Military Review

Poltava. The nail in the coffin of the Swedish state

66
10 July Russia celebrates the anniversary of the victory of the Russian army in the Battle of Poltava. 308 years ago there was one of the most famous victorious battles in the Russian military stories. The Russian army under the command of Emperor Peter I inflicted a crushing defeat on the Swedish forces of King Charles XII. In honor of this significant date, the Day of Military Glory of Russia was established.


By the time of the Battle of Poltava, the Northern War had lasted for nine years, in which Russia was opposed to Sweden. The main cause of the war was the redistribution of territories in Northern Europe and in the Baltic States. The young Russian state sought to regain access to the Baltic Sea, and Sweden actively opposed this Russian aspiration.

Poltava. The nail in the coffin of the Swedish state The next stage of the Northern War began after the defeat of the Saxon Elector and the Polish King Augustus II, which he suffered from the Swedish troops in 1706, having lost the crown of the Commonwealth. This circumstance allowed Charles XII to begin the implementation of his long-standing plan - a campaign to the east. Charles XII aimed to completely defeat the Russian troops, capture Peter I and destroy Russia as a strong and centralized state. As the scouts informed Karl XII of the growing discontent of various sections of the population of Russia with the policies of Peter the Great, the Swedish king was increasingly convinced that the time had come for the march. Even then, the external enemy of Russia was counting not only on its own forces, but also on the destabilization of the internal political situation in the country, including the betrayal of a part of the political elite. For example, Charles XII, planning the collapse of the Russian state, considered it possible to implant Tsarevich Alexei, the son of Peter, in Moscow, if he “behaves well,” that is, betrays his own father.

One of the most high-ranking traitors who came over to the side of Charles XII was Hetman Ivan Mazepa. He made his choice as early as the fall of 1708, promising the king of Sweden full support. It is noteworthy that for a long time Ivan Mazepa was considered a supporter of Peter, who was convinced of the sincere devotion of the Zaporozhye hetman. And the hetman himself really stressed his loyalty to Russia, participating in numerous battles on the side of the Russian troops. At the same time, while maintaining loyalty to Peter, Mazepa showed growing discontent with the increasing centralization of the Russian state. He was afraid of limiting the autonomy of the Zaporozhian Army, which contradicted his own interests and ambitions.

Another reason for the betrayal of Mazepa was his conviction that Peter would lose the war to Charles XII. Getman found it necessary in time to enlist the support of a stronger party, which he mistakenly saw in the Swedish king. The internal struggle for power in the Zaporozhian Army also played a role, which was aggravated by numerous denunciations that Mazepa and his opponents sent “to the center” - Peter I. Nevertheless, Mazepa enjoyed the confidence of the Russian sovereign in the fall of 1708. Peter called Mazepa to join the Russian troops at the head of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. The elderly hetman was in no hurry, explaining his delay in old age diseases and internal problems of the troops. In fact, the hetman was talking with Charles XII, trying to bargain for the most favorable conditions of cooperation. In the meantime, the closest ally of Peter Menshikov decided to visit the elderly and it seems like a sick hetman - after all, a person should be visited according to all the rules of decency. Ivan Mazepa, having learned that Menshikov was to arrive, and fearing that Menshikov and Peter would become aware of the secret talks with the Swedish king, decided to flee to Charles XII. In October, 1708, at the head of one and a half thousand Cossacks, taking the hetman's treasury, Mazepa fled to the location of the troops of Charles XII. In response, the Russian troops under the command of Menshikov 2 (13) on November 1708 of the year seized the bid of the hetman in Baturin. Four days later, 6 (17) in November was elected the new hetman of the Zaporozhye army - Ivan Ilyich Skoropadsky, whose candidacy was supported by Peter I.

The betrayal of the hetman Mazepa was accomplished, which greatly pleased Charles XII, who was counting on sending his troops "for the winter" to the Hetmanate. But still, the stay of the Swedish army in the Little Russian lands turned out to be very difficult. This was due to the actions of the local population, which, unlike the hetman, was in no hurry to express loyal attitudes towards foreigners. Karl XII faced the same problems that other foreign invaders, who later tried to conquer Russia - Napoleon and Hitler, did not take into account. Although no serious partisan actions were taken against the Swedish army, the peasants destroyed bread, took the horses away, and as a result, Charles XII’s troops simply had nothing to eat. The personnel of the Swedish troops did not tolerate the "wintering" in the Hetman region, and not so much because of the climate, but because of the diseases and the lack of the necessary amount of provisions. By the spring of 1709, the army of Charles XII had lost almost a third of its former personnel. It was a serious loss for the Swedish troops, but the king preferred not to pay attention to it, believing that he could defeat Russia with less strength.

Nevertheless, a significant part of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, yielding to the calls of Mazepa, went over to the side of Charles XII. Although initially only about 1,500 people left Mazepa, by March 1709 about 7,000 Cossacks had crossed over to the Swedish side. Already 11 April 1709, the Cossacks participated on the side of the Swedish troops in the battle against the Russian troops. In response, the Russian troops took quite tough measures. Keleberda, Perevolochna, Old and New Kodak and Sich herself were burned. This circumstance also contributed to the growth of anti-Russian sentiments among the Cossacks and the transition to the Swedish side of more and more Cossacks.

Nevertheless, the Swedish command remained very low opinion of the fighting qualities of the Cossacks. After the experience of several battles in which all the minuses of the Cossacks in front of the modern regular army became clear, the Swedish generals transferred them to earthworks and security and convoy service. Pay for it were, of course, less than for participation in the battles. The cossacks were given 10 kopecks per day of escorting prisoners or earthworks. Naturally, this caused discontent of the Cossacks. The exodus of the Cossacks from the Swedish army began. After a short time, 10 of thousands of Cossacks, who had sided with Charles XII, left only around 2 thousand people at the disposal of the Swedish king. They were still not allowed into battle, using them in auxiliary works. Only a small number of the most courageous and proven Cossacks succeeded in obtaining permission to participate in hostilities as part of the Swedish army. It is noteworthy that Peter I did not trust the Cossacks and Peter I. Although he had set a new hetman of Skoropadsky after Mazepa’s treason, the sovereign did not have this confidence in the Cossacks. Therefore, they also did not take part in combat operations as part of the Russian troops, moreover, as many as six dragoon regiments were supervised to watch them, under the general command of Major General Prince Gregory Volkonsky.

Karl XII planned the capture of Poltava by Swedish forces. The general leadership of the siege of Poltava was entrusted to the Quartermaster-General of the Swedish Army, Guards Colonel Axel Gillenkrok, a fairly experienced officer who had previously served in the French army and then returned to the Swedish service. However, the siege begun by 6 (17) on April was rather sluggish, which was explained by the small number of troops allocated by Charles XII for this purpose.

In the meantime, Russian troops continued to go to Poltava — first the Menshikov's army, then the troops under the command of Boris Sheremetev. 4 (15) June, Peter I. himself arrived at Poltava. Initially, he did not plan a frontal collision with the Swedish troops, trying to help Poltava out another way, but then decided to have a direct clash with the army of the Swedish king.

By this time, Swedish troops numbered about 37 thousands of people, including approximately 2 thousands of registered and grassroots Cossacks. In the Battle of Poltava 18 infantry battalions (8 thousands of soldiers and officers), 109 cavalry squadrons (7800 people), about a thousand Vallah cavalry took part. Russia possessed large forces. In Poltava, troops concentrated in total from 60 to 80 thousand people. But 25, thousands of infantry and 21, thousands of cavalry, as well as the Kalmyk detachment, took part in the battle.



27 June (8 July) 1709, the battle began. Its detailed descriptions are contained in many textbooks on military history. It is only to be noted that the Cossacks of Skoropadsky, as Peter I had expected, showed their insecurity during the battle. As soon as the first stage of the battle gave the impression that the Swedes would soon prevail over the Russian army, some of the Cossacks of Skoropadsky expressed a desire to go over to the side of Charles. This did not happen only because the closest ally of Karl, Prince Maximilian Emanuel Württemberg-Vinental, who commanded the Swedish dragoons, did not consider it possible to decide on the admission of the Cossacks to the Swedish army without Karl XII’s knowledge.

In the Battle of Poltava, Swedish troops suffered a crushing defeat. The king was saved from captivity by the actions of his Drabant - the royal guard corps, as well as the cavalry under the command of Major General Karl Gustav Kreutz. During the breakthrough of the royal retinue through the Russian redoubts, chamberlain Gustav Adlerfeld, who accompanied the Swedish king, died. He left a valuable diary describing the course of the events of the Northern War - from the start of hostilities to the start of the battle of Poltava. The total human losses of the Swedish army amounted to approximately from 6,7 thousand to 9,2 thousand people killed and wounded, another 2,8 thousand people were captured during the Poltava battle. A number of prominent Swedish military leaders and statesmen were taken prisoner, including the first minister of Sweden Karl Pipper, two state secretaries, field marshal Karl Gustav Renschild, Prince Maximilian Emanuel Württemberg-Vinental, major major Berndt Ottto Stakelberg, and I’m i'm going to i'm i'm wearing a body and I’m I’m going to i'm i'm i'm going to i'm i'm i'm going to i'm not i Colonel Gustav Gorne of the Skon Dragoon Regiment, Colonel Anders Appelgren’s Estgütka Regiment, Colonel Niels Yullenshtern’s own Dragoon Regiment. Russian troops lost a lot less - 1345 soldiers and officers killed and 3290 people wounded.

The defeat of the Swedish army at Poltava was of decisive importance for the entire subsequent course of the Northern War. In fact, the Swedish army suffered such a crushing defeat that it no longer constituted the threat to Russian statehood as serious as before. The battle of Poltava incredibly raised the international prestige of the Russian state. In particular, Saxony and Denmark - the long-standing political opponents and military enemies of Sweden - immediately chose to resume the coalition with Russia against Charles XII.

The significance of the Battle of Poltava is great for Russia itself. Even now, after three centuries that have passed since the defeat of the Swedish army near Poltava, this battle remains one of the most ambitious examples of the valor of Russian soldiers and officers, the commanding talent of Russian military commanders. Later, after a hundred, two hundred, two hundred and fifty years after the Battle of Poltava, the Russian (and then Soviet) troops would repeatedly win victories over the strongest regular armies of Europe.

The events in Poltava and the miserable fate of the traitors, who are ready to switch to the side of the enemy for their own political and financial gains, clearly demonstrate. After the fatal defeat of the Swedish army, hetman Ivan Mazepa fled to the Ottoman Empire. He died a few months later, in September 1709, in Bender. Despite attempts by the Russian authorities to secure the extradition of Mazepa, the sultan did not refuse to grant political asylum to the disgraced hetman. As for Charles XII, for him the defeat at Poltava had far more far-reaching consequences. He also fled to the Ottoman Empire and tried to persuade the Sultan to begin hostilities against the Russian Empire. But the sultan did not like this idea of ​​the Swedish king, and he even ordered to put Charles XII under arrest. While the king was in Ottoman possessions, the position of Sweden was seriously weakened. The defeat of the royal troops from Russia took advantage of numerous other opponents and even former allies of the Swedish crown. For example, England abandoned its allied obligations, realizing that Karl XII was no longer a serious political player. Prussia appropriated the Swedish possession in Germany. The Saxon Elector Augustus again became king of the Commonwealth.

In 1713, Charles XII was expelled from Bender by the decision of the Ottoman Sultan. Moreover, he did not want to leave the city, that there was even a skirmish between the janissaries who had fulfilled the will of the Sultan and the royal guard, as a result of which the Swedish king lost his nose. After the Battle of Poltava, Charles XII was no longer not only an adversary, but also a large-scale political figure. He actually lost real power even in Sweden, and in 1718, he was killed in an assassination attempt planned by his own entourage. The Swedish elite was tired of the endless war, which he was going to wage in the east, concerned only with the realization of his leadership ambitions, Karl XII, so it was decided to eliminate the overly militant king.
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  1. Egoza
    Egoza 10 July 2017 06: 48
    +15
    Congratulations to Russia on the holiday! But Ukraine is against it! I can not help but share a laugh ....
    Ukraine and Sweden demand to cancel the results of the Poltava battle that took place on June 27 (July 8) of the 1709 year, and Russia to recognize as a loser. The initiative belongs to a group of activists of the Maidan and the Scandinavian Society for Fair History, which consists of Swedish citizens of Ukrainian origin.
    Sweden, although it "won the war," but suffered significant financial losses, the size of which for more than three hundred years has been trying to determine now. And Ukraine insists that allegedly Russia arbitrarily, without obtaining consent, used the territory of Ukraine to conduct large-scale military operations, which led to both the infringement of the interests of the Ukrainian side and the infliction of material and financial damage, as well as significant loss of profit. , say the "Maidan workers" and the Swedes, the "seedy" Russian army simply did not have such modern weapons and equipment, which means it supposedly could not defeat, and even such a commander as Charles XII, and was defeated. The Allied forces took Moscow, capturing all the material assets stored there.
    The history was allegedly rewritten, for which a group of Buryat lamas was brought to St. Petersburg, which in two months produced a set of documents in a specially constructed building for this building, which later replaced the original documents in all European archives.
    "Maidan workers" even call the payment for the work of lamas, on which the world's largest Atsagat datsan was built - one of the oldest in Buryatia, where the Agin Buddhist Academy is located.
    It is worth noting that today the total amount of Ukrainian-Swedish claims against Russia for this episode recorded in European courts has already reached 404 billion euros, but judging by the violent imagination of the vanquished, this is far from the limit.
    1. Mantykora
      Mantykora 10 July 2017 07: 31
      +6
      I’d give a link, otherwise such nonsense, I can’t believe it, although it won’t surprise me if it’s true.

      And so - glory to our ancestors - and Russian soldiers and defenders of Poltava! And traitors in Ukraine have always had enough - and the punishment will overtake the present Judas!
    2. vovanpain
      vovanpain 10 July 2017 08: 33
      +16
      Quote: Egoza
      Congratulations to Russia on the holiday! But Ukraine is against it! I can not help but share a laugh ....

      Thanks Elena! love Laughed yesterday laughing And you once, but everything will work out. love Sincerely, Elena! hi
      Glory to Russian weapons, Glory to our ancestors, but there is plenty of mazep now.
      1. Diana Ilyina
        Diana Ilyina 10 July 2017 09: 25
        +17
        Vladimir hi my respect love ! With all due respect, this phrase reminds me of something:
        Nevertheless, the Swedish command remained very low opinion about the fighting qualities of the Cossacks.
        German generals said exactly the same thing about the Ukrovsk SS division "Galitchina". They only once participated in the battle with ours and fled immediately not having sustained the first counterattack. Then the Germans gathered them for a long time through the forest and did not take part in the hostilities anymore. But the punitive of them turned out excellent. The Germans themselves freaked out from the fury with which they destroyed both the Russians and Belarusians, as well as the Ukrainians themselves. In general, to be honest, I do not recall a single case of the glory of Ukrainian weapons, if we consider the Zaporizhzhya section as such. Well, there was not a single significant battle wherever they won. If they won, then either together with the Tatars, or coupled with ours, by themselves never. Perhaps this is talking about something ?! And these imbeciles were going to take Rostov and Moscow ?! And their corruption in my opinion is in the blood. Betrayed everyone and always. No wonder Peter did not trust them. Katya was generally clever and disbanded them to hell with a dog, and from the most sane she created the Kuban Cossacks. By the way, the Kuban people have never covered themselves with shame, an interesting point, isn't it ?!
        1. novel66
          novel66 10 July 2017 09: 48
          +10
          I categorically welcome! love Zaporizhzhya’s Sich - judging by fiction - is more a big gang than an army and all their luck is more of a robber raids, but a robber does not dance against the regulars
          1. Diana Ilyina
            Diana Ilyina 10 July 2017 10: 16
            +10
            romance66 Today, 09:48 ↑
            I categorically welcome! love
            Roma, thanks, similarly! love
            Zaporizhzhya’s Sich - judging by fiction - is more a big gang than an army and all their luck is more of a robber raids, but a robber does not dance against the regulars
            All right. And even that only “victory” near Konotop, which is so beloved in Ukraine, is actually the victory of the Crimean Khan, but not of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, since there were twice or even three times less than the Tatars. Yes, and it's hard to call a victory
            Losses of the Russian army amounted to 4769 warriors (mainly the cavalry of Pozharsky and Lviv) and 2000 Cossacks. The enemy, according to Russian historians, lost between 3000 and 6000 Tatars and 4000 Cossacks.
            Source: Battle of Konotop: how Russians fought with Ukrainians
            © Russian Seven russian7.ru
            that’s actually the whole “victory”, or rather it will be said to be too much, so it will be more correct! laughing
            1. vovanpain
              vovanpain 10 July 2017 10: 48
              +9
              The beauty of Diana, hello sun in love love love After your comment, there’s nothing to add, I also drew attention to the article
              After the experience of several battles, in which all the disadvantages of the Cossacks in front of the modern regular army were found out, the Swedish generals transferred them to earthwork and security and convoy service

              The same analogies as you have caused.
              Quote: Diana Ilyina
              German generals said exactly the same thing about the Ukrovsk SS division "Galitchina".

              As punishers, they had no equal. And finally.
              Quote: Diana Ilyina
              And their corruption in my opinion is in the blood. Betrayed everyone and always.

              Everything is simple
              Not all of these are of course, but Svidomo disease is contagious.
              The beauty of Diana, my respect. love love love
              1. Diana Ilyina
                Diana Ilyina 10 July 2017 12: 33
                +9
                vovanpain Today, 10:48 ↑ New
                The beauty of Diana, hello sun in love love love
                Volodya love love love , thank! It's always nice to be associated with the sun! I read your Friday showdown here, right word, it was fun. Boys, I certainly love you all, but if anything, then I'm married ... So alas, ah, but I love my husband first. Do not be offended just for God's sake, I sincerely treat you very well and you are really dear to me, well, except for those with whom I have been fighting here periodically. This is a digression ...
                But in fact, Volod, I liked your comment below about Ukrainian coins and passports. In general, I believe that in the 18-19 centuries, people living in the territory of modern Ukraine would be very surprised to find out that they are Ukrainians ... lol But with regard to mentality, then yes, for some reason venality is there in honor. I believe that this is still due to the fact that these lands constantly passed from hand to hand and Russian blood was greatly spoiled there. Even now there is no complete unity even in the same LPR and DPR. Instead of uniting, they also introduced cordons. It’s not just my opinion, it’s also personal observations, it’s a stone's throw from my house to them, there will be 50-60 kilometers in a straight line. Well, plus relatives on the other hand, it’s true if they can now be considered relatives, since they no longer consider us as such ...! request
                1. Egoza
                  Egoza 10 July 2017 16: 16
                  +2
                  Quote: Diana Ilyina
                  Even now there is no complete unity even in the same LPR and DPR. Instead of uniting, they also introduced cordons.

                  But nothing surprising! Those who wanted to revive the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic comrade Artem, that is, socialist, popular, etc., “suddenly died”, albeit at different times, but with a small gap. But the two new capitalist "republics" and the new "owners" do not want to share power, they only come to taste. am
          2. Catherine II
            Catherine II 10 July 2017 14: 20
            +1
            Quote: novel xnumx
            the robber does not dance against the regulars

            Khmelnitsky would not agree with you. Well, more precisely, his victories refute your judgment. Although he just won and regulars. And the Cossacks themselves, in addition to the Sich, have long been regulars.
            1. Cat
              Cat 10 July 2017 19: 20
              +4
              There are different Swedes! A year ago, I accidentally came across, or rather I heard from a child, a song from the Swedish band Sabaton. Often the words of Poltava were built. Tried daughter she gave a translation of the song from English to Russian!
              A minimum must be thoughtfully read, the words speak for themselves!
              Poltava

              The soldiers walked so long
              Kilometers passed
              These eastern lands are cursed ...
              It's time to attack

              King of Scorched Earth
              Not found anywhere
              And 20 soldiers, once strong,
              Starving!

              Listen, sorry for the king
              Believe me, in this fight you cannot win

              Poltava
              We are going to certain death
              Poltava
              Swedes met the curse of Russians
              Poltava
              And they gave their lives in vain! ...
              Poltava

              In the shadow of morning fog
              Stepping on the enemy
              Breaking the silence of the morning with shots
              The plan failed!

              Swedish left to their own devices
              The king fled
              There are few soldiers left ...
              Waiting for death.

              Listen and follow my commands!
              Obey me, or die by my hand!

              Poltava
              We are going to certain death
              Poltava
              Swedes met the curse of Russians
              Poltava
              And they gave their lives in vain! ...
              Poltava

              Russian troops blocked their path
              20 died that day
              They bleed
              And they found peace. In the ground.
              Everyone is equal there ...
              King Charles was forced to flee
              And leave the troops
              Throw to death

              Poltava
              We are going to certain death
              Poltava
              Swedes met the curse of Russians
              Poltava
              And they gave their lives in vain! ...
              Poltava

              Yes, I'm crazy, I curse your weak hordes!
              Fear me, otherwise you will die from my sword !!!

              By the way, they also have a song about "Russian witches" of girls-pilots on Po-2.
              For me it was a revelation!
            2. Weyland
              Weyland 11 July 2017 22: 21
              0
              Quote: Catherine II
              Well, more precisely, his victories refute your judgment.

              Name at least one Khmelnitsky victory won without the help of Crimean Tatars!
              1. Catherine II
                Catherine II 12 July 2017 20: 04
                0
                Quote: Weyland
                Khmelnitsky, gained without the help of the Crimean Tatars

                the presence of the Tatars adds only advantages to him as a diplomat (Without Tugai Bey, many would not have worked)
                no matter who he has. So many cases when there was a hired motley military ..
                The main thing is that the commander motivated and was able to overcome. And who helped him is only a plus.
                The argument was that regulars are stronger than irregulars. Although irregulars in this world have become much more effective than regulars.
                1. Weyland
                  Weyland 12 July 2017 21: 19
                  0
                  Quote: Catherine II
                  the presence of Tatars only adds to his advantages as a diplomat

                  Yeah .. And to remind you (or rather, by whom) did he pay the Tatars?
                  -Butai that Bogdan Persha kul did not pass ... - did the Poles come up with this song?
        2. Curious
          Curious 10 July 2017 10: 45
          +2
          An article about the Battle of Poltava. But judging by the comments -
          again about Ukraine.
          In this regard, two points related to the content of the comments.
          The first. On the site, many categorically deny the presence in the history of such a country as Ukraine and such a nation as Ukrainians.
          Who then switched to the Swedes?
          The second moment. Ukrainians as part of the national SS formations fought poorly. I agree.
          Interestingly, how did the Germans evaluate the combat qualities of other national formations in the SS?
          1. vovanpain
            vovanpain 10 July 2017 11: 07
            +7
            Quote: Curious
            On the site, many categorically deny the presence in the history of such a country as Ukraine and such a nation as Ukrainians.

            My dear man, I have an offer for you - I will buy coins of Ukraine until 1917, as well as documents with a nationality of Ukrainian until 1917, documents and coins of the period 1991-2017 should not be offered. wink
            1. stalkerwalker
              stalkerwalker 10 July 2017 11: 11
              +4
              Quote: vovanpain
              I will buy coins of Ukraine until 1917, as well as documents with a nationality of Ukrainian until 1917

              "Ukrainian veterans of the Battle of Poltava are granted Swedish citizenship and a lifetime pension."
              laughing
              1. vovanpain
                vovanpain 10 July 2017 11: 37
                +4
                Quote: stalkerwalker
                Ukrainian veterans of the Battle of Poltava are granted Swedish citizenship and a lifetime pension. "

                Which Mongolia will pay them for the invasion of Batu. laughing Greetings Colleague.! hi
                1. stalkerwalker
                  stalkerwalker 10 July 2017 11: 38
                  +3
                  Quote: vovanpain
                  Greetings Colleague.!

                  And to you, Colleague, good day!
                  hi
            2. Curious
              Curious 10 July 2017 12: 11
              +1
              But in essence there is something to say?
              1. stas
                stas 10 July 2017 22: 49
                0
                But in essence, it was not before Ukraine, now it is not a state and in the future it is not needed, otherwise the gangster lads will again be sold for money, like girls of easy virtue.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 10 July 2017 22: 55
                  0
                  Those. Does the majority of commentators have a clear blizzard when discussing the actions of a non-existent state and its non-existent citizens?
                  And the second half of the question?
          2. Catherine II
            Catherine II 10 July 2017 14: 28
            +1
            Quote: Curious
            Who then switched to the Swedes?

            get out
            The Russian ruler of Little Russia (like Kurbsky) has flown over. Something like this
            And also Russian Cossacks with him. Russian Poltava captured Russian Cossacks and so on.
            Immediately, the fact is that if something is negative, then Ukrainians definitely exist, and that’s them!
            If something positive, there are no Ukrainians, it’s Russian (even if they were born on this earth), the Russian land and all Russian immigrants ..
            Some kind of double standards ... By the way, and with Galicia. Soviet citizens-that Vlasovites that Bandera..but there are bad Ukrainians, and there is silence. Well, or at worst, Ukrainians are all Soviet people, which means a Russian feat. All betrayal Ukrainians-Ukrainians and all business ..
            Quote: Curious
            It is interesting how the Germans evaluated the combat qualities of other national formations in the SS

            they didn’t appreciate even Italians .. and local ones are like that ..
            1. Abel
              Abel 12 July 2017 19: 56
              0
              This, sorry, is not our initiative. Demolish monuments, prohibit awards, do not wear St. George’s ribbon - a legacy of the USSR. But they won the war. The 3rd Ukrainian Front liberated Kiev. Hitler's accomplices and officers are our mustache, but we won’t pay reparations, because WE won. Russia is the occupiers, but we will not pay for the restored industry. And so Ukraine fed the USSR. I inform you that I often worked in the Kherson region, in the dining room borsch was always with meat. In 2000, I could not buy sausages on the road. In 1986 he worked in Chernobyl. My father has a medal "For the Liberation of Kiev", an order for the battles in the Stalin Region (Donetsk). So my family is twice the occupiers. No more.
          3. Weyland
            Weyland 11 July 2017 22: 23
            0
            from their allies they praised only the Finns. And what about Heavi! However, the Reichstag was defended by the Latvian SS legion and the French SS Charlemagne division, which, as it were, hints ...
            1. Abel
              Abel 12 July 2017 19: 57
              0
              There were Vlasov and SS
          4. Abel
            Abel 12 July 2017 19: 45
            0
            first:
            Quote: Curious
            On the site, many categorically deny the presence in the history of such a country as Ukraine and such a nation as Ukrainians.
            Who then switched to the Swedes?

            Since my ancestors lived in Ukraine, I was interested in history and I have some questions. Please indicate the dates (at least a century) of the creation of the STATE of Ukraine, which existed for at least a few years (do not call the directory). The territory to the Dnieper was called Little Russia, i.e. Little Russia.
            The second one. National formations were not respected, because there is an opinion that "once betrayed" ... Therefore, traitors were always used, but NEVER respected or trusted. Police functions and with special zeal during WWII were performed mainly by the most "freedom-loving" countries (territories) that did not know statehood: Ukraine, the Baltic countries, or the poorest (Romania).
        3. Fayter
          Fayter 11 July 2017 00: 57
          -1
          Katya was generally clever and disbanded them to hell with a dog, and from the most sane she created the Kuban Cossacks. By the way, the Kuban people have never covered themselves with shame, an interesting point, isn't it ?!

          And Katya personally selected them ...?
          Kuban in 1917 who was supported?
          Well, there was not a single significant battle wherever they won. If they won, then either together with the Tatars, or together with ours, by themselves never

          Does the war of liberation led by Khmelnitsky not tell you anything?
          The fact of the capture of the Polish king is not this is not a significant victory, are the Tatars and Muscovites yes Diana?
          Do not be miserable in your judgments and in miserable attempts to humiliate everything Ukrainian, become like the current Ukrainian authorities and their propagandists.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland 11 July 2017 22: 25
            0
            Quote: Fayter
            these are Tatars and Muscovites

            Tatars. Without their help, Khmelnytsky did not win a single (!) Battle against the Poles
            1. Catherine II
              Catherine II 12 July 2017 20: 14
              0
              Quote: Weyland
              Quote: Fayter
              these are Tatars and Muscovites

              Tatars. Without their help, Khmelnytsky did not win a single (!) Battle against the Poles

              Well then, without the Austrians, we won little against the Prussians in Seven Years
              no matter who you have in the union - the main thing is the commander.
              By the way, Polish victories over the Tatars and Turks are always with the Cossacks - then you caught up with our historians (without us, the Poles blew everything away, but with us the victory)
              1. Weyland
                Weyland 12 July 2017 21: 28
                0
                Quote: Catherine II
                Well then, without the Austrians, we won little against the Prussians in Seven Years

                And how many Austrians participated in the battles of Zorndorf and Gross-Jägersdorf? laughing I’m talking about participation in battles, and not about alliance as such. And under Kunersdorf there were 47 thousand of ours, and the Austrians - 18,5 (although I do not argue - Laudon hi how the commander was worth Saltykov hi )
          2. Catherine II
            Catherine II 12 July 2017 20: 10
            0
            Quote: Fayter
            The fact of the capture of the Polish king no this is not a significant victory

            Is Casimir captivated - he paid off and that's it.
      2. Abel
        Abel 12 July 2017 17: 53
        0
        And why do you think the Ukrainians erected a monument to Mazepa? They live in the spirit of betrayal and money-grubbing
    3. datur
      datur 11 July 2017 11: 36
      0
      ,, Johann Wise ,, !!! cool writes! good but still you would say that it is banter !!!!! wink
    4. Alex
      Alex 15 September 2017 19: 29
      +1
      All this Ukrainian-Swedish nonsense - is it in the order of banter or in reality?
  2. ochakow703
    ochakow703 10 July 2017 07: 15
    +5
    Russia with the holidays, and Koklam watching the film "Taras Bulba".
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 July 2017 08: 20
    +2
    and in 1718 he was killed as a result of an attempt, planned by his own circle.

    This is one of the versions.
    In fact, he was killed during the siege of a Danish fortress.
    Where the bullet came from is a question.

    Although tired of, of course, everyone.
    1. Paranoid50
      Paranoid50 10 July 2017 10: 06
      +7
      Quote: Olgovich
      was killed in a siege of a Danish fortress.

      And it was in Norway (then - part of Denmark)
      Quote: Olgovich
      Where the bullet came from is a question.

      The Swedes are still voicing of. version - a Norwegian bullet, so as not to cast a shadow on the royal family ... But, in fact, everyone knows what is there and where. Duc, no wonder — Carlus had managed to hesitate not only half of Europe, but also his own country. Everything dragged him somewhere to fight, but where is the money, Zin? An interesting point - "thanks" to Charles XII, ... Jews appeared in Sweden. laughing Being on campaigns, I managed to help myself, and here, just in time, Polish Jews appeared, having loaned Carlus the necessary sums. When it came time to settle bills, there wasn’t any money, of course, but the promise to “settle in Sweden” ... Well, what about a poor Jew? Sweden is Sweden. And they began to live and live, with which I congratulate them. laughing And all of us, with the next anniversary of the Poltava Victoria. hi drinks
      1. Catherine II
        Catherine II 12 July 2017 20: 42
        +1
        Quote: Paranoid50
        Carlus had managed to hesitate not only half of Europe, but also his own country.

        Carolus his homeland hesitated even earlier.
        Although he behaved in the same way as Peter. Gulyanki, girls, pranks with boyars (senators), deng to this is that in the tsarist that there was no royal treasury (though the sponsors were Lefort, Golitsyn, Count Piper and others) hunting / soldiers, shooting ... what are you from young men in do you want puberty?
        So the senators were already thinking of limiting the royal power (declaration of war) which they had already limited with the nobles with the late priest (returning the lands to the treasury, if not confirmed by documents). So Karl quite often scoffed at the senators and the townspeople. He was restless. But when an evil rock loomed over his Sweden, he gathered. And rock was not weak. Against Sweden was a rather formidable coalition-Denmark, Russia, Poland. And Sweden was just not strong at that time with land forces.
        Karl had a military genius. However, he was ruined by his belief in his star and the complete disregard for the opinions of others (he looked very much like Hitler in that) .. Therefore, he believed in Mazepa and the Turks closer to Ukraine .. And there the population was hostile to the Swedes, and they did not think to surrender Poltava. Mazepa was greedy for Baturin and he went to Menshikov (and with him 300 guns and a lot of supplies - and Karl gunpowder had little baggage near Lesnaya)
        Karl’s stubbornness cost Sweden a long war of attrition, decline and transformation into an ordinary country. The championship palm in Northern Europe was seized by Russia.
        As for Poltava, the grueling siege / assaults, even the captivity of the hero, the commandants did not break the inhabitants of Poltava (a kind of Hero City and a symbol of that war) and its glorious warriors. They courageously defended, gave Petr and Menshikov and Sheremetyev time to make all preparations and build everything what you need for a battle ... Along the way, having plagued the Swedish army and the king ..
        Karl lost then when he decided to go deeper. For him, the option was to go to Livonia - and the same Petersburg from land. No, he stubbornly went to Moscow, changed his mind on the road .. went south and found the death of the army and glory there. For Peter this was not the first victory over the Swedes. But it has become significant. And the shadow of Narva receded into the depths of time.
        1. Paranoid50
          Paranoid50 12 July 2017 21: 02
          +1
          Quote: Catherine II
          And the shadow of Narva receded into the depths of time.

          Already departed - so departed. But, along the way, she taught me evil. By the way, the defense of the city of Poltava against the background of the battle itself was unfairly given little attention in Russian history. And there was a severe siege battle with assault by all rules, with glanders, with counter-glitches (successful), with sorties - a historically vivid example of military tactics of those years. And even after Poltava, already in 1711, in Ingermanland and Finland, the svea was very “combed”, although not on a large scale. There, the tactics of raids of flying detachments (Cossacks + dragoons), very effective in those parts, were worked out ... Damn, for a quarter of a century they calmed them.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 10 July 2017 08: 50
    +2
    Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord: “Betrayal is a matter of date. Time to betray is to anticipate.” With foresight, Mazepa didn’t succeed .. He blundered ... And so ... well, beyond Poltava drinks
  5. novel66
    novel66 10 July 2017 08: 57
    +4
    Poltava was preceded by the successful actions of the corollant Menshikov. who dispelled, so to speak, the myth of invincibility
    1. Diana Ilyina
      Diana Ilyina 10 July 2017 09: 40
      +13
      Novel66 Today, 08:57
      Poltava was preceded by the successful actions of the corollant Menshikov. who dispelled, so to speak, the myth of invincibility
      Novel hi , that's right. The Battle of Lesnoy is a prime example. In general, Menshikov, for all his shortcomings, the main of which was probably theft, was quite talented, including militarily.
      1. novel66
        novel66 10 July 2017 09: 45
        +4
        Dianochka hi but these favorites (Menshikov. Orlovs, Poltemkin and others) not only stole, but they also spent on state needs, of course. they didn’t forget themselves, but also great things did, unlike the modern
        1. Diana Ilyina
          Diana Ilyina 10 July 2017 09: 51
          +11
          Roma love , I totally agree! Potemkin looks especially advantageous in this regard. This is human. Actually, it is him in Ukraine who needs to erect monuments everywhere. Since the whole of New Russia is entirely, his work is done.
          1. novel66
            novel66 10 July 2017 10: 01
            +4
            Svidomitov only do not say this, otherwise they will go to their favorite product laughing
    2. Catherine II
      Catherine II 12 July 2017 20: 45
      0
      Quote: novel xnumx
      myth of invincibility

      Sheremetev previously dispelled. And the guards regiments even under Narva proved that they can hold a blow.
  6. rumatam
    rumatam 10 July 2017 11: 28
    0
    But what about previously published data that he died during the siege of a Danish fortress?
  7. nivander
    nivander 10 July 2017 12: 39
    +5
    it is a pity that the author did not tell about the most interesting history of Karl’s campaign - the news was supposed to go to Moscow from Riga via Smolensk, however, a number of defeats from Field Marshal Sheremetev including and under der. Forest - when the Swedish army food convoy was captured-- 9 THOUSAND !!!!! carts, a horse factory, a gun park, all gunpowder, cores, and several thousand Germans recruited by Karl in Pomerania easily entered the Russian service. Karl had no choice but to move, almost parallel to the Russian borders, to the south. By the way, the Polish krul Stanislav Leszczynski planted by Karl. promised that there he would meet a warm welcome, an abundance of provisions and contingents of Polish soldiers. No wonder Peter called the victory at the Forest Mother of Poltava Victoria
    1. Catherine II
      Catherine II 12 July 2017 20: 49
      0
      Quote: nivasander
      Swedish army food convoy seized - 9 THOUSAND

      and the reason is Karl’s obstinacy. He was offered this option as the only one for solving the company's tasks. And he stubbornly thought that this was cowardice .. And left Adam Ludwig Levengaupt to the mercy of fate. Like Adam himself to cope and the Russian "cowards" scatter. However, the Swedes fled ...
      the "royal headquarters" was insane stubborn.
  8. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 10 July 2017 14: 55
    +1
    The Swedish elite was tired of the endless war that Karl XII was going to wage in the east, preoccupied only with the realization of his military ambitions, so it was decided to eliminate the overly fighting king.

    I heard the exact opposite version that Karl was already agreeing to peace.
    And how to explain the fact that after the death "through the chur of the battle king" the war lasted another three years.
  9. nnz226
    nnz226 10 July 2017 15: 37
    +1
    All these figures, coming to Russia, left a mark in Russian proverbs and sayings. "Burned like a Swede near Poltava!" one of them...
  10. Oleg Kalugin
    Oleg Kalugin 10 July 2017 15: 43
    +1
    And the enemy is running, running, running!
    The new slogan is:
    WHO WILL COME TO US WITH A "SWORD", THAT WE ARE TANKS Caterpillars AND WRAP INTO ASPHALT.
    And no one will guess that we have a problem with asphalt)))
  11. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 10 July 2017 17: 30
    0
    Please note that there are only two horses in the picture. And they drew them for the show-off. It was not I who prompted them, myself.
    In those days, all these Karls, Peters, were of the same suit of Oldenburg. Various branches of the Gattorp, Hanover and others. There could not be anyone else there.
    And all these wars, inter-war fights, as now, for example, the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the National Guard, often shoot out.
  12. Kashchenko
    Kashchenko 10 July 2017 22: 44
    +2
    Ukrainians, Ukrainians, traitors and cowards, worthless ... Hmm ... so much can be heard from the great strategists and courageous commanders of the couch troops .. Fools ... Both from a military point of view and from a moral point of view .. Absolute lack of analysis and even ordinary savvy life ..
    1. Abel
      Abel 12 July 2017 20: 06
      0
      Excuse me, is Kashchenko a real surname or a diagnosis? Please note that the modern form of communication involves reductions. Few people think so ABOUT ALL Ukrainians, the conversation is mainly about the Ukrainian leaders, chieftains, hetmans, presidents, etc. I have a lot of friends in Ukraine. So sorry if something is wrong
  13. gm9019
    gm9019 10 July 2017 23: 35
    0
    Quote: Mantykora
    I’d give a link, otherwise such nonsense, I can’t believe it, although it won’t surprise me if it’s true.

    https://www.politforums.net/ukraine/1498452918.ht
    ml
    you are welcome! wink
  14. Olaf Uksimae
    Olaf Uksimae 11 July 2017 01: 52
    0
    It is interesting that in foreign sources there is no mention of any attempt on Karl, he died in a trench during the siege of the fortress Fredriksten and all.
    In ours, however, appears a version about a plot planned by close circle, someone is silent or someone is inventing something? Where is the truth Karl?
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 11 July 2017 22: 30
      0
      Quote: Olaf Uximae
      died in a trench during the siege of the fortress Fredriksten and all.

      It was simply far from the trench to the fortress, and getting into the temple from such a distance from the then trunks was almost impossible - hence the version of the "crazy pool".
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 12 July 2017 14: 07
        0
        Conducted experiments fell perfectly
        1. Catherine II
          Catherine II 12 July 2017 21: 11
          0
          Cossacks could have been killed by Cossacks by accident (they shot a leg) and anywhere they could have killed him, he climbed into the thick of it ..
          played out. However, death on the battlefield is heroic, but even now it causes nothing. He brought his homeland to the handle .. and even climbed into Norway. It was not enough for him to enter Prussia and heaps of defeats on the fronts ...
        2. Weyland
          Weyland 13 July 2017 20: 55
          0
          Of what? From a long-barrel rifled carbine or a “regular” soldier smooth-bore fusee? A killer might have a carbine, but a simple soldier ...
  15. Cartalon
    Cartalon 12 July 2017 14: 06
    0
    Only Karl was killed in battle without any conspiracy
  16. Abel
    Abel 12 July 2017 17: 51
    0
    "the reason for Mazepa’s betrayal was his conviction that Peter would lose the war to Charles XII," went to Karl X11, seizing the treasury, HERE THEIR origins and meanings of modern Ukrainian politics.
    “After the experience of several battles, in which all the disadvantages of the Cossacks in front of the modern regular army were found out, the Swedish generals transferred them to earthwork and security and convoy service. Of course, they began to pay less for this than for participation in the battles. They gave Cossack for the day of escort prisoners or earthworks 10 kopecks. Naturally, this caused discontent of the Cossacks. The exodus of the Cossacks from the Swedish army began. " Learn history, it tends to repeat itself
    1. Catherine II
      Catherine II 12 July 2017 21: 13
      0
      Quote: Abel
      the meanings of modern Ukrainian politics.

      Machiavelli to help you ...
      it was a long time before Ukraine ... wasn’t there Kurbsky and others?
  17. Alex
    Alex 15 September 2017 19: 24
    +1
    An article is a dummy.