Military Review

Stories about weapons. Carabiner Mauser К98k

39



In 1898, the brothers Wilhelm and Paul Mauser created a rifle, which subsequently had a very long life and was released in huge numbers. The rifle received the designation "Gew.98" and was adopted by the German army 5 April 1898.

From 1899 to 1905, besides the rifle, the carbine "Kar.98" was also produced, which was distinguished by a shortened barrel, a "flattened" shape of the handle bent down, and a different fastening of the belt. In 1902, it was adopted as weapon for cavalry.

Somewhat later, a "Radfahrgewehr 98" carbine was created for scooters by the type of cavalry. "Kar.98" in its original form was produced only until 1905 year, when in connection with the adoption of the new 7.92х57mm cartridge, which had a pointed bullet instead of a blunt, the system "Gew.98" underwent the first changes.

In 1908, a new version of the carbine based on "Gew.98" appeared, which received the designation "Kar.98a". The 1923b carbine was released on 98. In fact, he was more likely not a carabiner, but a modification of the "Gew.98" with a simplified sector sight, the bolt handle bent downwards and the bent pin in front of the box - for the convenience of drawing up carabiners into goats.

In 1935, the new universal 7,92-mm carbine "Karabiner 98 kurz" (Kar.98k or simply K98k) replacing the rifle "Gew.98" and also the carbines "98" were adopted as a single model of personal weapons for all branches of the Wehrmacht. and "98b".

The barrel was shortened even in comparison with "98". The bolt handle was bent down under 90 degrees and placed in the recess of the box, the belt was attached to the side on a simple swivel. The use of these decisions made the carbine a fairly compact weapon suitable for arming various types of troops (infantry, cavalry, motorcyclists, gunners, sappers, etc.).

The Mauser K98k carbines were completed with standard SG 84 / 98 bayonets, significantly shorter and lighter than the bayonets provided for the Mauser 98 rifle. Such a bayonet had a blade of length 25 cm with a total length of 38,5 cm.

Massive bayonet fights were uncharacteristic for the Second World War, therefore, in order to save 1944 from the end, rifles were no longer equipped with bayonet knives, they even lacked a bayonet mount and ramrod.

The 98k rifles were equipped with very short ramrods (regular ramrops of 25 cm and 35 cm are known) - in order to clean the barrel bore, it was necessary to screw together two ramrods.

Standard sniper rifles were used as snipers, and specimens with maximum accuracy were selected from the party. Used for shooting cartridges SmE (Spitzgeschoss mit Eisenkern - a pointed bullet with a steel core).

Stories about weapons. Carabiner Mauser К98k


For sniper rifles used telescopic sights. The first type of telescopic sight officially adopted by the German army was the ZF 39 (Zielfernrohr 1939). Otherwise, this sight was called Zielvier (“quadbook”), this name was applied to other sights, providing a fourfold increase. In 1940, the sight received a standard graduation over a distance of 1200 m. It was mounted above the slide, and during the war the attachment design was repeatedly improved.

In July, the 1941 was adopted by another sight - ZF 41 (Zielfernrohr 41), also known as ZF 40 and ZF 41 / 1. K98k carbines equipped with ZF 41 began to enter the troops from the end of 1941. With a length of 13 cm, it provided only one and a half times increase, was attached on the left side of the rear panel, so it did not interfere with charging the magazine from the holder.

Due to the one and a half magnification, this sight could only be used for shooting at medium distances. A rifle with such a sight was positioned as a rifle for shooting with increased accuracy, and not as a sniper. At the beginning of the 1944, many ZF 41 sights were removed from many rifles, but the release of the ZF-41 / 1 continued until the end of the war. According to modern criteria, such sights are closer to the collimator, their use is due to the blitzkrieg plan, for which no trench warfare was planned.

In 1943, a cheap and reliable telescopic sight ZF 4 (or ZF 43, ZFK 43 and ZFK 43 / 1) with the multiplicity of 4X, designed under the influence of the Soviet PU sight, appeared. It was intended for the G43 self-loading rifle, but it was not possible to adjust the G43 in sufficient quantity and the sight had to be adapted to the Kar.98k rifle. The sight was placed over the bolt on the arrow-shaped mount, adopted a few months before the end of the war and released in a limited series.

At a very rough estimate, telescopic sights were equipped around 200 000 K98k. Approximately half of this amount falls on the ZF 41 sight, and the other half on the sights of the other types.

During World War II, a muzzle launcher and curvilinear nozzles (smooth-bore) were used for the Mauser 98k rifle, enabling them to shoot from behind cover.

The standard Gewehrgranat Geraet 42 rifle grenade launcher was attached to the barrel with a folding yoke. The maximum range of fire to 250 m. For a grenade launcher there were about 7 varieties of grenades.



The GG / P40 anti-tank grenade launcher (Gewehrgranatgeraet zur Panzerbekaempfung 40) was developed specifically for paratroopers. It was lighter and smaller than the standard GG 42, produced in a small batch, attached to the rifle as a bayonet, intended to deal with enemy armored vehicles.

Krummlauf is a shelter firing device that can rotate the bullet stroke by 30 degrees. It was attached to the barrel of a rifle using the same mechanism as the barrel grenade launcher. Developed in 1943, after the manufacture of several prototypes, the main emphasis in the work on the curvature of the barrel was transferred to assault rifles.



Winterabzug - a device for shooting a rifle in the winter. Developed in 1942, officially adopted in 1944. The winter descent consisted of an oval tin container with a lever inside and an outer trigger located on the side. The container was put on the trigger guard. Turning the outer trigger back, the shooter made a descent. It is not known how many such devices were made, but it was widely used by snipers, since it allowed them to shoot in the winter without removing their mittens.

There are two silencers for the Kar.98k: one is 25,5 cm long with a spiral surface, the other is 23 cm long. They are put on the barrel with a yoke similar to the mount of a grenade launcher.



K98 was in service with more than 20 armies in the world, and was released in the amount of more than 14 millions. This weapon has proven itself from the best side. It was a carbine, and not a submachine gun, as it used to be, the main weapon of the Wehrmacht.





Nikolay Schukin, a military reconstructor and a specialist in small arms in Germany, will tell in detail about his device and principle of work in the video.



Features:
Weight, kg: 3,7 — 4,1
Length, mm: 1110
Barrel length, mm: 600
Cartridge: 7,92 × 57 mm
Caliber, mm: 7,92
Principles of operation: rolling shutter
Rate of fire, shots / min: 15 (combat)
Initial velocity of the bullet, m / s: 760
Sighting range, m: 1500
Type of ammunition: an inseparable magazine on 5 cartridges, equipped with clips.
Author:
39 comments
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  1. igordok
    igordok 21 July 2017 07: 39
    +2
    Two silencers are known for Kar.98k: one 25,5 cm long with a spiral surface, the other 23 cm long. They were put on the barrel with a clamp similar to a barrel grenade launcher mount.

    Why does a silencer have a spiral surface? The silencer on the rifle is in doubt.
    1. Curious
      Curious 21 July 2017 08: 59
      +3
      Do not doubt. In the USSR, during the war years, "Bramit" was produced not only for Nagan, but also for the Mosin rifle and the DP machine gun, as well as SVT, PPD and PPSh.
      1. FIREMAN
        FIREMAN 21 July 2017 15: 59
        +3
        In the picture in the article is a grenade launcher.
        http://survival.com.ua/razvitie-glushiteley-zvuka
        -vyistrela-ustroystvo-muffler-vintovki-svt-40
        -karabina-mauzer-98 /
        Here is the silencer

        But the grenade launcher
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Passing
      Passing 21 July 2017 17: 29
      0
      Quote: igordok
      the rifle extinguisher is in doubt.

      suppose for a Kalash with conventional supersonic cartridges the muffler works well:
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K4vy-3eZl90
      they also use it for machine guns, but rather not with the aim of hiding the sound, but with the goal of preserving the ears of comrades.
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. hound
      hound 26 July 2017 18: 50
      0
      IMHO, a silencer needs a spiral surface for better cooling. And the silencer on the rifle muffles not only the sound, but also minimizes the flash of the shot.
  2. loft79
    loft79 21 July 2017 08: 10
    +6
    Interesting. I heard about Winterabzug for the first time. After google, here is a picture for a better understanding. Simple and cheerful. Thanks to the author.
    1. igordok
      igordok 21 July 2017 08: 39
      0
      Really a container.
  3. Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai 21 July 2017 08: 59
    +2
    Quote from the article:
    In 1943, a cheap and reliable telescopic sight ZF 4 (or ZF 43, ZFK 43 and ZFK 43/1) with a multiplicity of 4X appeared Designed under the influence of the Soviet PU sight. It was intended for the self-loading rifle G43, but it was not possible to set up the release of G43 in sufficient quantities and the scope had to be adapted to the Kar.98k rifle.


    And where is the vaunted German optics.
    The best German optics in the world is in fact just a myth, like the myth of the enormous saturation of the Wehrmacht with submachine guns, automatic weapons, so that our generals and marshals could justify themselves for the tragic defeat of the Red Army at the beginning of the war.
    1. von Schlosser
      von Schlosser 21 July 2017 09: 25
      +4
      The company name alone will say everything - "Carl Zeiss"))))
      1. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 21 July 2017 10: 30
        +2
        Quote: von schlosser
        The company name alone will say everything - "Carl Zeiss"))))


        There is a name, but no optics for weapons.
    2. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 21 July 2017 14: 52
      +7
      Quote: Ivan Tartugay
      And where is the vaunted German optics.

      The praise of optics lies in the quality of the “optical” glass and the accuracy of the mechanisms of the sight, plus quality stability. The Soviet Union produced copies of German tank sights (our TSh-15, TSh-16) and aviation sights (OPB-1, 2). I recall the dicky cloud of German photographic lenses copied and produced in the USSR, and very often they are materially inferior to the original in optical qualities.
      Yes, I agree that Zeiss is surrounded by an oracle of “enthusiasm”, but this does not negate the fact that German optical engineering was and is at a very high level.
      1. Passing
        Passing 21 July 2017 17: 42
        +3
        Quote: BORMAN82
        Let me remind you about the dick cloud of German photographic lenses copied and produced in the USSR, and very often they are quite naturally inferior to the original ones in optical qualities.

        I have a Soviet half of binoculars, about 70s, I thought the thing was old, soviet, now, after 50 years, come up with such cool optics, and recently bought not the cheapest Chinese Celestron binoculars with zoom, and, suddenly, the picture quality was extremely rare shitty, the sharpness is noticeably inferior, some blind spots are annoying, chromatic contours, crap is complete compared to the shovel oak thing, the optics in the USSR was fucking. Maybe the difference with Zeiss was and was, but not as radical as between the ancient Soviet and modern Chinese.
      2. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 21 July 2017 18: 52
        +1
        Quote: BORMAN82
        Zeiss is surrounded by an oracle of "enthusiasm", but this does not negate the fact that German optical engineering was and is at a very high level.


        Who needs the "Zeiss" enthusiasm? Only owners of the company to raise the prices of their products.
        The troops do not care about the brand of the company, they need a good sight. And his company "Zeiss" with an oreal of enthusiasm cannot give. Or there is one and a half times ZF 41, from the vaunted German optical industry, which supposedly was and is at a very high level. If the German optics industry was praised at a high level, it would give its troops a good 4-fold sight, and give out a 1,5-fold. What is this sight? It means there is no fact that German optical engineering was and is at a very high level. There is only a myththat German optics is excellent.
        The troops need a good sight, and not the name of the world famous Carl Zeiss company. It is a matter of life and death.
        1. Curious
          Curious 21 July 2017 21: 46
          +1
          And what sight do you personally use?
          1. Ivan Tartugai
            Ivan Tartugai 22 July 2017 06: 09
            +1
            Quote: Curious
            And what sight do you personally use?


            I do not use the sight.
            Friends use only Chinese sights "Carl Zeiss"in which from Karl Zeiss only the name "Karl Zeiss" with an oreal of "enthusiasm" to the captured German optic construction. Sights are cheap, the price-performance ratio suits. Broke on the hunt, on transport, a new buy is not a problem for the wallet of the average layman.
            1. Curious
              Curious 22 July 2017 10: 12
              +3
              And on the basis of what do you write reviews about sights without using them, according to friends?
            2. wolga.sergej
              wolga.sergej 8 December 2017 22: 36
              0
              "Carl Zeiss" is made in Germany or in China, a big difference. The Ural motorcycle is allowed in Germany, and the Chinese Ural is forbidden; it does not pass inspection. Chinese is Chinese and remnant!
    3. super.ufu
      super.ufu 25 July 2017 10: 25
      0
      And where is the vaunted German optics.
      The world's best German optics is actually just a myth

      why a myth? The best quality of glass processing was also recognized by us, so trophy binoculars, stereo tubes, etc. were so appreciated
      1. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 25 July 2017 15: 37
        0
        Quote: super.ufu
        the best quality of glass processing was recognized by us as well


        Both in tsarist Russia and in the USSR, before industrialization, it was indeed recognized that German binoculars were good. So there was no choice, because in tsarist Russia and the USSR before industrialization there was no domestic optical production at all, they did not produce their binoculars, their sights, they only used import. When they created their optical-mechanical industry, they created their binoculars and sights. So, in the sights of our snipers from the 40th year, there was mainly a 3,5x PU sight. The vaunted German optical-mechanical industry, including the vaunted Karl Zeiss, armed their German snipers with a 1,5x scope.
        Quote from the article:
        Due to a 300-fold increase, this sight could only be used for firing at medium distances (i.e. 500-XNUMX m). The rifle with this aim was positioned as a rifle for shooting with increased accuracy, and not as a sniper.

        Of course, the German snipers had sights and with greater multiplicity, especially after 43 years, when the Germans began to develop and copy their similar ones using captured Soviet PU sights. But it was only for the elite. Since the vaunted German optical-mechanical industry could not provide its snipers with high-quality sights and more than half of German snipers, they fought on 1,5-fold sights.
        And where is the vaunted German optics?
        In the war of 1941-45, it was not. Great German optics is just a myth.
        1. super.ufu
          super.ufu 25 July 2017 16: 01
          0
          The vaunted German optical-mechanical industry, including the vaunted Karl Zeiss, armed their German snipers with a 1,5x scope.

          I remember that you have problems with the perception of the text, I repeat again - better quality glass processing and highlight, so as not to miss.
          and even at a range of 400-500 Zf41 is quite enough for a trained shooter
          Since the vaunted German optical-mechanical industry could not provide its snipers with high-quality sights and more than half of German snipers, they fought on 1,5-fold sights.

          the vaunted German industry has padded the sea of ​​sports and hunting sights which the Germans actively used.
          and in our tanks we had polished pieces of iron instead of pripleks,
          and Hyayuha shot at all without a sight and nothing remained alive.

          yes and still
          awesome sight on a curved rifle will not help

          a document on the accuracy of gross sniper rifles in the shooting at GAU training grounds in 1942, Accuracy was not impressive to say frankly - already at 300 meters the arrows couldn’t lay 100% of the bullets in the chest target.

          In the war of 1941-45, it was not. Great German optics is just a myth.

          start reading memoirs - how our valued Zeiss binoculars, how they valued the quality of stereo tubes, etc., etc.

          and yes, I’ll spit in the end, you optics)))
          Control firing snipers 128 sd 54 army in November 1941

          1. Yuriy_999
            Yuriy_999 26 February 2018 17: 56
            +1
            "But Hyayuha shot without a sight at all and nothing remained alive." Well, yes, by a miracle. The photo is impressive. Once survived. The last document is not at all clear about what, and what kind of notes are there.
          2. Herosw
            Herosw 14 November 2020 18: 23
            0
            As for the optics, where glands were used, instead of lenses, some kind of liar came up with, believed in this nonsense. And other similar types began to spread.
      2. GIN
        GIN 6 November 2017 11: 35
        0
        Canache
  4. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 21 July 2017 09: 41
    +2
    "It was a carbine, and not a submachine gun, as previously seemed to be the Wehrmacht's main weapon."

    Wehrmacht infantry units armed with carbines in relation to the PP, from about 7: 1 to 10: 1.
    1. Ivan Tartugai
      Ivan Tartugai 21 July 2017 10: 24
      0
      Quote: Vladimirets
      from about 7: 1 to 10: 1.


      At the beginning of the war with the USSR, only 5% of the soldiers were armed with PP, i.e. every twentieth. They were mainly tankers, even the Wehrmacht paratroopers were armed with PP for a third of the PP, and more than half were armed with a 98K Mauser.
      At the beginning of the war, the Wehrmacht infantry units were armed with carbines in relation to the BCP, about 25-30 to 1.
    2. Lganhi
      Lganhi 21 July 2017 11: 13
      +1
      Detachments were armed with squad and platoon commanders. The shooters were armed with carbines, and the machine gunner and his first assistant were armed with pistols.
  5. creak
    creak 21 July 2017 11: 28
    +1
    In total, over the years of the war in Germany, a little more than 1 million airborne assault rifles were produced and about 400 thousand replaced the assault rotor assault STG-44.
  6. FIREMAN
    FIREMAN 21 July 2017 16: 12
    +3
    Quote: igordok
    Two silencers are known for Kar.98k: one 25,5 cm long with a spiral surface, the other 23 cm long. They were put on the barrel with a clamp similar to a barrel grenade launcher mount.

    Why does a silencer have a spiral surface? The silencer on the rifle is in doubt.

    This means this one:
  7. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 21 July 2017 19: 37
    +2
    Quote: Ivan Tartugay
    it would give its troops a good 4x scope, and it would produce 1,5x

    Tell me, do you have objective reasons to consider the 1,5-ra case to be technically bad?
    Quote: Ivan Tartugay
    The troops need a good sight, and not the name of the world famous Carl Zeiss company. It is a matter of life and death.

    What terms of reference for the magnification of the scope of the military gave the manufacturers such an army and received)
    Quote: Passing by
    and recently bought not the cheapest Chinese Celestron binoculars with zoom, and, suddenly, the picture quality turned out to be extremely shitty, the sharpness is noticeably inferior, some blind spots are annoying, chromatic contours, the crap is full compared to the shovel oak thing, optics in The USSR was fucking.

    To compare binoculars with fixed multiplicity and Zoom-binoculars of consumer goods company Celestron is really a “objective” comparison))) I recommend looking at Nikon Monarch or Sightron SII, and then tell about quality.
    1. Passing
      Passing 22 July 2017 13: 54
      +1
      1) I'm in binoculars necopenhagen that I see with my own eyes that I sing. That Soviet binoculars was exactly the same consumer goods, it didn’t cost a whole salary, unlike Nikon Monarch and others
      2) I was talking about Chinese optics, and you are talking about Japanese. Or is it really in China that not just assembling with plastic molding, but also making glass for the Japanese?
      1. Grid
        Grid 23 July 2017 17: 06
        +1
        That Soviet binoculars were exactly the same consumer goods, it didn’t cost a whole salary,

        You are mistaken in both points. Soviet binoculars were far from consumer goods. My B8x30, a civilian version of the BC-8, still works very well. He was not very cheap. And as for the "whole" salary, then you have to look - who has the salary?
        1. Passing
          Passing 23 July 2017 23: 16
          0
          The typical salary of an ordinary citizen of the USSR is 100-200 rubles. The price of optics was definitely less than the salary at times. For example, my father left me with binoculars and a telescope, despite the fact that they were essentially for pampering. I just wanted to, so I bought it, not at a time of course. So what exactly is consumer goods.
          Typical salary in the Volga region is 15-30tr. That is, the price of Nikon Monarch binoculars.
        2. John22
          John22 24 July 2017 22: 16
          +1
          In 1965, such binoculars cost 70,00 rubles. A spyglass 20x70 in 1985 was worth 40,00 rubles.
  8. bk0010
    bk0010 21 July 2017 20: 22
    0
    It seems to me, or if there is a sniper sight there are problems with reloading?
    And how does this carbine compare with Mosinka in terms of reliability and combat characteristics (the fact that it is significantly less clear, to fight with what was better)?
    1. marder7
      marder7 21 July 2017 20: 48
      +2
      Mosinka 33 g. ................... Mauser 98 to 35 g.
      4.5 kg .................................. 4.2 kg
      123 cm (without bayonet) ................. 111 cm (without bayonet)
      5 rounds 7.62 x 54 .............. 5 rounds 7.92 x 57
      all clear? almost the same.
    2. super.ufu
      super.ufu 25 July 2017 10: 26
      0
      And how does this carbine compare with Mosinka in terms of reliability and combat characteristics (the fact that it is significantly less clear, to fight with what was better)?

      they were the same, except for the fuse, at 98k it is better
      1. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 25 July 2017 15: 47
        0
        Quote: super.ufu
        they were the same


        They were not the same.
        The 98K Mauser has stronger recoil, the flame is brighter, the sound is louder. This is bad. The number of parts is greater, this is also bad. More sensitive to pollution, low temperatures. Too bad.
        It is harder to recharge in winter in mittens. This is bad.
        1. super.ufu
          super.ufu 25 July 2017 16: 11
          0
          Well, tell me as the owner of both options, yeah.
          yeah, I realized, just to argue, especially neighing with louder and brighter, despite the fact that the men from the GAU pointed out that due to the deterioration of the kachetsvet Soviet powders more smoke, flame brighter, sound louder
          and yes, mosinki shutter - 8 parts, 98k -9, come up with something more fun
  9. Decabrev
    Decabrev 21 July 2017 23: 14
    0
    In fact, the infantry division of the Germans was built around a machine gun. The machine gun, in fact, was a prima ballerina, that is, the main armament, not in quantity, of course - in significance and effectiveness. But rifles, after all, are a bit of auxiliary weapons, as well as a submachine gun, although in melee and hand-to-hand combat everything changed a little.
  10. Music
    Music 22 July 2017 10: 57
    +2
    The 98 rifle fought two world wars. That's what reliability and quality mean.