandfather's sister, Olga, studied at the courses and became a teacher of French. I set a goal to marry ... a colonel! And on the eve of 1914 it came out! And she went with him to Paris, where she "profiled" a pot of gold! For this, my grandmother always condemned her. Somehow I’ll write the corresponding article and put her photo there. In old age, there was a perfect Baba Yaga, and in his youth - wow!
  14. kalibr
    16 August 2017 13: 28
    +1
    Quote: San Sanych
    that's how myths are born)

    No. This is how monographs with references to sources are born. They are considered peer-reviewed publications, that is, then there will be reviews and someone will indicate that the authors' point of view based on ... is controversial, because ... the link ... There are data from other sources .... That's it done!
    1. San Sanych
      San Sanych 19 August 2017 15: 05
      +1
      some monographs are worse than pornography, especially when affiliates of such monographs try to rig the facts, and use unscrupulous, subjective sources, trying to pass them off as truth in the final court
  15. parusnik
    parusnik 16 August 2017 13: 48
    +2
    Quote: kalibr
    You wrote it well. But ... the entire text of the article (and books!) Is based on newspaper material of those years. Quotations are given even in "". And there is nowhere (!) This author and his books were not mentioned !!! That is, I heard about him. But ... "not in the press"!

    And it won’t be .. the detective was a "low" genre .. at that time .. And the stories about Putin, apparently, were not impressive even then ..
  16. Monarchist
    Monarchist 16 August 2017 14: 01
    +1
    Quote: bober1982
    I liked the article and photo, thanks to the author.
    I watched with interest the photos of female students, pretty girls, smart and beautiful faces. Apparently the same female students of Bestuzhev courses congratulated the Japanese emperor on the victory of the Japanese at Tsushima and Mukden (sent a telegram), Russian society was morally decomposed, not only female students were rejoiced.

    And now the situation is similar, but just now they are not falling off sending telegrams to “horses” and “barmales”, and there are many of them: among pensioners there is a high percentage of those who are violet, what happens in Ukraine is won by barmales or them, and among young people even more such
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 16 August 2017 14: 29
      +2
      Repin’s painting “The Manifestation of October 17, 1905”, curious, everyone exult, it’s interesting where everyone later disappeared, you can guess - they washed themselves with blood. They rejoiced and rallied in 1991, rode in Ukraine and so on and so forth. As the Earth turns, so people (crowd) everything is jumping.
  17. The comment was deleted.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 16 August 2017 14: 45
      0
      Quote: den-protector
      Does such a country have a happy future for slaves and masters?

      This is how the Ukrobandera people express themselves, they have their favorite verbiage about the country of slaves and non-slaves, they understandably proudly call themselves country of non-slaves.
    2. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 16 August 2017 16: 00
      +4
      Quote: den-protector
      But not only the process is important, but the final result is more important. And the result of the "activity" of imperial Russia is a defeat in the Russo-Japanese war, a generally unsuccessful participation of Russia in the WWII, walking in the wake of the "allies", the king’s conniving attitude to the so-called elite and other traitors, degradation of the rear, as a result, a social explosion whose causes have been accumulating for centuries.

      According to Shpakovsky differently, it is obvious to him wink
      Meanwhile, it is clear that they should have written that the main blame for the defeat lay with the revolutionaries who had decomposed the rear of the army, selling to the Japanese our military secrets, which organized strikes in our factories for money, they get from the Japanese!
      The chip is almost new! About the Germans, it was already sore. Although, everything is in line: "Tell someone 100 times a pig, he will begin to grunt"
      "... the end result is important." wink
  18. Monarchist
    Monarchist 16 August 2017 15: 45
    +2
    Vyacheslav, thank you for your work (without flattery: you have interesting publications), but I want to supplement you a little (you should not be offended): 1. "You will certainly receive the nobility so that it is respected by man" - you can get the nobility, including hereditary it was comparatively easy (take the “Table of Ranks”) the same V. Ulyanov is a nobleman, and if you take into account his origin (I have met a lot of serious and low-grade work), the form is completely.
    2) the percentage of literate in the Republic of Ingushetia was not so low (they said a lot about this below the comrade). I will say on the basis of my own observation:% of education and now depends on: age, gender, ethnic origin and place of birth. Among the indigenous inhabitants of the Caucasus (pensioners) there are many illiterate, and among women there are many ATTITUDES AT ALL. From my class (I am a native of a higher education only 2 people, and most of them are the “ninth corridor”.
    3. A man plows by himself, but in what European country then did the peasant use a tractor?
    4. Regarding Pinkerton, I already wrote below that "criminal literature" was 2 levels, but that philistines are for some reason more interested in "made in tsuzaya" literature. This is a different question.
    By the way: Dumas, Jules Verne, Main Reed, Cooper are high-level authors, to be completely honest I can’t call Russian writers to write in the style of Cooper and Main Reed, and adventure literature has always been, is and I think will be popular among youth.
    1. kalibr
      16 August 2017 16: 41
      0
      I agree with you - when the right things are written, what should be offended? Just an article - a chapter from a monograph, in the preface (and it was) it is written that according to materials from newspapers. This is one level of sources. Compare them, with us - this is a different topic, right? My opinion on Mine Reed is not mine - taken from the newspaper as a point of view. Again I can’t say how massive it is. But she was. That is, this is one of the layers of information, a slice. Another layer, a slice will be taken, and the result may be completely different.
  19. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 16 August 2017 16: 00
    +6
    Quote: den-protector
    And fairy tales about the good king-guarantor, who wants, but cannot, and about bad boyars, are not necessary.

    Bull's-eye. Very nice comment.
    In any class-antagonistic society, there is a class struggle that ultimately leads to revolution, and revolution is a struggle not for life but for death between the past and the future. This is the law of the development of society.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 16 August 2017 17: 53
      +2
      "In any class-antagonistic society, there is a class struggle,
      which ultimately leads to revolution "////

      [continuing your sentence] ... if the ruling classes are on time not inferior to the economic demands of the working people.
      And do not carry out economic and socio-political reforms.
      Then, instead of revolution, the evolution of the economic system and society takes place.
  20. kalibr
    16 August 2017 16: 36
    +1
    Quote: There was a mammoth
    According to Shpakovsky differently, it is obvious to him

    This is why you decided this? You first read such a pile of newspapers since 1864, and then blame me for something. People do not know where they have the archive in the city and how the door opens there, but ... everything goes the same. Or do you think that I do not understand that in the 17th year there was a systemic crisis? Trying to prove that everything was OK? What is it clear from? Do not interpret someone else’s text with your thoughts. And the passage quoted by you shows WHAT IT WAS TO WRITE ABOUT, and not at all about what it was or what I think so. Journalists simply did not know how then ... to manage society through the dissemination of information. There was no James Grunig theory yet, Edward Burneys did not write his book "Crystallizing the Public", Arthur Poinsonby ... either. By the way, you read excerpts from his book. They are on the Internet. You will learn where Goebbels got his ideas from, from whom he studied.
    1. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 16 August 2017 19: 49
      +3
      Quote: kalibr
      And the passage quoted by you shows WHAT IT WAS TO WRITE ABOUT, and not at all about what it was or what I think so.

      So you WRITE THAT THIS IS FABRICATION. WHAT YOU THINK ABOUT. What does the archive have to do with it?

      "Meanwhile, it was enough to introduce the death penalty for just one membership in the Socialist-Revolutionary Party or the Bolsheviks and ... all - no one would dare to join them. But there is no party, there is no unifying mass of force!"
      Are you sure that no one dared? Or is it also from FICTION? What does history have to do with the archive and its doors?
      1. kalibr
        16 August 2017 21: 27
        0
        Moreover, this is all based on the study of many documents, newspapers, reports, dissertations and monographs. On all that you never did. A blind man cannot discuss painting, and a deaf man is not a music critic. But you still read Ponsoynby. I don’t give anyone bad advice.
        1. Was mammoth
          Was mammoth 16 August 2017 22: 19
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          I don’t give anyone bad advice.

          In the sense of "hang"?
          To study and draw conclusions are different things. With the second you are very bad.
  21. kalibr
    16 August 2017 16: 57
    0
    Quote: den-protector
    1917 showed

    He showed a lot of things ... to all of humanity. Today, when it went into the post-industrial era and information became dominant, everything has changed. It is primitive to assure that some workers there, which, by the way, are already almost completely gone, there are already more servants, can do something there. Everyone who needs ... the tops can now buy, others can be intimidated, for others - special equipment. Right now I can write an article about that ... yes, right, the Aztec calendar says - the end of the world on December 28, "scientifically proven." If the media is massively replicating it ... the information pressure will be so great that ... the purchase of sedatives will go off scale (a bonus from pharmaceutical companies), the sale of servalistic kits will grow significantly, and most importantly, when the president speaks, he will say “fools” and save everyone. People from the heart ... they will feel relief ... adrenaline and ... gratitude to him. And what is the class struggle ... everyone will be glad that they did not die untimely death. This, of course, is just an example. But an example is indicative! At the last "end of the world" people heated our hands for 30 billion rubles. And millions had psychological discomfort ... So now the upper classes have learned to manage the lower classes, and the middle ones are actively helping them in this. And yet there is such a bugbear as nuclear war, a meteorite fall, aliens again ... Ebola! Even the Romans knew that the plebs needed bread and circuses. Today, the Internet and foreign cars have been added to them. And that’s all! 200 rubles worth a comment in the inflorescences! "Masha, I bought unique gaskets ...". But you can, after all, write about something else and “hammer” them all “nafig”. And enough money for that!
  22. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 16 August 2017 20: 40
    +3
    Quote: voyaka uh
    [continuing your sentence] ... if the ruling classes are on time not inferior to the economic demands of the working people.
    And do not carry out economic and socio-political reforms.
    Then, instead of revolution, the evolution of the economic system and society takes place.

    First, the ruling classes of bourgeois society will never abandon private ownership of the means of production (source of exploitation), and the transition to social ownership is possible only through a socialist revolution.
    Secondly, if for a moment we imagine that the ruling classes of bourgeois society suddenly abandon private property, then it will still be a revolution (revolution from above), because thereby the ruling classes will destroy themselves.
    1. kalibr
      16 August 2017 21: 24
      0
      Higher, middle and lower have always been and will be. It is like soil fertility — the best, medium, and worst lands. And if so, then the higher ones will invariably go upstairs and spit down from there, the middle ones help them and dream of taking their place, and the lower ones dream of justice, because they have nothing to dream about. And the higher and middle will have them ... in full! So it was and it will be so.
      1. Curious
        Curious 16 August 2017 23: 11
        +3
        Some kind of vulgar metaphysics - they always spat and will always spit. This, you know, claims to absolute truths, which, as you know, do not exist. How many times in the history of statements like "was, is, and will be" turned out to be nothing more than a declaration.
        1. kalibr
          17 August 2017 14: 17
          0
          Strange, Victor, something "led" you ... "the ruling classes of bourgeois society will never give up private ownership of the means of production" - did I write this? But it was! And there it is! "the ruling classes of bourgeois society will never give up private ownership of the means of production" - this is also not what I wrote, is it? And this is the assumption of the author of the comment, and he will tell you that this will never happen. And ... what kind of declaration is this? You still write about Savva Morozov to me ... and yes, there are always cranks. And there are only 15000 Russian capitalists who keep money in the banks of Cyprus. But really - more. Tell them about him ...
  23. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 16 August 2017 23: 34
    +5
    Quote: kalibr
    Higher, middle and lower have always been and will be. It is like soil fertility — the best, medium, and worst lands. And if so, then the higher ones will invariably go upstairs and spit down from there, the middle ones help them and dream of taking their place, and the lower ones dream of justice, because they have nothing to dream about. And the higher and middle will have them ... in full! So it was and it will be so.

    It’s good that you no longer teach the History of the CPSU ...
  24. kalibr
    17 August 2017 05: 33
    0
    Quote: Curious
    "was, is, and will be"

    At least nothing has ever changed here. Always spit from top to bottom. Sometimes horizontally, but still falls down. Up too, but rarely and ... does not reach!
    1. Curious
      Curious 17 August 2017 08: 08
      +1
      Everything happens for the first time:
      First tooth and first grade ...
      And about the desire to go up ... I have one good friend. In the dashing 90s, he soared so high that it’s scary to imagine. And then once and ... Muzzle in g ... ram.
      I met him when he decided to take off again. But gained a small height and .... Everything, says, is enough, the rest is vanity, how much a person does not need. At first I didn’t even believe that he flew so high, they enlightened me from the side. In a word, time will tell.
      1. kalibr
        17 August 2017 14: 11
        0
        Specific examples are “my iconic”, “brother of the seven-grandfather,” and so on. They don’t talk about anything or prove anything. People took off and will take off. Someone will stay in the middle. Someone will always be downstairs. Initially! Father drank, pregnant mother smoked, grandmother dropped her head on the floor ... Someone had genes, someone ate a radioactive mushroom. And everyone needs to multiply, everyone needs money, cars and women.
  25. kalibr
    17 August 2017 05: 39
    0
    Quote: There was a mammoth
    To study and draw conclusions are different things.

    And all the conclusions have long been made ... And J. Orwell wrote about this better than me.
  26. kalibr
    17 August 2017 05: 42
    0
    Quote: Curious
    "In Russia, there were only 404,7 thousand people who received an annual income of more than 1000 rubles."
    This figure was determined by the Commission on the introduction of income tax under the Ministry of Finance, created in May 1905. The figure is empirical, some authoritative comrades are in doubt.

    I do not care. There is a source. Indication of pages. To polemicize it is a separate topic.