Today, the assessment of the "Stalinist terror" has become in our country a touchstone, password, a landmark in relation to the past and the future of Russia. Condemn? Resolutely and irrevocably? - Democrat and common man! Any doubts? - Stalinist!
Let's try to deal with a simple question: Did Stalin organize the “Great Terror”? Maybe there are other causes of terror, about which all-human-liberals prefer to remain silent?
So. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks tried to create an ideological elite of a new type, but these attempts were stalled from the very beginning. Mainly because the new “national” elite believed that by its revolutionary struggle it fully deserved the right to enjoy the benefits that the “elite” had anti-people only by birthright. In the nobility mansions, the new nomenclature was quickly accustomed, and even the old servants remained in place; they only began to be called the attendants. This phenomenon was very broad and received the name "kombarstvo".
Even the right measures proved ineffective, thanks to the massive sabotage of the new elite. I am inclined to include the introduction of the so-called "party maximum" as the right measure - banning party members to receive a salary more than the salary of a highly skilled worker.
That is, the non-partisan director of the plant could receive a salary in 2000 rubles, and the Communist director only 500 rubles, and not a penny more. Thus, Lenin sought to avoid the influx of careerists in the party, who use it as a springboard to quickly make their way to grain places. However, this measure was half-hearted without simultaneously destroying the system of privileges attached to any post.
By the way V.I. Lenin in every way opposed the reckless growth in the number of party members, and then engaged in the CPSU, starting with Khrushchev. In his work “Children's disease of leftism in communism,” he wrote: “We are afraid of excessive expansion of the party, because careerists and crooks, who deserve only to be shot, will inevitably cling to the government party.».
Moreover, in the conditions of the post-war shortage of consumer goods, material goods were not so much bought, but distributed. Any power performs the function of distribution, and if so, then the one who distributes, he uses the distributed. Especially cling careerists and crooks. Therefore, the next step was to update the upper floors of the party.
Stalin announced this in his cautious manner inherent to him as early as the XVII Congress of the CPSU (B.) (March 1934 of the year). In his Report, the Secretary General described a certain type of workers who were disturbing the party and the country: “...These are people with famous achievements in the past, people who believe that the Party and Soviet laws were written not for them, but for fools. These are the very people who do not consider it their duty to execute the decisions of the party organs ... What are they counting on, violating Party and Soviet laws? They hope that the Soviet government will not dare to touch them because of their old merits. These arrogant grandees think that they are irreplaceable and that they can violate the decisions of the governing bodies with impunity ...».
The results of the first five-year plan showed that the old Bolsheviks-Leninists, with all their revolutionary achievements, were not able to cope with the scale of the economy being reconstructed. Not burdened with professional skills, poorly educated (Yezhov wrote in his autobiography: education is an incomplete elementary), washed with the blood of the Civil War, they could not “ride” complex production realities.
Formally, the real power in the localities belonged to the Soviets, since the party did not legally have any authority. But party bosses were elected as chairmen of the Soviets, and, in fact, they appointed themselves to these posts, since the elections were held on an unallocated basis, that is, they were not elections. And then Stalin undertakes a very risky maneuver - he proposes to establish in the country real, not nominal, Soviet power, that is, to hold secret general elections in party organizations and councils of all levels on an alternative basis. Stalin tried to get rid of the party regional barons, which is called, in an amicable way, through elections, and the real alternative ones.
Considering the Soviet practice, this sounds rather unusual, however, it is. He hoped that the majority of this audience without support from above would not overcome the popular filter. Moreover, according to the new constitution, it was planned to nominate candidates for the Supreme Soviet of the USSR not only from the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), but also from public organizations and groups of citizens.
What happened next? December 5 1936 adopted a new Constitution of the USSR, the most democratic constitution of its time in the whole world, even as acknowledged by ardent critics of the USSR. For the first time in the history of Russia, secret alternative elections were to be held. By secret ballot. Despite the fact that the party elite tried to put a spoke in the wheels during the period when the draft constitution was created, Stalin managed to finish the job.
The regional party elite perfectly understood that with the help of these new elections to the new Supreme Council, Stalin plans to make a peaceful rotation of the entire ruling element. And there were about 250 thousand. By the way, the NKVD approximately counted on such a number of investigations.
Understand something they understood, but what to do? I do not want to part with my chairs. And they are also well aware of another factor - in the previous period they have done this, especially during the Civil War and the collectivization of the people with great pleasure that not only they were not chosen, but also have them smashed head off. The hands of many high regional party secretaries were stained with blood. During the period of collectivization in the regions was complete arbitrariness. In one of the regions Khataevich, this dear person, declared a de facto civil war in the course of collectivization in his particular region. As a result, Stalin was forced to threaten him that he would shoot outright, if he did not stop mocking people. Do you think that comrades Eihe, Postyshev, Kosior and Khrushchev were better, less “cute”? Of course, the people remembered it all in 1937, and after the election, these bloodsuckers would go to the forest.
Stalin did plan such a peaceful rotation operation, he openly told the American correspondent in March 1936 to Mr. Howard Roy about this. He said that this election would be a good whip in the hands of the people after a change of leading cadres, and he said that with a “whip”. Did yesterday's "gods" of their counties tolerate a whip?
The Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), which took place in June 1936, directly aimed the party leaders for new times. When discussing the draft of the new constitution, A. Zhdanov, in his extensive report, spoke out quite unambiguously: “The new electoral system ... will give a powerful impetus to improving the work of the Soviet bodies, the elimination of bureaucratic bodies, the elimination of bureaucratic flaws and distortions in the work of our Soviet organizations. And these shortcomings, as you know, are very significant. Our party organs must be prepared for an electoral battle ...". And he further said that these elections would be a serious, serious examination of Soviet workers, because secret voting provides ample opportunities to divert undesirable and objectionable masses of candidates, that party bodies are obliged to distinguish such criticism from hostile activities, that non-partisan candidates should be treated with all support and attention, because delicately speaking, they are several times more than party members.
Zhdanov’s report publicly voiced the terms "inner-party democracy," "democratic centralism," and "democratic elections." And demands were made: to prohibit "nominating" candidates without elections, prohibiting at party meetings to vote "on the list", to ensure "unlimited right for the party members to withdraw nominated candidates and unlimited right to criticize these candidates." The last phrase was entirely related to elections of purely party bodies, where a long time ago there was not a shadow of democracy. But, as we see, the general elections to the Soviet and party organs are not forgotten.
Stalin and his people demand democracy! And if this is not democracy, then explain to me what, then, is democracy to be considered ?!
And how do the party grandees who have gathered at the plenum - the first secretaries of the regional committees, regional committees, the Central Committee of national communist parties react to Zhdanov's report? And they miss it all by the ears! Because such innovations does not taste the same "Leninist old guard", which has not yet been destroyed by Stalin, and just sits at the plenum in all the grandeur and splendor. Because the vaunted "Leninist Guard" - a gathering of small satrapchikov. They are accustomed to living in their estates barons, individually disposing of life and death of people.
The debate on the report Zhdanov were almost torn down.
Despite the direct calls of Stalin to seriously and thoroughly discuss the reforms, the old guard with paranoid persistence turns to more pleasant and understandable topics: terror, terror, terror! What, to hell, reform ?! There are more urgent tasks: hit the hidden enemy, burn, catch, reveal! People's Commissars, the first secretaries - everyone is talking about the same thing: how they eagerly and on a large scale reveal the enemies of the people, how they intend to raise this campaign to cosmic heights ...
Stalin loses his patience. When another speaker appears on the podium, without waiting for him to open his mouth, he ironically throws: - Have you identified all the enemies or have you left? The speaker, the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee Kabakov, (another future “innocent victim of Stalin’s terror”) ignores the irony and is habitually bursting that the electoral activity of the masses, so that you know, justpretty often used by hostile elements for counter-revolutionary work».
They are incurable !!! They just can not do otherwise! They need neither reform, nor secret voting, nor several candidates on the ballot. They are foaming at the mouth to defend the old system, where there is no democracy, but there is only the "boyars volyushka" ...
On the podium - Molotov. He says efficient, sensible things: you need to identify real enemies and pests, and not throw mud at all the "captains of production" without exception. It is necessary to learn, finally, to DIFFER THE GUILTY FROM THE INNERABLE. It is necessary to reform the bloated bureaucratic apparatus, it is necessary to evaluate people according to their business qualities and not to put past mistakes in the line. And the party boyars - all about the same: to search and catch enemies with all the ardor! Root deeper, plant more! For a change, they enthusiastically and loudly begin to drown one another: Kudryavtsev - Postysheva Andreev - Sheboldaeva, Polonsky - Shvernika Khrushchev - Yakovlev.
Molotov, unable to stand, openly says:
- In a number of cases, listening to speakers, it was possible to conclude that our resolutions and our reports passed by the speakers ...
Exactly! Not just passed - whistled ... Most of those gathered in the hall do not know how to work or reform. But they are perfectly able to catch and identify enemies, they adore this occupation and do not think of life without it.
It does not seem strange to you that this "executioner" Stalin, downright imposing democracy, and his future "innocent victims" ran from this democracy like the devil from incense. Yes, and demanded reprisals, and more.
In short, it was not the “tyrant Stalin”, but the “cosmopolitan Leninist party guards” that ruled the ball at the June 1936 plenum of the year that buried all attempts at a democratic thaw. She did not give Stalin an opportunity to get rid of them, as they say, GOODLY, through elections.
Stalin's authority was so great that the party barons did not risk openly protesting, and the Constitution of the USSR, nicknamed Stalin, was adopted in 1936, which provided for a transition to real Soviet democracy.
However, the party nomenklatura reared up and carried out a massive attack on the leader in order to convince him to postpone the holding of free elections until the end of the struggle against the counter-revolutionary element.
The regional party bosses, members of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), began to escalate their passions, referring to the recently opened conspiracies of the Trotskyists and the military: they say, it’s only possible to give such an opportunity as former white officers and noblemen, secret kulak underlings, priests and Trotsky pests rush into politics .
They demanded not only to curtail any plans for democratization, but also to strengthen emergency measures, and even to introduce special quotas for mass repressions in the regions - they say, to finish off those Trotskyists who had gone from punishment. The party nomenclatura demanded authority for the repression of these enemies, and she beat herself to herself. And then the parochial party barons, who constituted the majority in the Central Committee, who were frightened for their leadership positions, began repressions, first of all, against those honest communists who could become competitors in future elections by secret ballot.
The nature of repression against honest communists was such that the composition of some district committees and regional committees changed two or three times a year. Communists at party conferences refused to be part of city committees and regional committees. Understand that after a while you can be in the camp. And this is at best ...
For 1937, about 100 thousand people were excluded from the party (in the first half of the year 24 thousand and in the second half - 76 thousand). In the district committees and regional committees, there were about 65 thousands of appeals that no one had time to consider, since the party was engaged in the process of exposure and exclusion.
At the January plenum of the Central Committee 1938, Malenkov, who gave a report on this issue, said that in some areas the Party Control Commission restored from 50 to 75% of those excluded and convicted.
Moreover, the nomenclature to Stalin and his Politburo at the June Plenum of the Central Committee of 1937, mainly from among the first secretaries, actually gave Stalin an ultimatum: either he approves the lists of repressions "from below", or he himself will be dismissed.
The nomenklatura at this plenum demanded authority for repression. And Stalin was forced to give them permission, but he acted very slyly - he gave them a short time, five days. Of these five days, one day is Sunday. He expected that they would not fit in such a short time.
And it turns out, these bastards already had lists. They simply took lists of those who had served earlier, and sometimes not the kulaks, former white officers and nobles, Trotsky pests, priests, and simply ordinary citizens, classified as class-alien elements. Literally on the second day, telegrams came from the field: the first were comrades Khrushchev and Eiche.
Then his friend Robert Eiche, who was shot for justice in 1939 for all his cruelty, Nikita Khrushchev was the first to be rehabilitated in 1954.
We didn’t talk about bulletins with several candidates at the Plenum: the reform plans were reduced solely to the fact that the Communists would nominate candidates “together” with non-partisan candidates. And in each bulletin from now on there will be one single candidate - for the sake of repulse the intrigues. And in addition - another wordy verbiage about the need to identify the masses of entrenched enemies.
Stalin had another mistake. He sincerely believed that N.I. Yezhov is a man of his team. Indeed, for so many years they worked together in the Central Committee, shoulder to shoulder. And Yezhov had long been the best friend of Evdokimov, an ardent Trotskyist. Over 1937 –38 threes in the Rostov region, where Evdokimov was the first secretary of the regional committee, 12 was shot 445 people, more than 90 thousands were repressed. These are the figures carved out by the Memorial Society in one of the Rostov parks on the monument to the victims of ... Stalinist (?!) repressions. Subsequently, when Yevdokimov was shot, a check was established that in the Rostov region lay without movement and no more than 18,5 thousand appeals were considered. And how many of them were not written! The best party cadres, experienced business executives, the intelligentsia were destroyed ... And what, he was so alone?
Interesting in this regard are the memoirs of the famous poet Nikolai Zabolotsky: “A strange conviction matured in my head that we were in the hands of the fascists, who, under the noses of our government, found a way to destroy the Soviet people, acting in the very center of the Soviet punitive system. I informed this of my guess to an old party member who was sitting with me, and with horror in his eyes, he confessed to me that he himself was thinking the same thing, but he did not dare give anyone a hint about it. And indeed, how else could we explain all the horrors that happened to us ... ".
But back to Nikolai Yezhov. To 1937, the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs, G. Yagoda staffed the NKVD with scum, obvious traitors and those who replaced their work with hack. N. Yezhov, who replaced him, went to the hackers on occasion and during the purging of the country from the "fifth column", in order to distinguish himself, closed his eyes to the fact that the NKVD investigators had brought hundreds of thousands of hack work to people, for the most part completely innocent. (Say, generals A. Gorbatov and K. Rokossovsky were put in jail.)
And the flywheel of the “big terror” with its notorious extrajudicial triples and limits on the highest measure spun. Fortunately, this flywheel was quickly milled and those who initiated the process itself, and Stalin's merit is that he made the most of the opportunities for stripping the highest echelons of power of every kind of shit.
Not Stalin, but Robert Indrikovich Eiche proposed the creation of extrajudicial organs of reprisal, the famous “troika”, of the “Stolypin” type, consisting of the first secretary, the local prosecutor and the head of the NKVD (city, region, province, republic). Stalin was against it. But the politburo has a voice. Well, and the fact that a year later, such a troika leaned against the wall of Comrade Eiche, there is, in my deep conviction, nothing but sad justice.
The party elite really enthusiastically joined the massacre!
And let's look more closely at himself, towards the repressed regional party baron. And, in fact, what were they like, in business, in moral, and in purely human terms? What did they cost as people and specialists? ONLY THE BOW FIRST CLICK, MENTLY RECOMMEND. In short, party members, military, scientists, writers, composers, musicians and all the rest, right up to notable rabbit bosses and Komsomol members ate each other with ecstasy. Who sincerely believed that he was obliged to exterminate enemies, who settled scores. So no need to talk about whether the NKVD was beaten for the noble physiognomy of this or that “innocent victim figure” or not.
The party regional nomenclature has achieved the most important thing: after all, in conditions of mass terror, free elections are impossible. Stalin could not hold them. End of a short thaw. Stalin did not push his block of reforms. True, at that plenum, he said remarkable words: “Party organizations will be exempt from economic work, although this will not happen immediately. It takes time. ”
But, again, back to Yezhov. Nikolai Ivanovich was a man in the "organs" of the new, started well, but quickly came under the influence of his deputy: Frinovsky (former head of the Special Section of the First Cavalry Army). He taught the new Commissar the basics of KGB work directly "at work". The basics were extremely simple: the more enemies of the people we catch, the better. It is possible and necessary to beat, and to beat and drink is even more fun.
Drunk from vodka, blood and impunity, the People's Commissar soon openly “swam”.
He did not particularly conceal his new views from those around him. "What are you afraid of? - He said at one of the banquets. - After all, all power is in our hands. Who we want - we execute, whom we want - we pardon: - After all, we are all. It is necessary that everything from the secretary of the regional committee go under you».
If the secretary of the regional committee was supposed to go under the head of the regional administration of the NKVD, then who, I ask, was supposed to go under Yezhov? With such cadres and such views, the NKVD became mortally dangerous both for the authorities and for the country.
It is difficult to say when the Kremlin began to realize what was happening. Probably around the first half of 1938. But to realize - realized, and how to curb the monster? It is clear that the People's Commissariat of the NKVD had become deadly by that time, and it had to be “normalized”. But how? What, to raise the troops, to bring all the security officers in the yards of management and put a line to the wall? There is no other way, for, barely feeling the danger, they would simply dare power.
After all, the same NKVD was in charge of guarding the Kremlin, so that members of the Politburo would die without even having time to understand anything. After that, a dozen of “washed blood” would be put in their places, and the whole country would turn into one large West Siberian region headed by Robert Eiche. The arrival of the Nazi troops would be perceived by the peoples of the USSR as happiness.
There was only one way out - to put your man in the NKVD. Moreover, a person of such a level of loyalty, courage and professionalism, so that he could, on the one hand, cope with the management of the NKVD, and on the other, stop the monster. Hardly Stalin had a large selection of such people. Well, at least one was found. But what - Beria Lawrence Pavlovich.
Elena Prudnikova is a journalist and writer who has dedicated several books to the research activities of L.P. Beria and I.V. Stalin, in one of the TV programs, said that Lenin, Stalin, Beria were three titans, whom God sent in great mercy to Russia, because, apparently, he still needed Russia. I hope that she is Russia and in our time He will need it soon.
In general, the term "Stalinist repression" is speculative, because Stalin did not initiate them. The unanimous opinion of one part of the liberal perestroika and current ideologues that Stalin, thus, strengthened his power, physically eliminating opponents, is easily explained. These snits are simply judging others by themselves: they have such an opportunity, they will readily devour everyone in whom they see danger.
No wonder Alexander Sytin, a political scientist, doctor of historical sciences, a prominent neoliberal, in one of the recent TV programs with V. Solovyov, argued that in Russia it was necessary to create a DICTATURE OF TEN PERCENTRALS OF THE LIBERAL MINORITY, which then would definitely lead the people of Russia to a bright capitalist tomorrow. He modestly kept silent about the price of this approach.
Another part of these gentlemen believes that allegedly Stalin, who desired to finally turn into the Lord God on Soviet soil, decided to deal with all those who had little or little doubt about his genius. And, above all, with those who, together with Lenin, created the October Revolution. They say that this is why almost the entire Leninist Guard went under the ax, and at the same time the tip of the Red Army, who were accused of never existing conspiracy against Stalin. However, a closer examination of these events raises many questions that cast doubt on this version. In principle, doubts in thinking historians have arisen for a long time. And doubts were sown not by some Stalinist historians, but by those eyewitnesses who themselves disliked "the father of all Soviet peoples."
For example, in the West, the memoirs of the former Soviet intelligence officer Alexander Orlov (Leiba Feldbin), who fled from our country at the end of 30, were published in the West, taking a huge amount of government dollars. Orlov, who was well aware of the “inner kitchen” of his NKVD native, directly wrote that a coup d'état was being prepared in the Soviet Union. According to him, among the conspirators were representatives of the leadership of the NKVD and the Red Army in the person of Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and the commander of the Kiev Military District Iona Yakir. Stalin became aware of the conspiracy, who undertook a very tough response ...
And in the 80-s in the United States, the archives of the main opponent of Joseph Vissarionovich - Lev Trotsky were declassified. From these documents, it became clear that Trotsky had an extensive underground network in the Soviet Union. Living abroad, Lev Davidovich demanded from his people decisive actions to destabilize the situation in the Soviet Union, up to the organization of mass terrorist actions.
In 90, our archives have already opened access to interrogation protocols of repressed anti-Stalin opposition leaders. By the nature of these materials, by the abundance of the facts and testimony set out in them, today's independent experts reached three important conclusions.
Firstly, the overall picture of a wide conspiracy against Stalin looks very, very convincing. Such testimony was impossible to somehow direct or counterfeit in favor of the "father of nations." Especially in that part where it was a question of military plans of conspirators. This is what the famous historian-publicist Sergey Kremlyov said on this occasion: “Take and read the testimony of Tukhachevsky given by him after his arrest. The admissions themselves in the conspiracy are accompanied by an in-depth analysis of the military-political situation in the USSR of the mid-30-s, with detailed calculations on the general situation in the country, with our mobilization, economic and other opportunities.
The question is, could such testimony be invented by an ordinary investigator of the NKVD who conducted the case of the marshal and who allegedly set out to falsify the testimony of Tukhachevsky ?! No, this testimony, and voluntarily, could only be given by a knowledgeable person who was no less than the level of the Deputy Commissar of Defense, which Tukhachevsky was. ”
Secondly, the very style of the conspiracy’s own hand-made confessions, their handwriting indicated that the people themselves wrote them, in fact voluntarily, without physical influence from the investigators. This ruined the myth that the testimony was rudely knocked out by the force of "Stalin's executioners", although it was so.
Third, Western Sovietologists and the emigrant public, not having access to archival materials, were forced to practically suck out their judgments about the scale of the repressions. At best, they were content with interviews with dissidents who either themselves had passed through the conclusion in the past, or brought stories from those who had gone through the GULAG.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn set the bar in estimating the number of “victims of communism”, declaring 1976 million victims in an interview with Spanish television in 110 year. The ceiling announced by Solzhenitsyn in 110 million was systematically reduced to 12,5 million people of the Memorial Society. However, following the results of 10 years of work, Memorial managed to collect data only about 2,6 of a million victims of repression, which closely approaches the figure voiced by Zemskov almost 20 years ago - 4 million people.
After opening the archives, the West did not believe that the number of repressed was significantly less than the same R. Conquest or A. Solzhenitsyn indicated. In total, according to archival data, 1921 1953 3 was convicted for the period from 777 to 380, of which 642 980 were sentenced to capital punishment. Subsequently, this figure was increased to 4 060 306 people due to 282 926 shot by PP. 2 and 3 Art. 59 (especially dangerous gangsterism) and art. 193 - 24 (military espionage). This includes the basmachi, Bandera, Baltic Forest Brothers and other especially dangerous, bloody bandits, spies and saboteurs washed with blood. There is more human blood on them than water in the Volga. And they are also considered “innocent victims of Stalin’s repression.” And Stalin is accused of all this. (Let me remind you that before 1928, Stalin was not the sole leader of the USSR. And he received full power over the party, the army and the NKVD, he received it only from the end of the year).
The figures at first glance are terrible. But only at first. Let's compare. 28 June 1990 of the year in the central newspapers appeared an interview of the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, where he said: “We are literally overwhelmed by a wave of criminality. Over the past 30 years under court, investigation, in prisons and colonies, 38 MILLIONS OF OUR CITIZENS have been around. This is a terrible figure! Every ninth ... ".
So. In the USSR in the 1990 year, a crowd of Western journalists arrived. The goal is to familiarize yourself with the open archives. They studied the archives of the NKVD - they did not believe. They demanded the archives of the People's Commissariat of Railways. Familiarized - it turned out four million. They did not believe. Required the archives of the People's Commissariat of food. Familiarized - turned 4 million repressed. Familiarized with the clothing content camps. It turned out - 4 million repressed. You think that after this, articles with the correct numbers of repressions went in wads in the Western media. Nothing like that. There are still writing and talking about tens of millions of victims of repression.
I would like to note that an analysis of the process called “mass repression” shows that this phenomenon is extremely multi-layered. There are real cases there: on conspiracies and espionage, political trials on steadfast opposition members, cases on the crimes of overreaching regional masters and co-party officials who “swam” from power. But there are a lot of falsified cases: settling accounts in the corridors of power, podsizhivanie service, communal squabbles, writing rivalry, scientific competition, the prosecution of clergy who supported the kulaks during collectivization, the squabbles of artists, musicians and composers.
AND THERE IS A CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY - the meanness of the INVESTIGATORS and the meanness of the donators (four million denunciations were written in 1937-38 years). But what could not be found - so it cases concocted on the instructions of the Kremlin. There are reverse examples - when, by the will of Stalin, someone was taken out of the execution, or even released.
One more thing to be understood. The term "repression" - is the term medical (suppression, blocking) and introduced specifically to remove the issue of guilt. Placed at the end of 30's means innocent, as "repressed." In addition, the term “repression” was introduced into circulation for its use initially with the aim of imparting a corresponding moral tint to the entire Stalin period, without going into details.
The events of 30 showed that the main problem for the Soviet government was the party and state "apparatus", consisting in no small measure of unprincipled, illiterate and greedy co-workers, leading talkers who were attracted to the fat smell of revolutionary robbery. Such a device was extremely inefficient and out of control, that for a totalitarian Soviet state, in which everything depended on the device, it was like death.
Since then, Stalin has made repression an important institution of government and a means of restraining the "apparatus" in check. Naturally, the apparatus became the main object of these repressions. Moreover, repression has become an important tool for state-building.
Stalin suggested that out of the corrupted Soviet apparatus it was possible to make a workable bureaucracy only after a few stages of repression. Liberals will say that this is all Stalin, that he could not, without repression, without pursuing honest people. But here's what American scout John Scott reported to the US State Department about who was repressed. He found these repressions in the Urals in 1937.
“The director of the construction office, who was engaged in the construction of new houses for the workers of the plant, was not satisfied with his salary, which amounted to a thousand rubles a month, and the two-room apartment. Therefore, he built himself a separate house. The house had five rooms, and he was able to furnish it well: he hung silk curtains, put up a piano, covered the floor with carpets, etc. He then began driving around the city in a car at the time (this happened at the beginning of 1937), when there were few private cars in the city. At the same time, the annual construction plan was completed by his office by only about sixty percent. At meetings and in newspapers, he was constantly asked questions about the reasons for such poor performance. He replied that there are no building materials, not enough labor, etc.
An investigation began, during which it became clear that the director appropriated state funds and sold building materials to nearby collective and state farms for speculative prices. It was also found that in the construction company there are people to whom he specifically paid to turn his "affairs".
There was an open, lasting for several days, process, on which all these people were tried. They talked about him a lot in Magnitogorsk. In his accusatory speech at the trial, the prosecutor did not speak about theft or bribery, but about sabotage. The director was accused of sabotaging the construction of housing for workers. He was convicted after he fully admitted his guilt, and then shot. ”
But the reaction of the Soviet people to the cleaning of the 1937 of the year and their position at that time. “Often the workers even rejoice when they arrest some“ important bird ”, a leader whom they for some reason dislike. Workers are also very free to express critical thoughts both in meetings and in private conversations. I have heard how they use the strongest expression, speaking of bureaucracy and the poor performance of individuals or organizations. ... in the Soviet Union, the situation was somewhat different in that the NKVD in its work to protect the country from the intrigues of foreign agents, spies and the onset of the old bourgeoisie was counting on the support and assistance from the population and mostly received them. "
Well, and: “... During the purges, thousands of bureaucrats trembled for their seats. Officials and administrative employees, who had previously come to work at ten o'clock, and left at half past four and only shrugged their shoulders in response to complaints, difficulties and failures, now sat at work from sunrise to sunset, they began to worry about the successes and failures of those in charge. enterprises, and in fact they began to struggle for the fulfillment of the plan, economy and good living conditions for their subordinates, although this had never bothered them so much. ”
Readers who are interested in this question are aware of the continuous groans of the liberals that during the years of the purge "the best people", the smartest and most capable, perished. Scott also hints at this all the time, but, nevertheless, as it were, it sums up: “After the purges, the administrative staff of the entire plant was almost one hundred percent young Soviet engineers. Practically there are no specialists from among the prisoners and foreign specialists have actually disappeared. However, by 1939, most of the units, for example, the Railway Administration and the coke-chemical plant of the plant, began to work better than ever before. ”
In the course of the party's purges and repressions, all prominent party barons, who drank the gold reserves of Russia, bathed with prostitutes in champagne, seized for private use noblemen and merchants' palaces, all the crucified, twisted revolutionaries disappeared like smoke. And it is - FAIR.
But cleaning out the scoundrels of scoundrels from the high cabinets is half the battle, it was also necessary to replace them with decent people. It is rather curious how this problem was solved in the NKVD.
First, the head of the department was a person who was alien to the combs, who had no connections with the capital’s party leaders, but a professional who had been tested in the case, Laurenti Beria.
The latter, secondly, ruthlessly cleared out the compromised security officers,
thirdly, he carried out a radical reduction of staff, sending people to retire or to work in other departments for what seemed to be not mean, but incompetent.
And, finally, the Komsomol conscription to the NKVD was announced when completely inexperienced guys came to the bodies in return for honored pensioners or executed scoundrels. But ... the main criterion for their selection was an impeccable reputation. If the characteristics from the place of study, work, place of residence, on the Komsomol or party line were at least some hint of their unreliability, tendency to selfishness, laziness, then nobody invited them to work in the NKVD.
So, here is a very important point to pay attention to - the team is not formed on the basis of past achievements, professional data of applicants, personal acquaintance and ethnicity, and not even on the basis of the wishes of applicants, but solely on the basis of their moral and psychological characteristics.
Professionalism is a gainful business, but in order to punish any svolot, a person must be completely dirty. Well, yes, clean hands, a cold head and a warm heart - it's all about the young Beri call. The fact is that it was at the end of the 30-s of the NKVD that it became a really effective special service, and not only in the matter of internal cleaning.
The Soviet counterintelligence defeated German intelligence during the war — and this is a great merit of the Beria Komsomol members who came to the authorities three years before the war began.
Cleaning 1937-1939 played a positive role - now no one boss already felt his impunity, the untouchables did not become. Fear did not add insight to the nomenclature, but at least warned her against frank meanness.
Unfortunately, right after the end of the big purge, the world war that started in 1939 did not allow holding alternative elections. Again, the issue of democratization was put on the agenda by Joseph Vissarionovich in 1952 shortly before his death. But after the death of Stalin, Khrushchev returned the leadership of the entire country to the party, never answering. And not only.
Almost immediately after the death of Stalin, a network of special distributors and special rations appeared, through which the new elitist realized their superior position. But besides the privileges of formal, a system of informal privileges was quickly formed. Which is very important.
Since we have touched upon the activities of our dear Nikita Sergeevich, then we will talk about it in more detail. With a light hand or the language of Ilya Ehrenburg, the period of Khrushchev’s rule was called the “thaw”. Let's see, what did Khrushchev do before the thaw, during the “Great Terror”?
There is a February-March plenum of the Central Committee 1937 of the year. It was with him, it is believed, that the great terror began. Here is Nikita Sergeyevich's speech at this plenum: “...It is necessary to destroy these villains. Destroying ten, hundred, thousand, we do business of millions. Therefore, it is necessary that the hand does not flinch, you need to step over the corpses of enemies for the benefit of the people».
But how Khrushchev acted as First Secretary of the Moscow City Committee and the Regional Committee of the CPSU (b)? In 1937-1938 of the 38 top executives of the CIM, only three people survived; of the 146 party secretaries, 136 was repressed. Where he found in the Moscow region 22 000 fists in 1937 year, you can not explain to a sober head. In total for 1937-1938 years only in Moscow and the Moscow region. they personally repressed 55 741 people.
But maybe, speaking at the 20 Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev was worried that innocent ordinary people were shot? Yes, it was not for Khrushchev to arrest and shootings of ordinary people. His entire report at the 20 Congress was devoted to the accusations of Stalin that he imprisoned and shot prominent Bolsheviks and marshals. Those. the elite. Khrushchev in his report did not even remember about the repressed ordinary people. What kind of people should he worry about, “women still give birth”, but oh, how sorry it was for Lapotnik’s cosmopolitan elite.
What were the motivations for the appearance of a revealing report at the XX Party Congress?
First, not trampling in the mud of the predecessor, hoping for the recognition of Khrushchev in the role of leader after Stalin was unthinkable. Not! After death, Stalin remained a competitor for Khrushchev, whom he had to humiliate and destroy by any means. Kicking a dead lion, as it turned out, is a pleasure - it does not give up.
The second motive was Khrushchev’s desire to return the party to the management of the state’s economic activities. To lead everyone, for no reason, not responding and not obeying anyone.
The third motive, and perhaps the most important one, was the terrible fear of the remnants of the "Leninist Guard" for their actions. After all, they all have hands, as Khrushchev himself expressed it, were stained with blood. Khrushchev and those like him wanted not only to rule the country, but also to have guarantees that they would never be dragged on the rack, whatever they did while in leadership positions. The XX Congress of the CPSU issued them with such guarantees in the form of an indulgence to leave all sins, both past and future. The whole mystery of Khrushchev and his companions is not worth a damn: it is the UNIQUE ANIMAL FEAR AND THE PATIENT SEATING IN THEIR SOULS AND THE PAINFUL THOUGHT OF THE POWER.
The first thing that amazes the de-Stalinizers is a complete disregard for the principles of historicism, which everyone seems to be taught in the Soviet school. No historical figure can be assessed by the standards of our modern era. It should be evaluated by the standards of its era - and nothing else. In jurisprudence they say this: “the law has no retroactive force”. That is, the ban imposed this year cannot apply to last year’s acts.
Here the historicism of assessments is also necessary: it is impossible to judge a person of one epoch by the standards of another epoch (especially the new era that he created with his work and genius). For the beginning of the 20 century, the horrors in the position of the peasantry were so mundane that many contemporaries almost did not notice them. Hunger did not start with Stalin, he ended with Stalin. It seemed like forever - but the current liberal reforms are pulling us back into that swamp, from which we seem to have already gotten through ...
The principle of historicism also requires the recognition that Stalin had a completely different, rather than later, heat of political struggle. It is one thing to maintain the existence of the system (although Gorbachev failed to cope with this), and another to create a new system on the ruins of a country that has been destroyed by the civil war. Resistance energy in the second case is several times greater than in the first.
It should be understood that many of those executed under Stalin themselves were going to seriously kill him, and he hesitated even for a minute - he would get a bullet in the head. The struggle for power in the era of Stalin had a completely different urgency than now: it was the era of the revolutionary "Praetorian Guard" - accustomed to rebellion and ready to change emperors like gloves. Trotsky, Rykov, Bukharin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, and a whole crowd of people accustomed to murder as cleaning the potato claimed supremacy.
For any terror, not only the ruler is responsible before history, but his opponents as well as society as a whole. When the eminent historian L. Gumilev, already under Gorbachev, was asked whether he was angry at Stalin, during which he was in prison, he replied: “But, after all, it was not Stalin who planted me, but colleagues in the department"...
Well, God bless him with Khrushchev and the Twentieth Congress. Let's talk about what the liberal media are constantly cracking, let's talk about Stalin's guilt.
The Stalin liberals are charged with executions of about 700 thousands of people over 30 years. The logic of the liberals is simple - all the victims of Stalinism. All 700 thousands.
Those. at that time there could be no murderers, no bandits, no sadists, no molesters, no crooks, no traitors, no pests, etc. All victims are politically motivated, all are crystal honest and decent people.
Meanwhile, even the analytical center of the CIA "Rand Corporation", based on demographic data and archival documents, calculated the number of repressed in the Stalin era. This center claims to have shot fewer than 700 thousands of people from 1921 to 1953 a year. In this case, the share of those sentenced to the article on the political 58-th article accounts for no more than a quarter of cases. By the way, the same proportion was observed among the imprisoned labor camps.
“Do you like it when you destroy your people for the sake of a great goal?” Continue the liberals. I will answer. PEOPLE - NO, AND BANDITES, THIEVES AND MORAL FRAUDS - YES. But I DON'T LIKE IT anymore when they destroy their own people in the name of filling their pockets with loot, hiding behind beautiful liberal-democratic slogans.
Academician Tatyana Zaslavskaya, a big supporter of the reforms, who at that time admitted to the administration of President Yeltsin, admitted after a decade and a half that in just three years of shock therapy in Russia only middle-aged men died 8 million (!!!). Yes, Stalin stands aside and nervously smoking a pipe. Not finalized.
However, your words about Stalin’s non-participation in the massacre of honest people are not convincing, continue to LIBERALS. Even if we admit this, then in this case he was simply obliged, firstly, to honestly and openly confess to all the people in the lawlessness against innocent people, secondly, to rehabilitate the unjustly affected people and, thirdly, to take measures to prevent similar lawlessness henceforth. Nothing has been done.
Again a lie. Dear. You just do not know the history of the USSR.
As for the first and second, the December plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) 1938 of the year openly recognized the iniquities allowed in relation to honest communists and non-partisans, adopting a special resolution on this occasion, published, by the way, in all central newspapers. The plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), noting "provocations on an all-Union scale," demanded: Expose careerists seeking to excel ... on repression. To expose the skillfully disguised enemy ... of the aspirant, by carrying out measures of repression, to kill our Bolshevik cadres, sowing uncertainty and excessive suspicion in our ranks. "
It was also openly said to the whole country about the harm caused by unreasonable repression at the XVIII Congress of the CPSU (B), which was held in 1939. Immediately after the December plenum of the Central Committee 1938, thousands of illegally repressed people, including prominent military leaders, began to return from prison. All of them were officially rehabilitated, and Stalin personally apologized to some people.
Well, and about, thirdly, I have already said that the NKVD apparatus was probably hardest hit by the repressions, and a significant part was held accountable precisely for abuse of official position, for the massacre of honest people.
What don't the liberals talk about? On the rehabilitation of innocent victims.
Immediately after the December Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) 1938, they began to revise
criminal cases and let out of the camps. It was released: in the 1939 year - 330 thousand,
in 1940 - 180 thousand, before June 1941 still 65 thousand.
What else do not say the liberals. About how to fight the consequences of a big terror.
With the arrival of Beria L.P. to the position of the People's Commissar of the NKVD in November 1938, the 1939 operational officers, or 7372% of their payroll, were fired from the state security organs in 22,9, of which 937 fell behind bars. And since the end of 1938, the country's leadership has brought to court more than 63 thousands of NKVD workers who falsified and created contrived, fake counter-revolutionary cases, OF THOSE EIGHT THOUSANDS were shot.
I will give just one example from the article by Yu.I. Mukhina: "Minutes No. 17 of the Meeting of the VKP (b) Commission on Court Cases". More than 60 photographs are presented there. I will show in the form of a table a piece of one of them. (http://a7825585.hostink.ru/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=752.)
In this article, Mukhin Yu.I. writes: “I was told that this type of documents was never laid out on the Web due to the fact that free access was very quickly forbidden to them. And the document is interesting, and something interesting can be gleaned from it ...».
Curious a lot. But most importantly, it is clear from the article, for which they were shot by the NKVD students, after coming to the post of the People's Commissar of the NKVD L.P. Beria. Read. The names of those shot in the photographs are shaded.
P R O T O K O L N 17
Meetings of the Commission of the CPSU (b) on court cases
from 23 February 1940 of the year
Chaired - m. Kalinin M.I.
Present: TT: Shklyar MF, Ponkratyev M.I., Merkulov V.N.
1. Listened to
G ... Sergei Ivanovich, M ... Fedor Pavlovich by the decision of the military tribunal of the NKVD troops of the Moscow military district from 14-15 December 1939, sentenced to death under Art. 193-17 pb of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR for making unjustified arrests of command and Red Army personnel, actively engaged in falsification of investigative cases, conducted them with provocative methods and created fictitious C / R organizations, as a result of which a number of people were shot at the fictitious ones they created materials.
He agrees with the application of the shooting to G.S.I. and M ... F.P.
17. Listened to
And ... Fedor Afanasyevich by the decision of the military tribunal of the NKVD troops of the Leningrad military district from 19-25 in July 1939 was sentenced to death under Art. 193-17 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR because, as an employee of the NKVD, he made massive illegal arrests of citizens of railway workers, falsified interrogation protocols and created artificial K / R cases, as a result of which people were sentenced to be shot over 230 and various the terms of imprisonment are more than 100 people, and 69 people are released from the latter at this time.
Agree with the application of the shooting to A ... F.A.
Read? Well, and how are you, my dear Fyodor Afanasyevich? One (one !!!) investigator-forger summed up a man shot by 236. And what, he was the only one, how many such rascals were there? The figure I cited above. That Stalin personally set the tasks for these Fedor and Sergey to kill innocent people? What conclusions can be drawn?
N1 output. Judging the Stalinist time only by repression is the same as judging the activities of the head physician of the hospital only by the morgue of the hospital - there will always be corpses there. If you approach with this measure, then every doctor is a bloody ghoul and murderer, i.e. deliberately ignore the fact that the team of doctors successfully cured and prolonged the lives of thousands of patients and blamed them only on a small percentage of the dead due to some inevitable mistakes of diagnoses or those who died during difficult operations.
The authority of Jesus Christ with Stalin is not comparable. But even in the teaching of Jesus, people see only what they want to see. Studying the history of world civilization, one has to observe how wars, chauvinism, “Aryan theory”, serfdom, and Jewish pogroms justified Christian doctrine. This is not to mention the executions "without shedding of blood" - that is, the burning of heretics. And how much blood was shed during the crusades and religious wars? So, maybe because of this, to ban the teachings of our Creator? Just like today, some specs suggest banning communist ideology.
If we look at the mortality schedule of the population of the USSR, with all our desire, we cannot find traces of "cruel" repression, not because there were none, but because their scale was exaggerated. What is the purpose of this exaggeration and forcing? The goal is to vaccinate a guilt complex to Russians like a German guilt complex after defeat in World War II. Complex "pay and repent." But the great ancient Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius, who lived for 500 years BC, said then: “Beware of those who want to impose guilt on you. For they crave power over you».
Do we need this? Judge for yourself. When the first time Khrushchev stunned all the so-called. truth about the Stalinist repression, the authority of the USSR in the world immediately collapsed to the delight of the enemies. There was a split in the world communist movement. We quarreled with great China, and TENS OF MILLION PEOPLE IN THE WORLD HAVE STARTED FROM THE COMMUNIST PARTIES. Eurocommunism appeared, denying not only Stalinism, but also, terrible, Stalinist economy. The myth of the XX Congress created distorted ideas about Stalin and his time, he deceived and psychologically disarmed millions of people when the question of the fate of the country was being decided. When Gorbachev did it the second time, not only the socialist bloc collapsed, but our Motherland, the USSR, collapsed.
Now Putin’s team is already doing this for the third time: again, it speaks only of repression and other “crimes” of the Stalinist regime. What this leads to is clearly seen in the Zyuganov-Makarov dialogue. They are being told about the development, new industrialization, and they are starting to immediately switch the arrows to repression. That is, they immediately terminate a constructive dialogue, turning it into a quarrel, the Civil War of meanings and ideas.
N2 output. Why do they need it? To prevent the restoration of a strong and great Russia. It is more convenient for them to rule a weak and fragmented country, where people will tear each other by the hair at the mention of the name of Stalin or Lenin. So it is more convenient for them to rob and deceive us. The "divide and conquer" policy is as old as the world. Moreover, they can always dump from Russia where their stolen capital is stored and where children, wives and mistresses live.
N3 output. And why does the patriots of Russia need this? Yes, just another country with us and our children do not. Think about it first, before starting to curse for repression and so on our history. After all, we have no place to throw and retreat. As our victor ancestors said in similar cases: behind Moscow and beyond the Volga there is no land for us!
Only, after the return of socialism to Russia, taking into account all the advantages and disadvantages of the USSR, one must be vigilant and remember Stalin’s warning that as the construction of a socialist state intensifies, the class struggle becomes more acute, that is, there is a threat of rebirth. And so it happened, and among the first, certain segments of the CPSU Central Committee, the VLKSM Central Committee and the KGB were reborn. The Stalinist Party Inquisition was flawed.