Military Review

Suomi Country Air Defense (Part 1)


The Finnish Air Force was officially formed on 4 on May 1928 of the year. At about the same time, ground-based air defense units appeared. In the 1939 year, by the beginning of the Winter War, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the Finnish Air Force was no match for the Soviet capabilities. Finnish anti-aircraft artillery was relatively modern, albeit small.

From the side of the Red Army Air Force in the company took part around 2500 aircraft, Finland in the initial period of the war could only expose 114 combat aircraft. Despite the fact that the superiority of the USSR in the air was overwhelming, the Finns were able to offer stubborn resistance. In this they were assisted by many countries that supplied combat aircraft. Also in the Finnish Air Force many foreign volunteer pilots fought.

The main fighter of the Finnish Air Force in the initial period of the war was the Fokker D.XXI. This aircraft, which made its first flight in the 1936 year, was specifically designed to protect the Dutch colonies in Asia. Fighter with Mercury VIII air-cooled engine with 830 horsepower. developed in horizontal flight speed 460 km / h. The armament of most of the Finnish fighter of this type consisted of four 7,92 mm machine guns M36 FN-Browning.

Suomi Country Air Defense (Part 1)

Fokker D.XXI Finnish Air Force

According to the reference data, at the time of the outbreak of hostilities, the Fokker 41 was at the disposal of the Finns. These fighters, despite the relatively weak weapons, performed well in battles. Thus, according to Finnish sources, 6 January 1940, a pair of Fokkers in one air battle shot down 7 bomber DB-3, flying without fighter cover. Of course, to imagine this is very difficult, according to Western historians, there was no defensive armament on Soviet bomber. Fokkers were mainly used as part of the 24 th air group (LLv-24). Until the end of hostilities in March 1940, this unit lost its 12 fighter. 22 "Fokker" was in the ranks, still 4 machines were being repaired.

The Finnish command forbade their pilots to absolutely get involved in an air battle with Soviet fighters, since the latest series of X-NUMXs exceeded Dutch-made fighters in speed and armament. Yes, and it would seem that the obsolete I-16 bis and I-15 were a difficult opponent. Experienced pilots flying on Polikarpov’s biplanes quickly got on the tails of the Fokkers on turns. However, the Fokker D.XXI was operated by the Finnish Air Force until the beginning of the 153s.

In addition to the Fokker D.XXI, at the beginning of the conflict in the country of Suomi, there were 15 biplanes of British-made Bristol Bulldog Mk. IVA. The Bulldog, which went into series in 1930, is definitely outdated by 1939.

Fighters Bristol Bulldog Mk. IVA Finnish Air Force

Fighter with maximum take-off weight 1590 kg and air-cooled Bristol Jupiter engine with 440 horsepower. developed 287 km / h. Armament consisted of two machine guns caliber 7,7 mm.

Despite the modest flight data, the pilots flying the Bulldogs managed to shoot down much more modern machines. According to Finnish data again, the Bulldogs won 6 victories, losing one of their fighters. Among the planes shot down by them are SB and I-16. Nevertheless, the chances of these fighters in air combat were few, and they were used mainly for training purposes.

After the armed conflict with the USSR entered into an active phase, many states provided military assistance to Finland. For example, the UK government has authorized the delivery of Gloster Gladiator Mk II fighter 30, the French have sent the same number of Morane-Solnier MS406, Italy 10 Fiat G.50. The largest batch of fighters was supplied by the United States - 44 Brewster 239.

As for the English fighter "Gloucester Gladiator", this biplane had become obsolete by the time it was put into service in 1937. The last fighter of the RAF biplane scheme at an altitude of 4000 meters could reach 407 km / h. Armament - 4 machine gun caliber 7,7 mm. Despite the fact that the chassis was non-retractable, the pilot was sitting in a closed cockpit. This was important when operating in negative temperatures.

Gloster Gladiator Mk II Finnish Air Force

The main part of the "Gladiators" was supplied from England, but as it became known later, the Swedish Air Force fighters carrying Finnish insignia took part in the Winter War. They were ruled by the Swedes, who were professional soldiers who went to fight as volunteers. Swedish "Gladiators" shot down eight Soviet aircraft.

The first combat flight on the "Gladiator" took place on 2 February 1940 of the year. Fighters of this type performed well in battles. Their pilots claim 45 air victories with the loss of 12 machines. The use of the “Gladiators” in the Finnish Air Force for combat purposes continued until the 1943 year. The last airborne victory of this type of fighter was won on 15 in February of 1943, when Lieutenant Hakan Stromberg shot down his communications unit P-5 during reconnaissance along the Murmansk railway.

Compared to the British Gloster Gladiator, the French Morane-Solnier MS406 seemed like a plane of another generation. In part, this was the case, although these fighters appeared almost simultaneously.

Morane-Solnier MS406 Finnish Air Force

It was a low-wing monoplane with a retractable landing gear and a Hispano-Suiza 12Y-31 HP liquid-cooled engine powered by an HP 860. At an altitude of 5000 meters, Moran developed 486 km / h. The fighter had a very powerful weapon for the end of 30-s - 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon and two 7,5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns. In capable hands, these fighters were a great threat. According to Western data, during the Winter War, the Morans made 259 combat missions, shooting down Soviet aircraft 16.

After the fall of France, the Nazis handed over the captured "Morans" and spare parts to the Finns. Since the French aircraft could no longer be on an equal footing with the Soviet fighters of new types, they tried to modernize them in Finland. At the beginning of 1943, Moran installed a captured M-105 engine with a power of 1100 hp, a new bonnet and an adjustable screw. The speed increased to 525 km / h. The composition of armaments has changed: now in the collapse of the engine cylinders, the German 15 and 20 mm MG submachine gun MG 151 / 20 and 12,7 mm were mounted by the Soviet BS machine guns. This variant is known in Finland as “Lagg-Moran”. However, due to the lack of engines, it was not possible to carry out the re-engineization of all the Morans. Fighters actively participated in the battles, Finnish pilots who flew the Moranah claim 118 shot down Soviet aircraft with the loss of their vehicles 15. At the time of the end of hostilities, the 41 aircraft was in service, which were used for training purposes until the 1952 year.

At the end of the 1939 of the year, even before the outbreak of hostilities, Finland ordered the Italian fighters 35 Fiat G.50. The first 10 aircraft were to be delivered before February 1940, and a group of Finnish pilots completed the 10-hour training course at the factory Fiat Aviazione airfield in Turin.

Fiat G.50 Finnish Air Force

The Fiat G.50, put into service in the 1938 year, was the first production Italian monoplane fighter with a retractable landing gear. Star-shaped 14-cylinder air-cooled engine Fiat A.74 RC38 with HP 870 power at an altitude of 3000 meters, I clocked the Fiat to 472 km / h. Armament consisted of two machine guns Breda-Safat 12,7 caliber mm.

Despite the accelerated training of the flight and technical staff and the forced delivery, Italian-made fighters did not really have time to take part in the Winter War. Observers celebrated Fiat combat missions in the Vyborg region in February-March 1940. At the very beginning of operation, at least two fighters were defeated due to insufficient pilot qualifications. The Utti home base has been bombed several times, and it was too dangerous to be there. Therefore, the fighters relocated to the ice of Lake Vesijärvi.

The Fiats, set in 1940, had an open cockpit, which did not add to their popularity when flying in winter. Nevertheless, the pilots announced 18 shot down Soviet aircraft. These were mainly SB and DB-3 bombers and I-153 biplanes. Data on their own losses vary, most often it is said that the Finnish Air Force lost five "Fiat". How many of them died in air battles, is not known.

Fiat's finest hour came in the summer of 1941, when the pilots of these fighters showed the highest percentage of victories in the Finnish Air Force, announcing 52 victories with the loss of only one of their aircraft by the end of the year. In total, from February 1940 to September 1944, according to official Finnish data, G.50 pilots shot down 99 enemy planes. As can be seen, the main part of the Finns air victories fell on the most difficult period for the USSR. As Soviet pilots acquired combat experience and new aviation types of combat aircraft entered the combat regiment, the successes of the Finnish Air Force declined sharply. Already in 1942, Fiat G.50 could not compete on equal terms with the Soviet Yak and Lugg, and by 1944, this gap had widened even more. But due to the shortage of combat aircraft, despite the strong wear and tear, the Fiat 10-12 flew into the air until a truce with the Soviet Union was reached. Unlike the French Morane-Solnier MS406, no attempt was made to modernize the Fiat G.50. The last fighter of this type was officially written off in the first half of 1946.

American-made fighter jets Brewster 239 were the most numerous type ordered by the Finns during the Winter War. A contract worth $ 3,4 million was concluded with the United States 16 December 1939. In addition to 44 fighters, the Americans pledged to supply spare engines, a set of spare parts and weapons. Since in the USA these vehicles were originally intended for basing on aircraft carriers, special take-off devices and life-rafts were removed from the fighter jets, which somewhat reduced the take-off weight.

Brewster 239 Finnish Air Force

The aircraft, known in the US Navy as the Brewster F2A Buffalo, was put into service in the 1939 year. It was one of the first American monoplane fighter with a retractable landing gear. The modification with a nine-cylinder engine of air cooling Wright R-1820-G5 Cyclone with power 950 hp was delivered to Finland. The plane with a take-off weight of 2640 kg, at an altitude of 4700 meters, developed a speed of 478 km / h. The armament was powerful enough - the 4 large-caliber 12,7 mm machine gun M2 Browning. For that time, the Buffalo was one of the most powerful fighters.

The first Brewsters arrived in Finland in February 1940. The assembly of the aircraft, delivered by sea to Norway, and then by rail to Sweden, was carried out at the enterprise SAAB in Gothenburg. The first five fighters reached combat readiness before the end of the war, but did not take part in the hostilities. The fighters additionally installed bronspinki and sights of Finnish production.

The first baptism of the Brewster took place on 25 on June 1941. According to Finnish sources, on that day a pair of fighters engaged the 27 bombers of the Security Council over Turku and allegedly shot down the 5 of Soviet aircraft, without incurring losses. In general, in the Finnish Air Force this type of fighter is considered perhaps the most successful. He was appreciated not only for good flight data, but also for reliability. Initially, there were problems with the reliability of the engines, but the Finnish mechanics managed to fix all the problems. The disadvantage of the fighter was considered to be unprotected fuel tanks, in addition, in some cases the Brewster was confused with the Soviet I-16. During the war in Finland, an attempt was made to copy the Brewster 239, but the work was delayed, and as a result, after the start of deliveries in the German 1943, the German Messerschmitt Bf 109G closed this topic.

According to the Finns, in three years from 25 on June 1941 of the year, to 17 on June 1944 of the year, pilots of the 24 of the fighter air group flying on the Brewster shot down 477 of Soviet aircraft, having lost their machines in 19. After Finland signed an armistice with the Soviet Union in September 1944, Finnish fighters rose to intercept German aircraft. So, on October 3, 1944 of the year was shot down by Ju 87, which invaded Finnish airspace, but such cases were sporadic. Brewster 239 active service in the Finnish Air Force continued until September 1948. The latest aircraft were scrapped in 1953.

At the beginning of 1940, Finland purchased Hawker Hurricane Mk I British 12 fighters. However, they failed to take part in the Winter War. Moreover, only ten cars reached Finland: two planes were lost during the haul.

Finnish Hawker Hurricane Mk I

The fact that the British government, which is in a state of war with Germany, despite the acute need for modern fighters, has sanctioned the sale of combat aircraft, indicates the intention to drag the USSR into a protracted military conflict.

For its time, the Hurricane was fairly high flight data, its mass production began at the end of the 1937 of the year. Hawker Hurricane Mk I was equipped with a Rolls-Royce Merlin II engine with a capacity of 1030 l. with. Maximum speed - 540 km / h. Armament - eight 7,7 mm machine guns Browning .303 Mk II.

The Finnish Hurricanes entered the battle at the end of June 1941, but were used in a rather limited manner during the fighting, due to the lack of spare parts. In the spring of 1942, a replenishment was received in the form of a trophy Soviet Hurricane Mk II. This February 1942 aircraft made an emergency landing on Topozer’s ice and was rebuilt. Two other Soviet Hurricane, which flopped on the belly in the Finnish rear, were used as donors.

In the 1943 year, the Hurricane flights virtually ceased, although they were listed in the Finnish Air Force. According to Finnish data, on account of these fighters 5 air victories. Five Finnish "Hurricanes" were lost in aerial combat, two more were victims of Soviet anti-aircraft artillery. The last time the Hurricane of the Finnish Air Force flew into the air on 31 May 1944.

According to Western historians, during the Winter War, on the territory controlled by Finnish troops, they made an emergency landing of 25 Soviet aircraft. It was possible to return 5 I-15 bis, 8 I-153 and 1 I-16 to the flight state. There is no information that these vehicles made combat missions. Most likely, they were used for training purposes and for the organization of training air battles. Repair of trophy aircraft was carried out at the State Aviation Enterprise Valtion lentokonetehdas. Engines and other parts were taken from aircraft, the restoration of which was considered impractical.

As can be seen from the foregoing, during the armed confrontation with the USSR in the winter of 1939-1940. The Finnish Air Force remained operational only through foreign supplies. On the Finnish side, during the Winter War, pilots from England, Poland, USA, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Italy fought. According to Western data, 225 combat aircraft were delivered from abroad to Finland during the Winter War. At the same time, fighters and bombers of the Air Force of “neutral” Sweden, who flew during the conflict with the Finnish identification marks, were not included in this number, because after the end of the war they returned home with the crews. Thanks to foreign military assistance, the Finnish Air Force 1 of April 1940 of the year, despite the losses, numbered 196 combat aircraft, that is, more than before the start of the conflict. The same applies to the supply of aviation gasoline and oil, fuel and lubricants for combat aircraft delivered mainly from Sweden.

According to Finnish data, 493 Soviet planes were shot down in 293 air battles, while Finnish anti-aircraft gunners claim another 330 downed planes. The Finns admit that they lost 67 of their vehicles during the fighting. 69 aircraft were seriously damaged. In the course of the fighting, 304 Finnish airmen died, 90 went missing, 105 were wounded. But it is not known whether the losses of numerous foreign volunteers were taken into account. In turn, domestic sources cite data that are fundamentally different from Finnish ones. So, in the book of V.S. Shumikhina "Soviet military aviation 1917 - 1941 ”states that combat losses amounted to 261 aircraft and 321 aviators. Soviet aviators and anti-aircraft gunners announced the destruction of 362 enemy aircraft. Based on this, we can clearly say that the parties overestimated the enemy’s losses by more than two times.

Most foreign military observers present in Finland in the winter of 1939-1940 noted the fierce nature of aerial combat. Finnish pilots who sat in the cockpits of the few fighters compared to the Red Army's air force did everything possible to prevent Soviet bombers from accessing their own facilities. There are cases when the Finns in a desperate situation went to the ram. Soviet pilots considered the Finnish pilots a strong and very dangerous opponent. At the same time, the Finnish command tried with all its might to avoid casualties. Fighter pilots were forbidden to engage in combat with Soviet fighters without urgent need. A significant number of victories in the accounts of a number of Finnish aces is explained not only by high personal mastery, but also by the “hit and run” tactics. As well as careful planning of air battles and distribution of roles. In a number of cases, Soviet fighters, who were flattered by blithely flying and seemingly unaware single Finnish lure aircraft, were shot down by a sudden attack from the sun. The weak point of the Finnish military aviation was a large diversity, which greatly hampered the training of personnel, repair, and the supply of spare parts and ammunition.

To be continued ...

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  1. gurzuf
    gurzuf 18 July 2017 16: 05
    It turns out the Finns also destroyed all the USSR Air Force laughing
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 18 July 2017 16: 25
      Quote: gurzuf
      It turns out the Finns also destroyed all the USSR Air Force

      Yeah, the losses look especially strange: "The Finns admit that during the hostilities they lost 67 of their cars. 69 aircraft were seriously damaged. During the fighting, 304 Finnish aviators were killed, 90 went missing, 105 were wounded." , 304 dead pilot (90 b / c there) with the loss of 67 of their vehicles. request It leaves 4-5 pilots per car. Or, in some cases, did the plane get to the airfield itself? And this despite the fact that there were few cars with a large crew in the Finnish Air Force. what
      1. Walking
        Walking 18 July 2017 17: 42
        Finns are still storytellers.
      2. long in stock.
        long in stock. 18 July 2017 20: 22
        author’s defect. apparently all losses of the air force are indicated
    2. long in stock.
      long in stock. 18 July 2017 21: 03
      According to reports of air regiments, military journals, and daily reports, over the course of the war, the Red Army Air Force lost 224 aircraft shot down or made emergency landings beyond the front line. Another 86 are reported missing and 181 are counted along the lines of “died and damaged in accidents and catastrophes” (non-combat losses). The combat losses of the Baltic Fleet aviation amounted to 17 vehicles, non-combat - 46. The Air Force of the Northern Fleet ended the war without losses. the author simply reprinted the old articles of the 1992 model ... well, how do we remember. Bunich Sokolovsky ... even those experts .. and even great experts from Poland. Mr. Linnik, didn’t you mix times? Then you could lie, we couldn’t compare with what. but now that such nonsense doesn’t really roll ..
      1. Bongo
        19 July 2017 01: 31
        Quote: Long in stock.
        Mr. Linnik, didn’t you confuse times? Then it was possible to lie, there was nothing to compare with us. But now such nonsense doesn’t really roll ..

        And you, sir, I do not know about you there, have you read the article carefully? fool Black and white indicates "according to Finnish data" or "as the Finns say." Our data are also given. This does not mean that the author believes everything that the Finnish side has stated.
        in the book of V.S. Shumikhina "Soviet military aircraft 1917 - 1941" states that combat losses were 261 aircraft and 321 aviator.

        For whom was this written? Or do you see only what is convenient for you?
        1. long in stock.
          long in stock. 19 July 2017 06: 57
          good question .. really for whom? Yes, you wrote, according to Finnish data. And you didn’t even give other data. You indicated that according to Shumikhin’s book, and what to indicate data from official sources in any way? Let those who are interested themselves compare and consider. And now I read it very much about the article attentively. the article will be repeated once again - compilation of old editions. even a direct smell of Kotlobovsky started to be remembered not by night ... and if you decide to head it the air defense of the country of Suomi, well, write about air defense ... and they wrote about airplanes. but the description should include the organization of the very air defense and the place of basing and who commanded and which units were included ... and yes, the lagg moran is great .. a new view was discovered ..
          1. Bongo
            19 July 2017 11: 13
            Quote: Long in stock.
            good question .. really for whom? Yes, you wrote, according to Finnish data. And you didn’t even give other data. You indicated that according to Shumikhin’s book, and what to indicate data from official sources in any way? Let those who are interested themselves compare and consider. attentively. the article will be repeated once again - a compilation of old editions. even straight by the smell of Kotlobovsky it started not to be remembered by night ...

            I don’t know what kind of smell you have there, you know what is known better, but when strangers tell me that I owe them something, especially in this form, this does not meet with understanding. As for the content, is it really a revelation for you that fighters are involved in air defense tasks?
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 19 July 2017 19: 44
              No, not a revelation. But if you write about air defense, can you indicate the structure? Or it’s easier, fighters of the Suomi country. Or is it a revelation for you that air defense is not only fighters? will ask questions. and where you read about debts is a mystery ..
          2. sivuch
            sivuch 15 November 2017 09: 27
            Well, not Lagg-Moran, but Merko-Moraani, the difference is not great. And, as far as I remember, dates did not work out with the MG-151, so in most cases they flew with 3X12.7
  2. hohol95
    hohol95 18 July 2017 16: 13
    Lagg-Moran? Wonderful! And where does this name come from? Everywhere a different name is indicated -
    Morko Moraani (Moran Ghost)
    Finnish modernization of the MS406 C1 with the Soviet M-105P engine and UB machine gun, 15 copies were redone.
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 18 July 2017 16: 33
    The weak point of Finnish military aviation was its great diversity, which greatly complicated the training of personnel, repairs, and the supply of spare parts and ammunition.

    Sergei. Thank. You touched on a little-known, but interesting topic. Quite a lot has been written about the Winter War, but it is mainly about ground operations, but there are few passages about the actions of aviation.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 18 July 2017 19: 53
      If you "google" a lot of brochures issued by the Suomi Air Force of those times!
  4. hohol95
    hohol95 18 July 2017 16: 37
    Curtiss "Hawk" 75A will be listed in another part of the article?
    1. avt
      avt 18 July 2017 17: 52
      Quote: hohol95
      Curtiss "Hawk" 75A will be listed in another part of the article?

      So it’s kind of like Bf, like they had, but I suppose
      To be continued ...
      bully The author seriously approaches writing - it is pleasing to the eye and informative. good
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 18 July 2017 18: 48
        Hawk 75
        The aircraft that the Germans captured in Bourges (14 A-3s and seven A-4s) were taken out to Germany. There, eight fighter aircraft of the A-6 modification, commissioned by the Norwegian government, joined them. They differed from the "A-2" only with 7,9 mm machine guns. The Germans found these trophies in April 1940 in the warehouse of the port in Oslo. One of the German aircraft factories replaced weapons, devices, sights and radio stations on all fighters, after which all 29 aircraft in 1941 were sold to Finland.
  5. hohol95
    hohol95 18 July 2017 16: 40
    The State Aviation Plant repaired eight captured SB bombers.
    In 1941, another 16 such aircraft were bought in Germany.
    This SB-2 M103 (VP-10) was photographed at the factory airfield in Tampere in April 1940. In September 1941, the letters in the designation were changed to SB.

    And one such SB was shot down in 1941 by Kaberov, Igor Alexandrovich (April 25, 1917 - October 2, 1995) - a fighter pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union, a participant in the Great Patriotic War.
    The author of the book “A Swastika in the Sight”, an honorary citizen of Veliky Novgorod.
    And you the author claims only about fighters ...
    Five Ilyushin DB-3 bombers were captured during the Winter War, six more such aircraft were bought from Germany in 1941.
    Lentolaivue 46 used these machines to train bomber crews.
    In September 1941, the letters VP in the designation were changed to DB.
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 18 July 2017 20: 24
      article about air defense of Finland .. they don’t roll there ...
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 18 July 2017 22: 51
        I left this comment about this phrase in the article -
        "There is no evidence that these aircraft made combat sorties. Most likely, they were used for training purposes and for organizing training air battles."
        I meant X-NUMX / 15 / 153 captured by the Finnish military as trophies!
        No time to look for exact descriptions of the memories of our pilots, but those who flew on the Karelian and Leningrad fronts and during the defense of the Hanko base claim the combat use of the I-153s with Finnish identification marks! Information about the bombers quickly came to hand!
    2. Bongo
      19 July 2017 01: 34
      Quote: hohol95
      And you the author claims only about fighters ...

      The article is called Air defense of the country of Suomi. What side are anti-aircraft defense related to? what
      Quote: hohol95
      I meant X-NUMX / 15 / 153 captured by the Finnish military as trophies!
      They were not used in the Winter War, in the Continuation War, as it is called in Finland, the I-153 did fly for attack and reconnaissance in the 1941 year.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 19 July 2017 08: 00
        We will wait for the continuation and information on the use of Soviet fighters by the Finnish Air Force in the Continuation War!
    3. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 27 July 2017 10: 41
      Suomi bombers included in the air defense? Yes, then the author of the article is not right that he claimed only about fighters. And the "news" about I.A. Kaberova, you also wrote to the place. 100500 + You definitely!
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 27 July 2017 15: 22
        Maybe in the Air Force? The Finnish army did not have so much manpower and resources to support airplanes both in the air forces and in the air defense units!
        1. Dooplet11
          Dooplet11 28 July 2017 09: 49
          I do not argue at all. But how sideways did the bombers lean against the topic of the article? Is it about Suomi air defense or about the air force of this small but proud country? Or captured troop SB cleared the sky over Helsinki and Vyborg?
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 28 July 2017 16: 28
            And imagine nicknames sideways ... So simple. And you are not the first to point out to me this "blunder" so to speak! I brought information about captured bombers on the use of the Finnish side of Soviet aircraft!
            1. Dooplet11
              Dooplet11 30 July 2017 17: 42
              "And you the author claims only about fighters ..." (with)
              Right They just brought info on trophy bombers. And the author of the article, in a way, was simply kicked that he only wrote about fighters, ignoramus! )))
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 31 July 2017 15: 18
                Quite right - he walked and thought TO KNOW or NOT TO KNOW ... "Kicked" ... He shed a tear, repented. I went further.
  6. nivander
    nivander 18 July 2017 18: 13
    The Karelian Front was considered a resort in 1941-1943. Even the 23rd army circulation “Stalin's Onslaught” appeared twice less than the newspapers of the neighboring Lenfront — there was nothing to write about. Therefore, it was easy to busily growl motors in business units of the 7th and 23rd armies BT and T-26 tanks of all (ABSOLUTELY ALL !!!!) modifications, the early Kharkov T-34s were common here. What can we say about aviation - it was the Ischachkov Reserve Chaek, SB and other aviation antiques. Therefore, when at the end of autumn 1943 one of the regiments received Aerocobra it was a shock for the elderly Finnish generals. Hysterical requests for Messerschmites and Focke-Wulfs rained down in Berlin. And since then the situation of tilka worsened
    1. Kenxnumx
      Kenxnumx 18 July 2017 20: 33
      They said so. Which armies do not fight. Swedish, Turkish and 23 Soviet. Nevertheless, my grandfather who fought in this army was wounded in 1942.
      1. ZIS
        ZIS 19 July 2017 21: 58
        He put a plus, but nevertheless, it would be strange if the 23rd did not bear any losses.
    2. Blue fox
      Blue fox 19 July 2017 10: 30
      Quote: nivasander
      The Karelian Front in 1941-1943 was considered a resort.

      Dear colleague. I understand that you express a widespread opinion, but it does not quite correspond to reality, taking into account the peculiarities of the local theater of operations and the number of Soviet troops stretched and spread over a large, impassable territory with a limited number of roads.
      For example, the 3rd DNO (the division of the militia from Leningrad) formed in the summer of 1941 and transferred to the Northern Ladoga in July 1941 out of 8 thousand people was reduced to three hundred, who were able to cross the Svir back with battles. Yes, after the fighting of 1941, the front more or less stabilized until the summer of 1944, however, the forces of the defending Soviet troops were also insignificant. And the so-called “battles of local significance” did not abate throughout this period and were of a fierce nature (for example, battles for the Maselskaya station).
  7. Curious
    Curious 18 July 2017 18: 40
    The Finnish Air Force, apparently, to the greatest extent of all the participating countries of World War II used trophy equipment, and not only to study and familiarize themselves with enemy aircraft (which, of course, they did in all countries), but also used it in a combat situation . Some Finnish aviation squadrons were almost completely equipped with captured planes for significant periods of time. There were both "own" cars (captured by Finnish troops in the "winter" war of 1939-1940 or in 1941-44), and bought in Germany in 1941-42.

    Table from an article by a Finnish historian. Trophy Soviet planes in the Finnish Air Force Karl-Fredrik GEUSTA. It lists every plane from getting to Finland and to writing off.
    Published in the 11th and 12th issues of the journal Aviation and Cosmonautics for 1997.
    i_kosmonavtika_1997_11_12 / p3.php
  8. The comment was deleted.
    1. Andy
      Andy 18 July 2017 19: 41
      crap only you ... notably. about the stuffing of the face and failures, why didn’t they stay on their Mannerheim line and accepted the Soviet demands? casualties of those attacking and in unfamiliar areas (miscalculation of intelligence) will naturally be greater. as for aggression - the USSR proposed to move the border by compensating for the transfer of BIG over the territory. Further, the cause of the war was shelling the Soviet side - the version of the Soviet forgery could certainly be an option, but the following cannot be excluded - shelling by “brave” Finns when drunk, shelling out of hatred of the Russians. rave? not at all. remember the 1920s - how the Finns climbed on the palm and Lake Onega.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. Andy
          Andy 18 July 2017 20: 25
          Rye like a donkey ... Only the fact of hostilities of white Finns does not cancel.
        2. mirag2
          mirag2 18 July 2017 20: 26
          But Andy is right ... And about the 20s too.
        3. long in stock.
          long in stock. 18 July 2017 20: 27
          a complete set of iditism and liberalism .. even though they knew about this war maybe they didn’t open their mouths then ...
        4. long in stock.
          long in stock. 18 July 2017 20: 30
          you can try to demand. we don’t even have to intervene. they will come from the dad and rip you off. even if they don’t plant, you will have enough belt ..
          1. Bug_pioneer
            Bug_pioneer 18 July 2017 20: 42
            Quote: Long in stock.
            you can try to demand. we don’t even have to intervene. they will come from the dad and rip you off. even if they don’t plant, you will have enough belt ..

            it's just a parallel .... 1 to 1 ...
            1. opus
              opus 18 July 2017 21: 41
              Quote: Bug_pioneer
              it's just a parallel .... 1 to 1 ...

              You write a lot right ....
              I don’t like that war, although my grandfather fought there, and ordinary soldiers carried out all of them.

              but your tone is very similar to the Maidan of the brain.

              Do I feel a supporter ON? those. Vyalikay Litvin (well, or how is it on the right?
              “... in modern Belarus ... some people did not like ... to be Belarusians, and they declared themselves Litvinians. No, not Lithuanians, but Litvins, as if there had been a big difference between these two terms since the X century. The Litvins are Slavs, and the Lithuanians are modern ethnic Lithuanians ... ”[2, c. 360]. 20 of May 2000 of the Year in Novogrudok signed the Act of the Proclamation of the Litvin Nation, which was posted in a number of print media and Internet space, signed by V. Nagnibeda, A. Yutskevich and also 25 people.

              Bulbosrach is mutual poking dirty clothes of peoples-neighbors at the level of the most reactionary and quarrelsome representatives. I urge all the Red Guards to learn from this lesson, and not to breed a similar mess in the Middle Kingdom.

              Mao Zedong, quote. wink
              in principle, in spite of graters, svyadomy and zmagars in this (against the klyatyh Muscovites)

              Quote: Bug_pioneer
              3 million Finland threatens 200 million USSR ... bugagaga.

              Then enlighten the goals and objectives of the war.
              In my opinion everything is obvious

              and East Karelia in Rebol and Porajärvi is not for you

              Quote: Bug_pioneer
              there in the swamps in the woodlands cut out the gut of the earth

              Quote: Bug_pioneer
              mb Finns also attacked us?

              in 1918-1920, yes.
              Having gained independence and waging war with the Red Guards, the Finnish state decided not to stop at the borders of the Grand Duchy of Finland. At that time, among the Finnish intelligentsia, the ideas of Panfilanism, that is, the unity of the Finno-Ugric peoples, and the ideas of Great Finland, which were supposed to include the territories adjacent to Finland, inhabited by these peoples, Karelia (including the Kola Peninsula), Ingria (around Petrograd) and Estonia. The Russian Empire collapsed, and new state entities emerged on its territory, sometimes considering in the long term a significant expansion of their territory.
              23 February 1918 of the year at the station of Antrea (now Kamennogorsk) Mannerheim utters the "Oath of the sword" in which he mentions:
              I will not sheathe my sword ... until the last warrior and bully of Lenin is expelled both from Finland and from Eastern Karelia.

              Finland secretly sends partisan detachments to Karelia, whose task was the actual occupation of Karelia and assistance to Finnish troops during the invasion. The detachments occupy the city of Kem and the village of Ukhta (now pgt. Kalevala). March 6 in Helsinki (occupied at the time by the Reds) creates the Provisional Karelian Committee, and March 15 Mannerheim approves of the "Wlenius Plan", aimed at the invasion of Finnish troops into Karelia and the seizure of the Russian territory along the line Pechenga - Kola Peninsula - White Sea - Vygozero - Onega the lake - the river Svir - Lake Ladoga. Part of the Finnish army were to unite at Petrograd, which was supposed to turn into a free city-republic, controlled by Finland.

              Russian territories intended for annexation according to the Wallenius Plan

              Finnish occupation of Karelia. Occupied at different times (dates of occupation are indicated) territories are highlighted in light yellow.

              The light yellow color indicates the territory occupied by the White Finns as of December 25 1921.

              you have to pay for everything in this world.
              1. The comment was deleted.
                1. opus
                  opus 18 July 2017 23: 06
                  Quote: Bug_pioneer
                  I absolutely do not suffer from any maydaun or similar ones ..

                  then sorry I did not understand.

                  Quote: Bug_pioneer
                  I sincerely believe that Belarus can safely beat off Vilnius ...

                  Panevropeytsy will not understand you ....
                  we have a very bad sober understanding of history

                  Quote: Ken71
                  In principle, all the stated tasks of the Red Army fulfilled

                  at what cost?
                  Quote: Ken71
                  Another thing is that the offensive in such conditions of the terrain in winter world

                  THE BEGINNING OF THE LIVONIC WAR: RUSSIAN FORCES LEAD TO WINTER 1558 OF THE YEAR (... Russian invasion in January and February 1558 of the year)
                  although it was not so cold
        5. Curious
          Curious 18 July 2017 21: 21
          Of course, you can talk about nonsense and tell cliches. Do you know what Suur-Suomi is?
          If not, I recommend at least what lies beneath my nose, The rise and fall of Finnish geopolitics by Anssi Paasi
          Or, if there is a problem with the enemy language, Vienna-Tuuli Vasara
      2. ZIS
        ZIS 19 July 2017 22: 04
        Yes, one must not forget the White Guards, one odious, painted a sortie to Leningrad. It seems that a round of larions, it rang, but the Russians should not remember that it ...
      3. Black5Raven
        Black5Raven 25 July 2017 19: 17
        Quote: Andy
        The USSR proposed to advance the border by compensating for the transfer of BIG over the territory.

        If China requests the territory of Khabarovsk / another section of the border to "strengthen security", and in return generously offers a "larger generous" piece, then Russia should agree?
        Then we take away Smolensk, and we will generously offer you the whole huge and so valuable territory of the Polessky Radio Reserve, but what? It is twice as large as the piece of land that we want to take away, isn’t it? wink
        1. long in stock.
          long in stock. 25 July 2017 22: 29
          with the difference that the territory of the Khabarovsk you mentioned was developed and settled by Russians. and not by the Chinese. So Vyborg was settled by Swedes and Russians. Well, not like Finns. For ignorant Finns, they were not allowed to enter the cities like Swedes in the cities. As well as the Baltic states Germans acted with local ..
    2. Kenxnumx
      Kenxnumx 18 July 2017 20: 36
      In principle, all the declared tasks of the Red Army completed. Another thing is that the world did not yet know the offensive in such terrain conditions in winter.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  9. nivander
    nivander 18 July 2017 20: 10
    By the way, the Finnish army and navy it was a direct zoo. What tilka there did not creep and did not fly. Rifles 35 !!! types. Tanks of at least 15 names. 45 aircraft of only the main types !!!. Artillery of 45 types !!!. on any photo you can easily count 6 types of helmets !!! and they were sorely lacking. Of course, for amateurs and chubato-sprat historians this fact beats out tears of tenderness and envy (it was necessary to drive the bear with rusty guns). However, 1944 clearly showed that the time of home-grown armies was over and the Finns simply regretted it, although they nevertheless put - indemnification, Hanko, islands in the bay, Lenokhamari, Vyborg, Karelia, nickel mines is not a complete list of the fact that the Finns lost because of their prostitution policy. Well, and like cherries in the cake, special conditions such as the provision of the Red Army, KBF ports and airfields , the opening of the skerry fairways. Well, the Leland war against the former overlord - for nefig
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 18 July 2017 20: 29
      Finnish Jews of Europe ... they collected everything .tank the whole country bought for matches ..
      1. unknown
        unknown 20 July 2017 12: 07
        Funny phrase.
        "Finns are Jews of Europe."
        The words "Jew", "European", "Aryan" have one meaning.
        Accordingly, Europe is a country (from the side) of Jews (Aryans, whites).
  10. long in stock.
    long in stock. 18 July 2017 21: 22
    At the beginning of the war, the Finnish air force was represented by 168 military aircraft, of which 145 were part of the first-line combat aviation regiments. In addition, in Finland there were approximately 140 connected, training, transport, sanitary and sports cars of various types, mainly of local construction (“Wiima”, “Tuisku”, “Saaski” and others). Many of them were actively used at the front, but the Finns do not publish any data on their combat work and losses, so they will have to not take them into account. We are not sui aces, we don’t have anyone registered for the war. 194 aircraft were received. Not all of them managed to participate .total 363 vehicles. Again, not taking into account the connected transport scouts and other things. and by the end of the war, 166 vehicles remained in the first-line units, 128 of them were combat-efficient. difference-197 vehicles. Moreover, it is clear that the main losses are modern vehicles. if they flew to combat, it is rare and to auxiliary roles. Moreover, many planes were decommissioned immediately after the end of hostilities - for example, 5 blenheim that were considered damaged - but if they were decommissioned, it was just rubbish at that time. Even without taking all this into account the minimum loss of Finns is 139 cars. and non-worthy aglitskie iksperty indicate 67 of them lost in battles, only 21 cars. I’ll go straight to tear the forest from such a truth ..
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 18 July 2017 21: 37
        go away A. life it is short and spend it on those who do not want to think and do not know how not to follow my rules. but once I try .. for example, the United States in the Korean War suffered huge losses in helicopters. especially compared to the Koreans the Chinese and other. Does this mean that the Americans were completely unable to fly and fight? Or, for example, compare the losses in the planes with us and the Afghan mujahideen, for example, the difference is deafening. Does the Mojahedin fly much better than our pilots? try to just think ..
  11. long in stock.
    long in stock. 18 July 2017 22: 13
    and like a cherry on a cake to all of the above- The book by Polish author Pzhimushaly Wojna Zimowa seriously claims that the Russian pilots were so cowardly that they jumped with parachutes, barely noticing enemy planes in the air. As they say, no comment ...
  12. pzkrfv4
    pzkrfv4 18 July 2017 22: 55
    Their familiar sign on planes ... Reminds me of something.
    1. opus
      opus 18 July 2017 23: 12
      Quote: pzkrfv4
      . Reminds something.

      This is Khakaristi

      Swede von Rosen's family badge, although this philanthropist sympathized not only with noble Finland, it turns out he was sympathetic, or rather he was actually a prominent figure in Swedish national socialism, a Nazi.

      but in general, if you dig:

      banknote in denominations of 250 rubles, with the image of the Swastic symbol - Kolovrat on the background of a double-headed eagle, were made by special order and sketches of the last Russian Tsar - Nicholas II.

      Swastika has always been used by followers of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism in the East, Druids of Ireland, Scotland, Scandinavia, representatives of Natur-religious denominations of Europe and America in the West.

      A knowledgeable person never says that the Swastika is a German or a fascist symbol

      The Slavs used this Solar Sign throughout its existence (according to the latest scientific data it is at least 15 thousands of years), and the President of the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler, is only about 25 years old.
      1. unknown
        unknown 20 July 2017 12: 10
        Rather, it’s not a solar one, but a symbol of the Milky Way galaxy, which has four arms, in one of which our star system is located.
  13. The splinter
    The splinter 19 July 2017 02: 23
    All this is explained simply. 1) In Hitler Germany and among its allies, air victories were defended by pilots from their personal oral reports. For example, England is still making fun of Hitler’s aces because they recorded more air victories for themselves in one battle victorious for the Germans than the number of British planes participating in it in reality, and these were bombers, without fighter cover and the most ridiculous the fact that one of the English bombers was still able to escape from the numerically superior Reich fighters. 2) In the USSR, the armies of Finland reacted after the sleeves and the main Soviet fighter in the initial period of the war was the I-15 and its version of the I-15BIS ... I-153 and I-16 fighters on the Finnish front were very few. It was believed that outdated equipment for the war with the Finns would be enough ... As for the anti-aircraft guns, the author is either disingenuous or does not know, but Finland had Swedish and German anti-aircraft guns, and the Swedish Bofors were the best in their class during the Second World War and had their own , a very progressive fire control system for those times ... So Finland’s air defense may not have differed in quantity, but quality certainly ... It was not without reason that Poland bought Bofors, who used them in the war against Hitler and the USA and England, which didn’t have such successful instruments of their own design ... American (Chicago pianos) caliber 28 mm and British (pom-pom) caliber 40 mm were inferior to the Bofors (caliber 40 mm) both in reliability and performance characteristics.
    1. Bongo
      19 July 2017 06: 12
      Quote: Splinter
      the author is either disingenuous or does not know, but Finland had Swedish and German anti-aircraft guns, and the Swedish Bofors were the best in their class during the Second World War and had their own, very progressive fire control system at that time ...

      The author knows ... before writing like this, wait for the following parts and do not run ahead of the engine.
  14. LeonidL
    LeonidL 19 July 2017 04: 36
    Interesting arithmetic of the Finns "The Finns admit that they lost 67 of their cars during the fighting. 69 aircraft were seriously damaged. During the fighting, 304 Finnish aviators were killed, 90 were missing and 105 were wounded." That is, the losses of at least 394 fighter pilots, since there is no need to talk about other types of aircraft, the wounded, most likely, were parachuted or removed from seriously damaged vehicles. how so many dead pilots fit on 67 downed and 69 damaged cars? Or did they fly at once with a company of several pilots on the same destroyer? One in the cockpit and two on the wings?
    1. Nekarmadlen
      Nekarmadlen 19 July 2017 10: 56
      Most likely, the word aviators means not only pilots, but also ground-based employees of the Air Force ...
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 19 July 2017 13: 49
        In the fall of 1941, a Soviet fighter group with Hanko became a real splinter for the Finnish command. I-153 and I-16 from its composition with impunity stormed the enemy troops on the islands of the archipelago, preventing their capture, effectively fought against enemy aircraft. So, on October 24, Vasily Golubev in a battle with two Finnish trophy fighter I-153s, which were pretty annoying to the Soviet fleet, managed to shoot down one biplane with rockets and heavily damaged the other with machine-gun fire. DTo neutralize this group in Finland, a special Curtiss Hauk 75 fighter squadron was formed under the command of Captain Paavo Berg. She launched the fighting on October 31.
        The first air battle between the Soviet and Finnish fighters took place a day later. It was attended by four “Hauk” led by Berg and two I-16s under the command of Tsokolayev, which was soon joined by the “donkey” Vasily Golubev (his pair took off from the airfield under artillery fire, and led Dmitry Tatarenko was forced to stop the run-up for a shell burst in front of the aircraft). Golubev arrived in time for the battlefield just in time, when the Hauk squeezed I-16 fighters into pincers, and Berg had already opened fire on Lieutenant Tvorogov’s lagging aircraft. Barrage lines forced Berg to stop firing, and then Golubev with a sharp turn went to the position for attack. Later, he recalled: “I’m getting closer to a hundred meters - my favorite distance, it’s hard to get out of it - and I give the exact turn on the motor and the Spitfire’s cabin. I see how the explosive bullets tear the skin of the plane and the glazing of the cockpit lantern, the Spitfire flips over and falls next to our destroyer. "
        So ingloriously ended the career of captain Paavo Berg. His slave hastily left the battlefield, and after some time, having received a fair portion of lead, they fled at high speed and the other two “hows”.
        The desire for revenge by the Finnish pilots soon led to another air battle, which occurred on November 5 and again ended in a clear defeat for them. Let us again give the floor to Vasily Golubev: “And soon, five Spitfires called us into battle - this sometimes happened during the war years. We accepted the challenge and, having previously discussed the battle plan, took off in two pairs. The enemy walked in two groups - three and two, all at the same height.

        I shook their wings, they answered. So, we correctly guessed - they need a rematch. Our two couples split up, and the enemies were probably jubilant: they thought that now we would end. But miscalculated. Together, they rushed at us with Tatarenko and began the persecution. Spitfire machine-gun tracks ran very close to us: on each enemy fighter there were eight Browning machine guns.
        I see a couple of Vasiliev in front and higher. We imperceptibly for the enemy pull him in the right direction - under the pair of Vasilyev. And then the trap closes. Vasiliev and Baisultanov dive and almost point-blank shoot two “spitfires”. And as the song says, "the foamy waves of the sea swallowed them in an instant."
        The other three fighters are no longer up to the battle: they are looking for a way to salvation. But Tatarenko catches one of them in the sight. Machine-gun fire, the enemy’s plane spun in a downward “barrel”. It is about to fall. But over the water itself, the pilot nevertheless brought him into a horizontal flight. The other two, dodging from side to side, go to their islands. ”
        In October 1944, when Finland had already severed relations with Nazi Germany, the regiment of Vasily Golubev relocated to the Malmo Finnish airfield, and there the Soviet pilot met with the Finnish major, a former participant in these battles. In a personal conversation, he told him that only on November 2 did his squadron lose as many as three fighters - one of them was shot down in an air battle, and two crashed on the way back. On November 5, the Finns lost three more planes. As a result, out of 9 Finnish fighters, 6 were lost, which caused the squadron to disband. Its personnel were scattered in different units.
        It is curious that the Aviamaster magazine (1/2003) published an article entitled “Hanko Special Group” dedicated to these two battles and written by Andrei Dikov and Karl-Frederick Geust, that is, representatives of both who had fought among themselves in the past states. A rare example of cooperation, but, unfortunately, not very successful. The eternal contradiction between East and West leads to the fact that the West does not want to recognize even obvious defeats. Therefore, Finnish historians recognized the loss of only two fighters and, in turn, proposed a different version of the air battles, and even supplemented it with the flight plan of their aircraft, that is, let in as much fog as possible. However, in this case the question arises, why did the Finnish squadron, which lost only two aircraft (incidentally, recorded during the war, as shot down by anti-aircraft artillery), be withdrawn from hostilities and disbanded? The episode of the meeting between Golubev and the Finnish major is not mentioned in the article - either the authors did not read Golubev's memoirs to the end, or he was deliberately omitted because he did not fit into the “official Finnish version” of the events.
        These are the AVIATORS obtained ...
  15. pro100y.belarus
    pro100y.belarus 19 July 2017 12: 16
    Vasily Golubev - the commander of the 4th GIAP Baltic Fleet in his memoirs described the air battle of I-16 with Finnish Spitfire fighters.
    Maybe he confused them with the Hurricanes?
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 19 July 2017 13: 44
      "Air war over the USSR year 1941" Gennady Kornyukhin:
      The Soviet pilots recognized the enemy planes as “spitfires,” and there is some mystery in this, since according to official sources, fighters of this type were not armed with the Finnish Air Force. Of course, in conditions of fleeting air battles, pilots often confused the silhouettes of enemy aircraft (also little known at the beginning of the war), but after the war Golubev insisted that it was “spitfires”. In addition, reports on air meetings with Finnish Spitfires came from other Soviet pilots. "
      1. pro100y.belarus
        pro100y.belarus 19 July 2017 21: 00
        Golubev has two downed Hawk 75s in his flight book. Maybe it's them?
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 19 July 2017 21: 16
          They, but he argued about the "Spitfire" ...
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 19 July 2017 14: 02
      Berg Paavo David
      First flew on a combat mission on February 2, 1940 on a “gladiator”. Lt Berg shot down an I-153 in an aerial battle over Hanko.
      Berg’s victim of 38 IAP became Berg’s victim. He had no victories until February 18, when he, as part of a squadron, took off to intercept a large (about 40 aircraft) group of SBs, which were sent to bomb the railway track in the Kouvola area. Berg and his follower were able to attack the closers and shoot down two bombers.
      On February 19, Berg, as part of a patrol, had to endure a heavy battle with 32 SB floor cover of I-153 fighters over Sippola. Two shot down enemy fighters went to his account. According to Soviet data, that day killed Yents and Osipov from the 149th IAP.
      With his five victories won by the “gladiator”, Berg became the most successful Finnish pilot in this type of aircraft. Already at the end of the war he was transferred to Lelv 32 (March 27, 1940). Then he had to fly on the Fokker D-21. April 30, 1940 he was promoted to captain.
      With the outbreak of war with the USSR in 1941, he flew a Curtiss Hawk 75A as part of 1 / LeLv32.
      Captain Berg died on November 1, 1941. According to official Finnish data, his fighter (CU-579) was shot down by anti-aircraft artillery fire. However, according to the latest data, he became a victim of the subsequently famous Soviet ace Vasily Golubev. At the time of his death, he had 9 personal victories.
      1. pro100y.belarus
        pro100y.belarus 19 July 2017 21: 02
        There he is dear ...
  16. konus
    konus 22 July 2017 15: 45
    You see, is it really the matter of how many showed the enemy’s losses and their own losses. Let us dwell on two figures - more than 1000 aircraft of the Red Army Air Force and even 300 Finnish aircraft. It seemed that with such a balance of forces, the Red Army air forces were to ensure air supremacy. But this is precisely what did not happen. Why? This is the question of questions. Here are questions about the strategy of the Red Army Air Force, and questions about the tactics of the Red Army Air Force, here is the level of training of the Air Force pilots, and the interaction of squadrons and units, here are the issues of the interaction of bomber and fighter cover aircraft. This is precisely the constituent elements of air supremacy. Maybe there are not mentioned elements.
  17. Andycomm
    Andycomm 3 June 2021 16: 44
    An old Russian fun - constantly blurt out the opponent not with a fist, but with a palm with spread fingers