Military Review

Fascists in skirts

There is a widespread view that women allegedly did not fight in Nazi Germany. Their main function, according to Hitler, was housekeeping and family (the notorious Die Kinder, Die Küche, Die Kirche - children, kitchen, church). But the Second World War made its own adjustments to this German concept. After the capture of most of Europe, it became obvious that additional personnel in the form of female support units are simply necessary. In total, during the Second World War, about 500 of thousands of German women worked in various support services in Germany.

Women tried to replace those posts in which it was inappropriate to keep men - they were needed at the front, and which could not be replaced by prisoners of war. For example, due to the special secrecy, ignorance of the German system of office work, ignorance of the German language, etc. At the same time, the women who worked in the Wehrmacht did not belong either to servicemen or military officials. All of them were part of the so-called Support Services. In this case, there were separately the Auxiliary Service of the Ground Forces, the Auxiliary Service of the Luftwaffe and the Auxiliary Service of Kriegsmarine. There was also its own subsidiary service in the SS.

Women in such units had their own ranks. They worked mainly in various offices, served as telephonists and telegraph operators at communications centers, served as observers in the German air defense system. In the structure of the SS, women in the auxiliary service also served as warders in various concentration camps. There were women in the Luftwaffe - pilots of light transport, passenger and mail planes. They were also included in the female support service. After 1943, in the Third Reich, it was possible to meet the female employees of the Auxiliary Service who worked as truck drivers.

Fascists in skirts

Very often, for their extremely unassuming form, women from various support services were called "gray mice." It should not be assumed that the presence of a uniform automatically equated them with military officials or military personnel. At that time in Germany, all citizens who were in public service or were part of numerous public organizations wore uniforms and certain insignia, including even postmen, miners, tram drivers and employees of the Red Cross.

Wehrmacht support services

The first still 1 of October 1940 of the year on the basis of the order number 1085 for the ground forces was formed by the auxiliary communication service of the ground forces (Nachrichtenhelferinnen des Heeres). For all time rather short stories of its existence, it was recruited from among the women who were members of various women's organizations in Germany (for example, the Red Cross), as well as volunteers and, at the very end, from those who went to the conscription service.

Auxiliary service of medical and consumer services (Betreuungshelferinnen). Initially, all questions relating to the life of German soldiers, were in charge of the German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, DRK). But, starting in October 1941, all the personnel who worked in this direction were transferred to the auxiliary medical and consumer services, the control over this service was directly carried out by the Wehrmacht.

Subsidiary Headquarters (Stabshelferinnen) was formed in February 1942. The German subsidiary headquarters ground service was recruited from women aged from 18 to 40 years, all of whom served in administrative positions as employees. September 16 On the basis of a special order, the auxiliary service of the Wehrmacht High Command (Oberkommando der Wermacht) was also established on the basis of a special order.

Rider (Bereiterinnen). Although the cavalry had its own reserve of horses, as well as facilities and personnel for their training, the ground forces of Nazi Germany constantly felt a shortage of qualified specialists for services in which they had to use horses. For the first time, starting from 1943, German women of all ages with the required qualifications began to attract horses at various training schools for riding.

By order of 29 November 1944, all the women's auxiliary units of various services of the German armed forces were united in a single auxiliary service (Wehrmachthelferinnen). For the Third Reich, this was a landmark event that finally recognized women as an integral part of the armed forces and another contribution to the implementation of the concept of "total war." The Hitler regime was actually forced to take this step, since a very large number of men of military age were needed to compensate for the increasing losses on the fronts. After being merged into a single service, employees of various support services continued to wear their own uniforms, but at the same time a single system of insignia and titles was introduced.

Now women had to observe military discipline and obey all military regulations, while not having the official status of soldiers. The Wehrmacht High Command very clearly adhered to the previously established principle that women should not be used in "combat situations" or in combat. Although in reality from this installation in certain situations could depart. For example, a very large number of German women served in the air defense units of the Reich, to some extent they took part in the hostilities. In addition, some Germans outside Germany served as communications officers of front-line units.

Luftwaffe support services

There was an auxiliary aerial surveillance service within the Luftwaffe. The women who served in this auxiliary service were part of the calculations for listening points and transmitting stations, and radar stations. Prior to the appearance of the women's auxiliary communications service of the Luftwaffe in February 1941, which included this unit, it was considered independent. The women of this service also worked as radio operators, telephone operators, communication center workers, cryptographers, teletype operators and telegraph operators. In total, more than 200 thousands of German women were observers of VNOS posts (Airborne Surveillance, Alert and Communication Forces), air defense units and firefighters. Also in the Luftwaffe operated: Auxiliary headquarters service; Auxiliary Alert Service; Auxiliary anti-aircraft service and air raid warning units (since 1944).

Kriegsmarine Auxiliary Services

The first truly major appeal of German women for purely military purposes on navy It was initiated on April 10, 1941, with the creation of the Auxiliary Naval Aerial Surveillance Service (Flugmeldehelferinnen der Kriegsmarine). Manning took place by simply transferring women from the air surveillance service (weibliche Flugmeldedientstpersonal) to the navy.

In the middle of 1942, a naval auxiliary service (Marinehelferinnen) was formed as part of Kriegsmarine, also staffed mainly by women. The order for the recruitment of women's auxiliary units for the fleet was issued on July 7 of the year 1942. Both before and after this date, the Germans entered the fleet as signalers from the ground forces.

And in the 1943, the German Navy created its own women's anti-aircraft service (Marine Flakhelferinnen). The anti-aircraft fleet support service consisted of German women, who were used mainly in defensive aerostat units, searchlight maintenance units, etc. in close proximity or with their own anti-aircraft calculations. At the same time, women of the auxiliary service were not included in the composition of the gun crews, at least at the initial stage of the service’s existence.

Women's SS support services

Women who voluntarily entered the auxiliary units of the SS (they were not admitted to the SS) were serving in two main categories: as employees of the S-Helferinnen communication service and as employees of auxiliary units of wartime who performed other duties of the SS-Kriegshelferinnen. Employees of these support services were recruited from among women aged from 17 to 30 years and used to perform the same tasks as their army counterparts. They could work as telecom operators, typesetters, telephone operators, etc. It is known that they were the most thorough recruitment and good training, it is noted that in the support services of the SS there were only 2375 women.

The SS-Gefolge is another name for SS support women in Nazi Germany. Mainly in this category included the wardens of concentration camps. German women could voluntarily join concentration camps. This opportunity was not used by them very actively, although the remuneration was quite good (the salary is 105 Reichsmarks and 35 Reichsmarks for processing). For comparison, in 1938, the average salary of a German worker reached 145 Reichsmarks.

When recruiting female wardens, preference was given to "socially competent", with no administrative or criminal penalties. In addition, they all had to have excellent physical health, political security. Age restrictions - from 21 to 45 years. All candidates were required to submit a biography, photographs, health certificate, an extract from the police, as well as the direction of the responsible employment service. According to available statistics, a total of 1942 to 1945 a year in the Ravensbrück Women's Concentration Camp, thousands of German women underwent publicly funded training as 3,5 warders.

In the most negative light “women became famous” during the years of the Second World War, it was the women who controlled the concentration camps. There were legends about the atrocities of some German warders, and it was them who could be fully called "blond monsters." More than others in this field, perhaps, Irma Greze, who for three years, starting from 1942, was a warder in concentration camps: Ravensbrück, Auschwitz (Birkenau) and Bergen-Belsen, became famous.

Irma Greze was called the “angel of death”, “the fair-haired devil” and “the beautiful monster”. To torture concentration camp prisoners, she used physical and emotional methods of attack, scored women to death, and enjoyed the random shooting of prisoners. She specifically starved her dogs in order to set them on prisoners, and also personally selected hundreds of people to be sent to the gas chambers for certain death. Irma Greze always wore heavy boots, besides the pistol she also had a braided whip. 17 On April 1945, this warder was captured by the British and in November of the same year, along with other employees of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 22-year-old Irma Greze was sentenced to death by hanging.

Irma Greze

No less famous than Ilse Grese, was the wife of Karl Koch, who was the commandant of the concentration camps Buchenwald and Majdanek, nicknamed "The Buchenwald Witch" and "Frau Abazhur." She became infamous due to the cruel torture of prisoners of the camps, as well as the fact that she was engaged in the manufacture of souvenirs made from the human skin of dead prisoners (which, however, was not proven in court). According to the prisoners of Buchenwald, Ilse Koch, walking through the camp, beat the prisoners who were encountered with a whip, and also set a shepherd dog at them. She was also accused of ordering the killing of prisoners with tattoos, in order to then make various crafts out of their skin (gloves, book covers, lamp shades). In 1941, Ilsa Koch became the senior overseer among female guards. 30 June 1945, she was arrested by US forces and in 1947, she was sentenced to life imprisonment for her crimes. 1 September 1967 committed suicide by hanging herself in a cell in the Aichach prison in Bavaria.

Information sources:история/467-сколько-женщин-участвовало-во-второй-мировой-войне-на-стороне-iii-рейха.html
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  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 24 July 2017 06: 09
    Already the children of those women are in the governing apparatus of Germany. Grandchildren are probably involved in politics.
    1. Kenxnumx
      Kenxnumx 24 July 2017 15: 03
      Not very clear, and so what. The ancestors of most of the modern Germans participated in the war.
    2. Well, how else
      Well, how else 26 December 2018 16: 57
      And with us, what's wrong? And the war was, and the women were. Sniper, chicks, and popkari in the zones.
      And most importantly, there was an idea, for what to fight. On both sides. The bad is to advance, or the Good is to defend. Then, at the end of the war, the parties changed. But I'm not talking about that now. There was an idea. And now for what to fight? For the Deripaska which Amer sold his (already his) candle factory.
      It’s sad until we have IDEAS, and will not appear in the near future.
  2. inkass_98
    inkass_98 24 July 2017 06: 46
    In almost all the participating countries of WWII, women took an active part (we will not talk about the example of the USSR, everything is clear here, but it’s enough to recall the same Queen Elizabeth II, who was the driver of the ambulance). So there is nothing sensational in the article, it is obvious that with total mobilization in Germany, women also found their place.
    Regarding the uniform: remember imperial Russia, and the USSR under Stalin, where almost all types of activity had their own form, and schoolchildren did not wear epaulettes, except that schoolchildren became so popular. And now all state services, up to veterinary services, have dressed up in uniform with epaulettes, it remains to dress the janitors in uniform.
    1. Alf
      Alf 24 July 2017 14: 32
      Quote: inkass_98
      So there is nothing sensational in the article, it is obvious that with total mobilization in Germany, women also found their place.

      And no one makes a sensation from the article, the author simply tells about the role of women in Nazi Germany.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 24 July 2017 07: 43
    There is a widespread belief that women in Nazi Germany allegedly did not fight.
    ..And why does it exist? Formed ..
    1. BAI
      BAI 24 July 2017 12: 24
      And the film "17 Moments of Spring"?
      1. odometer
        odometer 24 July 2017 19: 09
        Barbara et al? The film is Fiction by Artwork.
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 July 2017 07: 56
    Irma Grese became a household name. And with the degree of cruelty of women in extreme situations, little can be compared.
    1. unknown
      unknown 24 July 2017 12: 58
      From the point of view of psychology, men are more aggressive, but women are more cruel.
  5. nivander
    nivander 24 July 2017 08: 00
    In the collection "The Last Storm" in 1989, an episode is described when a female battalion counterattacked owl troops (57th Guards SD) in the area of ​​Kyustrinsky bridgehead. According to the authors, the ladies were very motley uniforms. ". The result was predictable, 40 machine guns of the Stalingrad army guards sent these meggers to meet with their gatte
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 24 July 2017 09: 46

    MasterBox MB3557 "Women at War: Germany, Luftwaffe
  7. midshipman
    midshipman 24 July 2017 10: 35
    Thank you Sergey for showing the bestial appearance of fascism through these so-called women. They have only one punishment - death by hanging. I have the honor.
    1. Curious
      Curious 24 July 2017 13: 13
      Yes, Michman, yes. Bestial appearance. It would be nice to recall how often we remember the feat of our Soviet women. But in the USSR, about 800 thousand women aged 20 to 35 years served in the military units along with men. And already in the rear on women's shoulders such a load fell.

      Everyone will be surprised, but this is a photo from the exhibition "Masha + Nina + Katyusha. Women in the Red Army: 1941 - 1945". And it took place at the Women's Museum in ... Bonn. And the director of this museum, Marianne Pitzer, said that the contribution of Soviet women to the Victory has not been adequately appreciated so far.
      Here is a paradox.
      In general, by the end of WWII, more than 2 million women worked in the military industry, hundreds of thousands voluntarily went to the front as nurses or enlisted in the army.
      On an excellent photo selection on this topic.
      1. Kenxnumx
        Kenxnumx 24 July 2017 15: 07
        And the Germans also worked in industry. By the way, teenagers and prisoners of war were also used in air defense.
        1. LeonidL
          LeonidL 25 July 2017 04: 38
          And no one takes into account the loss of these categories in the military losses of the German Reich! But all the women who died in the service of the Red Army are counted. The Germans were very cunning statistics of losses were!
          1. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 29 August 2018 11: 08
            Quote: LeonidL
            And no one takes into account the loss of these categories in the military losses of the German Reich! But all the women who died in the service of the Red Army are counted. The Germans were very cunning statistics of losses were!

            Your untruth, at least those who were part of the auxiliary units of the Luftwaffe are taken into account in their losses.
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist 1 August 2017 19: 22
        Сurios, you correctly mentioned the work of women in the rear. For example, my mother: she worked on a collective farm in a field crew. She periodically recalls her childhood and we are always handed over when she talks about a straw walker: harvesters (type SK3) clung to logs, and a teenager jumped on them. His duty to clean the straw harvester, if asked and .... disability ensured. He says: then it was mundane, and now she is scared.
        1. Curious
          Curious 2 August 2017 08: 41
          I myself am from the village, and I remember well the stories of adults that labor was hard labor. Plowed on themselves, on cows. For some reason, they are constantly writing articles about the last "antpirator", Kerensky, whatever. But this page is not interesting to anyone.
          1. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 29 August 2018 11: 10
            Quote: Curious
            I myself am from the village, and I remember well the stories of adults that labor was hard labor. Plowed on themselves, on cows.

            Yes, just like that, my grandfather’s recollections of that time are also the most unpleasant. And they ate flour from a quinoa, and the law on three spikelets was observed hellishly, etc.
  8. Dr. Hub
    Dr. Hub 24 July 2017 16: 27
    From 1976 to 81, my father served in the Western Peace Reserve in the GDR (I was still a child). And my parents went on an excursion to Buchenwald, from where they brought a brochure about the camp. I still remember photographs of lampshades and gloves made of human skin with tattoos. People do terrible things, it is especially surprising when women do it.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 24 July 2017 19: 24
      classmate: graduated from college in 90, sent to the GDR. used to drink, the company was. once went to Buchenwald. three days after they did not drink and were silent.
      1. rumatam
        rumatam 28 July 2017 07: 15
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 28 July 2017 10: 09
          is it to myself?
  9. Uma palata
    Uma palata 24 July 2017 16: 38
    When I read in the news today that Europe is homosexual, I think almost every time that God is not a fraer, he sees and remembers everything. Graceful fit EUROPEANS in the concentration camps did terrifying atrocities, but now their great-grandchildren are used from the rear by Negro and Arab boys.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 28 July 2017 10: 11
      a woman receives energy, a man gives in the process of an act.
      Europe is fueled by energy, not only from SP1-2
  10. Stas1973
    Stas1973 24 July 2017 17: 28
    Well, well, the authors of articles, including this one, cannot move away from ideological dogmas? Well, there was no fascism in Germany. Nazism was, the Nazi Party, not fascism. Religion does not allow to write correctly? Or stamps of the agitation industry?
    1. Dart
      Dart 24 July 2017 19: 30
      I wonder who is plus you .... no need to answer, a rhetorical question.
      1. Dart
        Dart 24 July 2017 19: 44
        Fascism (Italian: fascismo from fascio "union, bundle, ligament, unification") - generalized the name of extreme right-wing political movements, ideologies and the corresponding form of government of a dictatorial type, the characteristic features of which are militaristic nationalism (in the broad sense), anti-liberalism, xenophobia, revanchism and chauvinism, anti-communism, mystical leadership, contempt for elective democracy and liberalism, faith in domination elites and the natural social hierarchy, statism and, in some cases, syndicalism, racism and the politics of genocide.

        This wording satisfies me. Moreover, the grandfather beat, as he himself said, it was the Nazis and did not ask the enemy whether he was a Nazi, a member of the NSPD or what other sense.
    2. igordok
      igordok 24 July 2017 19: 51
      Another lover of shades of brown.
      1. Curious
        Curious 24 July 2017 21: 31
        Teen wants to show off. True, "agitprom" slapped some, but hints that he understands the intricacies very much. Probably Heiden K. Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus; die Karriere einer Idee. 1932 read in the original.
        For such cases, so that people would not be fooled by all kinds of stsikofilosofy, Nikolai Valentinovich Pavlov - Russian historian, doctor of historical sciences, professor, specialist in Germany, wrote an article "IDEAL ROOTS AND AGGRESSIVE ESSENCE OF GERMAN FASCISM".
        Further in the text.
        In the historiography of the USSR, Russia and the CIS countries, as well as the works of a number of Western scholars, fascism also refers to German national socialism, Francoism, the regime of the New State in Portugal, Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian versions of fascism and their derivatives, ultra-right political movements.
        This article is on the MGIMO website. And no propaganda.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 25 July 2017 07: 09
          I got acquainted so far with 2 books N.V. Pavlov, who is now on sale about Germany’s foreign policy, as well as with a list of articles, but hasn’t yet read the article. Maybe in the evening it will work on another device.
          It is interesting to read about the unification of Germany by this scientist. HIS opinion on the meaning
          Such a process. Germany united due to the labeled, and now migrants, blue, some kind of tolerant lessons ......
    3. Archon
      Archon 26 July 2017 06: 30
      One includes the other and therefore uses a more general name. In general, in Russia the term nationalism, nationalization, nationalize is perceived as “whiter” than fascism.
  11. WapentakeLokki
    WapentakeLokki 24 July 2017 19: 08
    Well, the face of that one against the background of the concentration camp on the right is the true Aryan how many were killed by the female dog
    1. Babalaykin
      Babalaykin 24 July 2017 20: 17
      In the second photo on the right, similarly, level 80 Aryan. And Irma Grese at 22 ... yes, nature rested on her not weak.
  12. Weyland
    Weyland 24 July 2017 22: 36
    I don’t understand, why should people like Irma Grese hang? What a slobbering humanism? Was it really hard to "accidentally" leave alone with the hundred freed prisoners of Auschwitz? Or as with Dirlewanger am - instructed him to guard the jailers-Poles - he lived a whole month, worked professionally ... laughing
  13. Clone
    Clone 24 July 2017 23: 57
    Quote: inkass_98
    there is nothing sensational in the article

    Barking, well, there’s absolutely nothing "sensational", except for lampshades from human skin and the conscious setting of hungry dogs on prisoners of camps ...
    The question is, personally, I have one ... offspring of such unsanctioned hatch you ??? It seems that this is impossible for known mammals in a natural way. Reptilians?
  14. LeonidL
    LeonidL 25 July 2017 04: 27
    Dogs - dog death! Today, their heirs in the Nazi battalions in the Donbass, in the SBU, in ukroSMI!
  15. LeonidL
    LeonidL 25 July 2017 04: 34
    By the way, about the losses of the Germans. Neither "Khivi" nor rear units, nor "volunteer units (aka native units)" from ROA, Crimean Tatars, Cossacks, Kalmyks, Georgians ... to generally exotic Kazakh and Azerbaijani SSs, neither female support personnel, nor SS volunteers (from Bosnian Muslims to Norwegians), neither Volkssturm and Hitler Youth were included in the reports of combat losses. So the losses of the Germans are always underestimated. In the same way, they also graded the loss of armored vehicles - for example, tanks that could not be restored even at German factories were considered completely lost. The same thing with airplanes ... The Nazis had very cunning statistics. But if you consider that after the war Germany looked like a country without men ... then the losses of Germany and the allies are no less than the losses of the Red Army, whatever mythologists and liberals blather.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 28 July 2017 18: 00
      I AGREE for losses I will add about personal-

      again about the bald and comb
      Strength is needed not so much to defeat the enemy as to consolidate its acquisitions to the allies (in PM in WWII and WWII) when signing peace agreements.
      The race, the future, “For Berlin” and “Hamburg” + “Trieste” has already begun. Bulgakov’s - "Annushka has already spilled oil"
      we lost a lot, namely our supporters, not the “citizens of the USSR” of the forest brothers and Bandera, and we could only defeat by destroying a comparable number of enemies
  16. Kolaaps
    Kolaaps 25 July 2017 16: 39
    Quote: igordok
    Another lover of shades of brown.

    But you need to figure it out so as not to make mistakes and not to "fart in the puddle" ... We ourselves will get in and step on the rake ... well, like in ChurbanChkeria
  17. GluckOvNik
    GluckOvNik 27 July 2017 22: 10
    Not so in the pics above (a signalman-sailor, a heifer in headphones with a steering wheel) there is something more or less, but to Irma Grese, such epithets as "angel ...", "blond", "beautiful" even if the monster of nichrome does not channel. Some kind of ugly angry toad. The terrible Shmara, obviously suffering because of her fearsome gnawed at a chronic under-bit, and therefore was evil.
  18. Monarchist
    Monarchist 1 August 2017 19: 28
    Sergey, thank you for the work, it is interesting. But I didn’t really like the title “Fascists in Skirts” immediately decided: a story about the most famous fascist Reichs such as Magda Goebbels
  19. nats
    nats 7 September 2018 11: 10
    "the notorious expression of Die Kinder, Die Küche, Die Kirche"
    --- The notorious expression - but without Die!
    1. nats
      nats 7 September 2018 11: 12
      Simply - three "K"