Military Review

The fate of the general

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Exactly 120 years ago, 15 July 1897 (new style), in Buturlinovka (today - a city in the Voronezh region) was born the future Soviet military leader, member of the First World, Civil and World War II, Guards, Lieutenant General, Hero of the Soviet Union ( 1945 year) Vladimir Viktorovich Kryukov. Kryukov was one of the closest associates of the famous Soviet marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, and the wife of Vladimir Kryukov was Honored Artist of RSFRS Lydia Ruslanova, whom he met at the front in 1942 year. At the end of World War II, Vladimir Kryukova commanded the 2 Guards of the Pomeranian Red Banner Order of Suvorov of the 2 degree, commanding the cavalry corps.


Vladimir Viktorovich Kryukov was born on July 15 of the year 1897 in the Buturlinovka suburb of the Bobrovsky district of the Voronezh province (since 1917, Buturlinovka has the status of a city) in the family of an employee, who is Russian by nationality. His father, Viktor Andreevich, was from a simple peasant family in the village of Klepovka. In Buturlinovka, where he moved to a permanent place of residence, he initially worked as a regular postman, then as a telegraph operator, he was a minor postmaster of the 6th category. Little Vladimir liked his father's uniform with shiny buttons. When he grew up, he dreamed of wearing the same, but fate decreed that he really began to wear a uniform, but already military.

In 1914, the future general successfully graduated from a real school in Ryazan. In the same year, the First World War began. Very soon the country needed a large number of junior officers, so Vladimir Kryukov found himself in Moscow, where he entered the school of ensigns. He finished it in the second half of 1915, then went to the Western Front, where he fought from September 1915. Here he was first the platoon commander of the 26 Siberian Rifle Regiment, and then the chief of the cavalry reconnaissance of the 57 Siberian Rifle Regiment. At the front, his best qualities were revealed: courage, courage, resourcefulness and literacy. He managed to rise to the rank of lieutenant, and for military distinctions he was awarded the Cross of St. George.

The fate of the general

In December 1917, Vladimir Kryukov was demobilized from the army. From the army, he returned to Ryazan, where he soon joined the Red Guard detachment, from June 1918, he was the deputy of this detachment, and later commanded a hundred in it. As part of this squad, he took part in the battles on the Don and on the Southern Front. From October 1918, the composition of the Red Army. He served as adjutant of the headquarters of the Red Guard detachment in Baku, from December of the same year - the commander of a platoon of a separate cavalry division of the 2 Infantry Division. Since September, 1919 - Squadron Commander, Head of the Economic Team, Assistant Chief of Staff of the Separate Cavalry Brigade in the 38 Rifle Division. These are only small stages of his journey during the years of the civil war in Russia.

During the civil war, he fought on the Southern and Eastern Fronts, and in different years he managed to command a platoon, squadron and regiment. During the battles with the White Guards, he was wounded several times, but always returned to the front to his comrades. From August 1921 to 1922, he was the assistant commander of the 82 Cavalry Regiment of the 14 Cavalry Division. In 1922, he returned to civilian life and continued to receive military education, since he could no longer part with military service and hoped to devote his whole life to it.

In 1924, he successfully completed his studies in the department of senior officers at the Higher Cavalry School of the Red Army in Leningrad. After completing the training, his service was connected with various cavalry units of the Red Army. In 1932, he graduated from the 1 course of the Military Academy named after MV Frunze. From June 1933 was the commander of the 20 th Salsk Red Banner Cavalry Regiment of the 4 Cavalry Division. This division from 26 March 1933 of the year to July 1937 was commanded by Georgy Zhukov. Since October 1937, Vladimir Kryukov in Novocherkassk taught tactics at the Red Banner Cavalry advanced training courses for the Red Army commanders.


Vladimir Kryukov managed to take part in the Soviet-Finnish war, he fought from February 1940, being the commander of the 306 th rifle regiment of the 62 th rifle division. After the war ended in May, 1940 commanded the 8 th rifle brigade of the Leningrad Military District, located on the Hanko Peninsula. By decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on June 4 of 1940, Vladimir Viktorovich was given the rank of Major General, it is in this rank that he will meet the Great Patriotic War.

11 March 1941 of the year Kryukov led the newly formed 198 motorized division, which was created in Strelna based on the 7 motorized rifle brigade and was part of the 10 mechanized corps. As part of the current army, this division was up to 17 September 1941, on this day the unit was reformed into the 198 Infantry Division. The division fought with the Finns on the Karelian Isthmus northeast of Vyborg. Vladimir Kryukov headed this unit until its re-formation, after which he took command of the 198 Infantry Division. From September 1941, his division as part of the 54 Army took part in the very first attempts to lift the blockade of Leningrad on the Kolpino direction, and then took part in the Tikhvin defensive and Tikhvin offensive operations. He commanded this connection until 25 December 1941 of the year.

In the same 1941, Vladimir Viktorovich joined the VKP (b). It is worth noting that he joined the party rather late, given the fact that he had fought in units of the Red Army since the 1918 year. At the same time, the absence of a party card did not prevent him from building a successful military career all these years.


From 12 January to 3 February 1942, Vladimir Kryukov commanded the 10 Cavalry Corps on the Western Front. From 6 in March of the same year, he took command of the 2 Guards Cavalry Corps, which had been commanded by the legendary Soviet general Lev Dovator before his death. In April, 1942, in Spas-Nudela near Volokolamsk, he met the already well-known singer Lydia Ruslanova, who performed concerts at the 2 Guards Cavalry Corps, soon after that they got married. By that time, Kryukov had already been married once, his wife died back in 1940, leaving him a five-year-old daughter. In the second marriage, they had another daughter, Lydia Ruslanova, Margarita Kryukova.

In November 1942, his corps took part in the operation "Mars" as part of the troops of the Western Front, however, without even having time to come into contact with the enemy, it suffered heavy losses from artillery fire and German raids aviation. From February to March 1943, Kryukov’s corps formed the basis of the “horse-ski-rifle group,” which, breaking through the front line, penetrated deeply enough into German defense during the Sevsk operation. However, the corps was soon surrounded and with great losses retreated to Sevsk, which it defended for 6 days, having lost almost all its personnel. During the most difficult battles and defense of the city, more than 15 thousand cavalrymen and skiers from the three Siberian ski teams were killed, which were given to the corps as a reinforcement. After these battles, in March 1943, the 2nd Guards Corps was withdrawn from the front for reformation.

July 20, 1944, by order of the commander of the 1st Belorussian Front, Vladimir Viktorovich was to lead the horse-mechanized group of the front (11th tank and the 2nd Guards Cavalry Corps), who received orders to force the Western Bug River and cross the Soviet-Polish state border. In the future, Lieutenant General Kryukov led the 2nd Guards Corps during the Vistula-Oder and East Pomeranian operations of the Soviet troops. During the Wisło-Oder operation, his corps crossed the Pilica River, playing a decisive role in the liberation of Warsaw and other Polish cities from Nazi troops. In the East Pomeranian operation, Kryukov’s corps, in collaboration with tank units, managed to take control of the Polish city of Poltsin on March 5, 1945. During the period when Kryukov commanded the 2nd Guards Cavalry Corps, the corps was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, the Order of Suvorov II degree, and was also awarded the honorary title "Pomeranian".


6 April 1945 of the year on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the skilful leadership of corps units and the courage and bravery shown to Lt. Gen. Vladimir Kryukov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Gold Star medal and the Order of Lenin. After the end of the Great Patriotic War, Vladimir Viktorovich continued to carry military service, from December 1945, he was at the disposal of the Commander of the Land Forces. From May 1946 of the year - he was the head of the Higher Officer Cavalry School named after S. M. Budenny, from October 1947 of the year - Deputy Commander of the 36 Infantry Corps.

According to the memoirs of Kryukov's daughter, the father and mother were quite a bright couple. Mom knew how to apply herself correctly, she made all the impression of a stately, tall, regal woman. At the same time, there was always a real male element in the father. Kryukov’s house was always full of guests. Mom often came up with charades, was a great storyteller, organized jokes, and the cakes were excellent.

This idyll of post-war family life collapsed on September 18 1948, when Vladimir Viktorovich was arrested in Moscow on the so-called “Trophy Case”. After another 10 days in Kazan, his wife Lydia Ruslanova was also arrested. Officially, Vladimir Kryukov was charged with robbery and misappropriation of trophy property on a large scale, namely, that at the end of the war he brought pictures, furniture and precious jewelry to Moscow.


2 November 1951, Vladimir Kryukov was convicted by the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court, he was sentenced to imprisonment for 25 years in a forced labor camp, with a loss of rights to 5 years, and confiscation of all property and deprivation of government awards. Kryukov served his sentence in Kraslag, from where he was released in July 1953 on the basis of rehabilitation by the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court. In the same year in August, he was reinstated in the military rank of Lieutenant-General, in all rights and state awards. It is worth noting that Vladimir Viktorovich was still lucky, because in August 1950, according to Trophy or as he was called the “general's case”, were shot by Colonel General Vasily Gordov, Lieutenant General Grigory Kulik and Major General Philip Rybalchenko.

After being released from the Kryukov camp, he was treated for some time, after which in November 1953 was sent to study. In 1954, he graduated from the Higher Academic Courses at the Higher Military Academy named after KE Voroshilov (today the Military Academy of the General Staff). From March 1955, he served as deputy chief of the Military Law Academy for tactical and drill training. From December 1956 was at the disposal of the Main Personnel Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union. From April 1957, Lieutenant-General Vladimir Viktorovich Kryukov was retired. The last years of his life he spent in Moscow. 16 General August 1959 died at the age of just 62 years. He was buried in the capital at the Novodevichy cemetery.

Based on materials from open sources
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 14 July 2017 15: 31
    0
    Since April 1957, Lieutenant General Vladimir Viktorovich Kryukov was retired.
    ..and in October 1957, Zhukov was removed at the Plenum ... Interestingly, after rehabilitation, they would not trust Kryukov ...
    1. Looking for
      Looking for 14 July 2017 15: 43
      +3
      And for what to trust? Most likely, he received the hero by his “seniority” in the war, as Zhukov’s early fellow soldier and Ruslanova’s husband. And the post-war “gesheft” was generally incompatible with rank and position.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 15 July 2017 09: 06
        0
        The arrest of Generals Kryukov and Telegin on the “trophy case” was not accidental. A very interesting material was published in the Military History Journal No.6 for the 1989 year ...

        The article is called "A quarter-century train" ... There are many documents ... Very interesting ....
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 15 July 2017 09: 18
          0
          You can also get acquainted with the information on the website "Military Literature"
          Primary sources
          Compilation
          Georgy Zhukov.
          Transcript of the October (1957) plenary session of the CPSU Central Committee and other documents
          Militera website (Military Literature): militera.lib.ru and militera.org
          Edition: Georgy Zhukov. Transcript of the October (1957) plenary session of the CPSU Central Committee and other documents. - M.: MF "Democracy", 2001.
          Book on the website: http://militera.lib.ru/docs/da/zhukov_idf/index.h
          tml
          Additional processing: Hoaxer ([email protected])
          George Zhukov. Transcript of the October (1957) plenary session of the CPSU Central Committee and other documents. / Ed. Acad. A.N. Yakovleva; comp. V. Naumov et al. - M .: International Fund "Democracy", 2001. - 820s - (Russia. ХХвек. Documents). Circulation 3000 copies. isbn 5 – 85646 – 054 – 5

          Comprehensive information on the case of Kryukov and Ruslanova can be obtained on the website ... http: //samlib.ru/b/baranow_p_a/dr.shtml
  2. AKC
    AKC 14 July 2017 16: 24
    +4
    the article begins with a story about which hero, and ends with the story that the hero turned out to be a flea marketer!
    roughly general merit except Kryukov was one of the closest associates of the famous Soviet marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, and the wife of Vladimir Kryukov was the Honored Artist of the RSFRS Lidia Ruslanova there are no more !!!!
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 14 July 2017 20: 09
      0
      Quote: AKC
      ends with the story that the hero turned out to be a flea marketer!

      Quote: AKC
      Kryukov was one of the closest associates of the famous Soviet marshal Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov

      Well, misinterpret the journalism stories.
      Which Gen. Kryukov’s “associate” is Marshal G.K. Zhukov, Deputy Supreme Commander?
      Although he commanded the entrusted troops well.
      Their personal relations were warm, G.K. Zhukov, being already in disgrace, buried Kryukov, carried a coffin. Most likely, he helped Kryukov immediately after Stalin's death to free himself and rehabilitate himself.
      But there is no information about personal friendship, how it struck up, etc., in open sources.
      What Kryukov stole there is no reliable information either.
      According to Zhukov, the MGB made an inventory: a bunch of skins, 12 hunting rifles, some kind of chandelier furniture.
      But the “suitcase with gold”, about which, allegedly, there were “signals”, was allegedly not found. They say that the wife carries with her all the time, they say she needs to be told to give her away herself. wink
      Now any transdyuk like perdyukov will take more away at a time.
      But Zhukov also paid for something - he did not bring German marks to the USSR.
      The zealous and not far-off main mortal man Comrade V. Abakumov I didn’t suspect that soon he himself would be muzzled like a pear, and among the accusations there would be illegal material enrichment ...
      So it’s true that
      Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
      Generals Gordov and Kulik were not killed for trophies, this is just an excuse.

      And Gen. Kryukov most likely came under the hand, although there were probably formal reasons for the “trophy case”.
      1. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 16 July 2017 13: 07
        +1
        Quote: Alekseev
        And the "suitcase with gold", about which, allegedly, there were "signals", they didn’t find.


        Zhukovsky’s case with gold was found at Ruslanova, more precisely at her housekeeper’s apartment.
        Ruslanova did not hand over Zhukov, she said that she had a little suitcase with her little gold. But Kryukov for the investigation handed over Zhukov. After the assassination of Stalin, IV, when Zhukov became in power, he gabbled about Ruslanova in the first place and freed her, rehabilitated, returned her property, paintings, gold, in general, all acquired by overwork during the war. Kryukov, on the other hand, was released by car or suitcase to Ruslanova, hence, after his release, his post is even of secondary importance to the lieutenant general, Hero of the Soviet Union, corps commander, as well as to the Chief Marshal of Aviation, Twice Hero of the Soviet Union Novikov. Zhukov and Khrushchev started telling tales that they allegedly applied physical pressure to Kryukov and Novikov, and they allegedly could not stand it, and slandered the victory marshal. Under duress, they slandered three times the Hero of the Soviet Union (then), the holder of two orders of Victory.
        1. Alekseev
          Alekseev 17 July 2017 08: 01
          0
          Quote: Ivan Tartugay
          they started the tales that allegedly they applied physical influence to Kryukov and Novikov during the investigation

          Yes, yes then no one was muzzed in the organs, Khrushchev came up with this mustache! laughing
          And for Ruslanova, it’s for sure that the party’s gold is to blame.
          Ivan himself counted. wink
          Damn things are read, like Suvorov-Rezun and muddy ...
          After all, Zhukov was transporting himself from Germany with trains, where did the trains unload?
          At the state cottage? Or did he donate everything to commission?
          Yes, count the "loot"
          But Ruslanova was a Soviet millionaire, one of the richest citizens of the USSR of that time, earned huge money for those times, the investigator was already crazy of her fees (she said up to 25 thousand a month).
          She that stole her diamonds and paintings. Yes, then they were relatively cheap, especially during the war years, yes, from a moral point of view, all this is not good - it is easier for a camel to go into the eye of a needle than for a rich man in the Kingdom of God. But she didn’t steal! For some reason, for example, no one accuses Pugachev of decomposition and excessive enrichment.
          Gene. Kryukov, what was forbidden to take trophies in Germany? Was he the only one? Or was there an order strictly forbidding this? Again, where are the trains? In the apartment or in the country?
          Sometimes a thought comes up, but was it not specifically that the “master” looked through his fingers at trophy affairs for a while, all the more so since it wasn’t possible to pull something up on a modern scale, so if necessary, who should blame “illegal enrichment”?
          Yes, I have a late grandfather, only art. lieutenant, brought Opel, which, however, was taken away from him without charge, they say, other party members needed. wink
          Or in the war, as now, the bosses did not cohabit with women? What is the brothel with the filing of the MGB? Amoral, perhaps, but this is not a criminal offense. And again, what exactly was Kryukov the main roommate?
          You forget the main slogan of the then Chekists - if there was a person, there would be an article.
          And the meaning of the “trophy case” is an indicative flogging, although there was a formal reason for the presence of values ​​in individual persons involved.
          1. Ivan Tartugai
            Ivan Tartugai 17 July 2017 17: 06
            0
            Quote: Alekseev
            Damn things are read, like Suvorov-Rezun and muddy ...

            So much emotions. Looks like they read Solzhenitsyn, Medvedev, saw enough TV shows of Svanidze and others about the NKVD and the MGB, and you got muddied.
            Quote: Alekseev
            Yes, I have a late grandfather, only art. Lieutenant, brought Opel,

            Well, this is a lie. How many veterans saw there was even a lieutenant colonel in the 45th, so none of them even brought a bicycle. They brought safe shaving machines, bayonet-knives, stainless steel shaving mirrors, cigarette cases and other small things.
            Quote: Alekseev
            And again, what exactly was Kryukov the main roommate?

            What bore you the other way.
  3. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
    ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 14 July 2017 17: 54
    +6
    Generals Gordov and Kulik were not killed for trophies, this is just an excuse. Kulik, the former marshal, began to show dissatisfaction with the great leader Dzhugashvili. Gordov was elected as a deputy, he traveled around the villages and was amazed at how terribly the poor Soviet people existed after thirty years of communist rule. hit where it should be and the general suffered for sympathy for the population.
    1. BAI
      BAI 14 July 2017 20: 04
      +2
      I do not know how Gordov is, and Kulik was simply wrecking because of incompetence.
      1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
        ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 15 July 2017 14: 25
        +2
        Quote: BAI
        Kulik by incompetence simply wrecked.

        for this he was punished: from the marshal he was reduced to lieutenant general. But for doubting the genius of Dzhugashvili, he had to be shot a little
      2. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 16 July 2017 08: 05
        0
        Quote: BAI
        Sandpiper by incompetence just wrecked


        Kulik is a well-educated professional military man with extensive combat experience.
        In 1924 he graduated from the course of the Red Army Military Academy, and in 1938 - the Special Faculty of the Frunze Academy.
        He fought in World War I already as an artillery platoon commander.
        In civilian - the chief of artillery of the 10th, and then the 14th army, he distinguished himself in the defense of Tsaritsyn. He was awarded two orders of the Red Banner.
        He fought in Spain, received the Order of Lenin.
        He fought on the Halkin-Gol.
        Participated in the Soviet-Finnish conflict (Winter War), became a Hero of the Soviet Union.
        The level of knowledge and experience is very high., but was an enemy of the Soviet Government, he harmed as he could.
        I pretended to be a foolish tyrant to disguise my wrecking as incompetence. But in Russia-the USSR fools loved and love, forgave and forgive a lot.
        Too like Kryukov is unclean on hand, loved to use, or rather abuse his official position for personal enrichment. Kryukov and Kulik one field of berries.