Military Review

Chesme battle. Ottoman fleet burned to the ground

46
July 7 The 1770 of the year ended the grand battle of Chesme. It has become one of Russia's most impressive naval victories for all its history. In February, 1995 adopted the Federal Law “On Days of Military Glory (Victory Days) of Russia”, which on July 7, among other significant dates for Russia, received the status of Day of Military Glory of Russia.




The Chesme battle was one of the key moments in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. It was preceded by the Second Peloponnesian uprising, raised by Greek patriots against Ottoman rule and actively supported by Russian authorities. As you know, at the beginning of the war Russia did not yet have fleet in the Black Sea. This created serious obstacles to support the Greek national liberation struggle. Therefore, the ruling circles of the Russian Empire came up with the idea of ​​sending a squadron of the Russian fleet from the Baltic Sea to the Aegean Sea. The first to voice this idea in November 1768 was Grigory Orlov, close to Empress Catherine II. The Empress agreed with the opinion of her favorite, after which the commander of the expedition with the rank of general-general - Alexei Orlov was appointed.

Chesme battle. Ottoman fleet burned to the ground About him should be mentioned. By the time the expedition began, Alexei Orlov was just 32 of the year. He made a lightning career through his participation in the palace coup 1762 of the year, which brought Catherine II to power. If at the beginning of 1762 the city of Orlov served in the Preobrazhensky regiment with the rank of sergeant, then after the coup he was promoted to major of the guard and major general of the army and received the title of count. He did not occupy any senior positions in the army or navy, but since he was the author of the idea of ​​throwing the Russian navy into the Aegean Sea, the empress entrusted to carry out this risky venture to him.

The expedition was tasked with organizing the support of the Peloponnese Greeks and the diversion of the forces of the Ottoman Empire. There was also such an ambitious plan as a breakthrough of the squadron to Constantinople, which, in the opinion of the Russian command, could force the Ottoman Empire to speedy surrender. Russia hoped to free the Balkan Peninsula from Ottoman rule, putting an end to the centuries-old oppression of the Christian peoples - the Greeks, Slavs, and the Vlachs. To organize an expedition to 1768-1769. favorable circumstances. First, Denmark, which was in good relations with the Russian Empire, was ready to let the Russian fleet through the Strait of Strait and even provide its sailors.

Secondly, the idea of ​​a Russian expedition to the Aegean Sea was also positively perceived by the ruling circles of Great Britain, who were striving to weaken the Ottoman Empire. By the way, a number of experienced naval officers also came from the British fleet to the Russian service, which greatly enhanced the quality of the expedition personnel. In particular, one of the squadrons was headed by John Elphinstone (in the image) - the captain of the British fleet, taken to the Russian service 30 in May 1769 of the year and soon made a rear admiral.

A Scot by birth was Samuel Greig - 35-year-old officer of the British fleet, serving in the rank of lieutenant. True, he began service in the Russian fleet a little earlier and in 1769 was already a personnel officer commanding the battleship of the Three Hierarchs.

The question of organizing the expedition was resolved. It included the Baltic Fleet 5 squadron, including 6 frigates, 1 bombardier, 20 battleships, 26 auxiliary ships. In total, the expedition consisted of 17 thousands of personnel, including 8 thousands of sea paratroopers and 9 thousands of seamen. The first squadron of the expedition under the command of Admiral Grigory Spiridov withdrew from Kronstadt on July 29 (July 18 old style) 1769 of the year. In October 1769, the second squadron commanded by Rear Admiral John Elphinstone, transferred to the Russian service from the British fleet. The following squadrons went to the Aegean Sea after the Chesmensky battle, so we will not talk about them here.

The Russian Navy, by the time of the events in question, had not yet had experience of sea voyages over such long distances. Therefore, the transition from the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea was accompanied by numerous problems, including human sacrifices. An account of the dead due to illness went hundreds. However, by February 1770, the first squadron of Admiral Spiridov reached Peloponnese. On February 28, a Russian landing force commanded by second major Gabriel Barkov, an officer of the Kursk Infantry Regiment, landed in the bay of Itilona. Although there were only 14 people in the airborne detachment, Barkov was able to quickly gather around himself over 1000 locals - Greeks and Arnauts.

On April 9, Russian ships under the command of the naval artillery brigade leader Ivan Hannibal laid siege to Navarin. 21 April, after a successful siege, Navarin was taken and turned into a temporary base of the Russian fleet. By mid-May 1770, a second squadron commanded by Rear Admiral D. Elphinstone arrived in the Peloponnese region. By the end of May, another powerful battle took place between the Russian squadrons and the Turkish fleet in the Gulf of Napoli di Romagna. In the end, the Turkish Kapudan Pasha Gassan Bey was forced to retreat with his fleet towards the island of Chios. Russian ships rushed after him in pursuit. It was decided to go to Chios, and if the Turkish fleet is not there, then follow to the Dardanelles Strait with the purpose of their blockade.

5 July (24 June) 1770 began the battle of Chios. In the Chios Strait, the Russian and Ottoman fleets clashed with each other. The Russian fleet included the 9 battleships, the 3 frigate, the 1 bomber ship, the 1 packet ship, the 3 kick, and more 13 smaller ships. The Ottoman fleet was much more impressive and included 16 battleships, 6 frigates, 6 shebeks, 13 galleys and 32 small and auxiliary ships. The actual command of the Ottoman fleet was carried out by Jezairli Ghazi Hasan Pasha. As a young man, he, an Armenian by birth, was hijacked into Turkish slavery, but he converted to Islam and entered the sultan's service. For a long time he served in Algeria, and at the time of the Chesmensky battle he was the deputy of the Kaudan-pasha Ibrahim Hyusameddin, who was eliminated from managing the actions of the fleet and therefore his duties were carried out by Jezairli Ghazi Hasan-pasha.

On the morning of 4, on the ship of the Three Hierarchs, Captain Samuel Greig (in the image) raised the signal “Chase after the enemy”, after which the Russian ships launched an offensive against the Ottoman positions in the Chios Strait. Exactly on 11.00, the commander of the Russian fleet, Count Orlov, gave the order to attack the Ottoman fleet. During the battle, the flagship of the Ottoman fleet 80-gun battleship Real Mustafa, captured by Russian sailors on board the ship, exploded. At the same time, Saint Eustathius also blew up. Admiral Grigory Spiridov managed to leave St. Eustache a few minutes before the explosion.

After the Real Mustafa flagship was destroyed, the remaining ships of the Turkish fleet hastily retreated from their positions and took refuge in the Chesme Bay. The entrance to the bay was almost immediately blocked by the ships of the Russian fleet, which began to prepare for the further continuation of hostilities against the Ottoman ships. Turkish fleet lined up in two lines. The first was the 8 of the battleships, the second was the 7 of the battleships. The rest of the Turkish ships were concentrated between the lines and the coast. But such an arrangement of the Ottoman fleet turned out to be incompetent, since the first line did not allow the second line to fire on the Russian ships, and finding the ships close to each other facilitated the shelling of the positions of the Turks with Russian artillery. As a result of the shelling, the Turkish ships caught fire, and since they were located in close proximity to each other, the fire immediately spread to the neighboring ships.

All day 6 July, the Turkish fleet was shelled by Russian ships. In 17: 00, the bombardment of the Turkish positions was launched by the Thunder, the bombing ship, which stood right in front of the entrance to the bay. In 0: 30, the battleship “Europe” joined the shelling, a bit later - the battleship “Rostislav”. In 1: 30, one of the Turkish battleships exploded as a result of shelling by Russian artillery. A fire broke out that quickly spread to other ships in the bay. Near 2: 00 exploded another Ottoman ship. After that, firefighters entered the bay, but two of them were put out of order by Ottoman fire. However, Lieutenant Iljin's brander managed to grapple with the 84-Ottoman cannon battleship, after which the team set fire to the brander and left it on the boat. Brander exploded and caught fire, passing the fire not only on the Turkish battleship, but also on other ships of the Turkish fleet. K 2: 30 exploded three more Turkish battleships. Between 4: 00 and 5: 30, six more battleships exploded, and at the beginning of the seventh hour of the morning - four more battleships. By 8 o'clock in the morning of 7 July 1770, the battle in the Chesme Bay ended in victory for the Russian fleet. The Ottoman fleet suffered great damage.

The defeat of the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Chesme was overwhelming. Losses amounted to 15 battleships (from 16 participating in the battle), 6 frigates (from 6 participating in the battle). The surviving battleship was captured by the Russians. About 11 thousands of Ottoman sailors died. The Russian fleet lost incomparably less in battle, both men and ships. Thus, fleet losses amounted to the entire 4 firewall, and personnel lost about 20 people. At the same time, in the Battle of Chios, the Russian fleet lost the battleship Saint Eustathius and the 1 people who lost their lives in the 636.

The news of the victory of Russian weapons in the Battle of Chesme, it was enthusiastically received not only by the Russian Empire, but also by almost the entire Christian world. Empress Catherine II personally congratulated Count Alexei Orlov, who commanded the Russian fleet, and especially stressed that the whole of Europe is surprised at the courage of Russian sailors, and the great European powers directly envy the victories of Russian weapons. Naturally, the heroes of the Chesme battle could not be left without military awards. Admiral Gregory Spiridov (pictured) received the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, Count Alexei Orlov and Captain Samuel Greig received the Order of St. George 2 degree. Captains Fedot Klokachev and Stepan Khmelevsky were awarded the Order of St. George 3-th degree, and the commanders of the firefighters and several other officers of the fleet - crosses of the Order of St. George 4-th degree.

From now on, Count Alexei Orlov became known as Orlov-Chesmensky and was promoted to General-in-Chief with the right to raise the Kaiser-flag and place it in the family coat of arms. By the way, he was also entrusted with the formation of the “Albanian army” from among the Greeks and Orthodox Albanians who served in the Russian fleet. Already after the end of the Russian-Turkish war, settlements in the vicinity of Kerch and Enikale were set aside for the settlements of Albanian troops.

Victory in the Battle of Chesme contributed to a serious turning point in the Russian-Turkish war. The main Ottoman fleet, which took part in the battle in the Chesme Bay, was destroyed. This opened for the Russian fleet the opportunity to begin the blockade of the Dardanelles. However, since the Ottomans still had significant naval forces, Count Orlov refused the plan to blockade Constantinople. For the whole of the next 1771, the Turkish fleet practically did not take any active actions in the Aegean Sea.

For modern Russia, the memory of the Chesme battle is very important. First, this heroic page in our history once again prompts us to recall the courage and selfless devotion to our country of Russian sailors, soldiers, officers, generals and admirals of the time. Secondly, it demonstrates the superiority of the commander and naval talent of the Russian military leaders, who were able to brilliantly organize such a complex naval operation. Third, the Battle of Chesme symbolizes Russia's concern for the Christian peoples of the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean, which at that time were ruled by the Ottoman Empire. The whole XVIII and XIX centuries. The Russian Empire provided very serious assistance to the Balkan peoples, who were striving to free themselves from the power of the Ottoman Empire. Thanks to the help of Russia, the Greek, Bulgarian, Serbian, and Romanian peoples gained long-awaited political independence, the opportunity to freely practice their religion, preserve their national culture and national identity. And the Chesme battle in the struggle for the liberation of the Balkan peoples has a special role.

Unfortunately, far from all representatives of the political and intellectual elites of the Balkan Peninsula, Russia's contribution to the liberation of their countries from Ottoman domination was appreciated in due measure — the constant ideological and financial influence of Western European powers that competed with Russia for influence in the region affected. But participation in the fight against Ottoman domination still remains one of the brightest pages of the history of the Russian military and naval presence in the Mediterranean region.
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  1. nizhegorodec
    nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 07: 22
    +2
    Now it’s doubly disappointing that in the Balkans we have almost no allies, and those that still exist are moving away more and more. The legacy of communism .... when will we get rid of it?
    1. novel66
      novel66 7 July 2017 09: 08
      11
      But what does communism have to do with it? Did the Communists bomb and tear Yugoslavia, in fact, occupied Bulgaria and Greece? illogical!
      1. Diana Ilyina
        Diana Ilyina 7 July 2017 09: 48
        16
        Novel hi love , it’s not logical for you, but according to this individual, the “commies” are always to blame for everything ... laughing If you don’t know, then the Great Flood, the destruction of Rome by barbarians, the night of Vorfolome, the fire of Moscow, the night of long knives and other not good deeds of mankind, this is also the work of "sworn commies" and "bloody gebni" ... laughing laughing laughing

        And in the case, honor and glory to Russian weapons! Honor and glory to the Catherine’s chicks! It was under Catherine the Great that such stars as Orlov, Potemkin, Rumyantsev, Suvorov, Ushakov and many others flashed. It was really the golden age of Russia! Katya was able to select worthy people.
        1. novel66
          novel66 7 July 2017 09: 51
          +7
          Dianochka soldier love this is also the answer of the ancestors to modern whiners - you can beat the enemy (and you need!) and not in quantity
      2. nizhegorodec
        nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 10: 11
        0
        Quote: novel xnumx
        Did the Communists bomb and tear Yugoslavia, in fact, occupied Bulgaria and Greece?

        Why such primitive logic? The Slavic peoples of the Balkans and Europe loved Russia (well, except for the Poles), and after the occupation by the communist regime, to put it mildly, they are at a loss, which is what the United States uses with success
        1. Petrik66
          Petrik66 17 July 2017 15: 10
          0
          Yeah, and the Slavic peoples of Bulgaria have been at a loss since 1912 and fought against Russia, albeit indirectly, but on the side of Germany and Turkey in 1914 - 1918, and then on the side of Germany in 1940-1944. The Chetniks (Serbs) were so perplexed that in 1944 Soviet soldiers were cut with cold steel. https://fotki.yandex.ru/next/users/ucmopuockon/al
          bum / 456708 / view / 1101668
        2. Alex
          Alex 16 September 2017 13: 43
          +1
          As a result of this "occupation" in almost the same Bulgaria appeared: from industry to science, which they didn’t even mention when the Germans hosted it. I'm not talking about constant economic injections, often to the detriment of their country to the people.
    2. Siberian
      Siberian 7 July 2017 09: 48
      +9
      The legacy of communism .... when will we get rid of it?
      Easy - for starters, give up your apartment or your parent’s apartment, which you didn’t buy, but got it under the communists, or at least return its value to Zyuganov’s Communist Party (as a sign of hatred). This is the beginning. I will tell you later when you go through the first step.
      1. nizhegorodec
        nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 10: 14
        +1
        Quote: Siberian
        for starters, abandon your apartment

        Before you write, at least in the essence of the issue, understand. I have my own apartment, bought recently, with the funds that I earned. So I owe nothing to the commies. And if you are proud of your honeymoon, received as a swap from them, be proud further)))
        1. Siberian
          Siberian 7 July 2017 11: 05
          +5
          You read inattentively: or the parent ...
          1. nizhegorodec
            nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 12: 38
            0
            No need to spin like in a pan, where does the parental apartment? I do not use it
            1. Shadow of darkness
              Shadow of darkness 7 July 2017 14: 50
              +4
              Did you buy an education too? Having spat in the past, do not forget to open the umbrella so as not to get wet from the spits from the future!
              1. nizhegorodec
                nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 17: 02
                +1
                Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                Did you buy an education too?

                He paid the second higher with his earned ones; retraining courses took place under the so-called "liberal democrats," and I can give Comrade Comrade the first diploma. Sue, although military education under all modes is free. And here you are a finger in the sky, I shouldn’t commies anything
                1. Alex
                  Alex 16 September 2017 13: 45
                  +1
                  Quote: nizhegorodec
                  I shouldn’t commies anything

                  Besides the fact that you live in general. Or is the Ost plan a model of humanism?
              2. nizhegorodec
                nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 18: 13
                +1
                Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                Having spat in the past, do not forget to open the umbrella so as not to get wet from the spits from the future!

                Murziki, Diana and others spit in the past, until the year 17, so hiding from the waterfall at the time
                1. Shadow of darkness
                  Shadow of darkness 7 July 2017 22: 13
                  +3
                  Quote: nizhegorodec
                  Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                  Having spat in the past, do not forget to open the umbrella so as not to get wet from the spits from the future!

                  Murziki, Diana and others spit in the past, until the year 17, so hiding from the waterfall at the time

                  So you decided what is better than those "Murziks and Dianas" and just as well decided to continue their tradition of spitting in the past? And where is it here:
                  It's hard to say at all I personally became more moralbut this is not the merit of communism, life experience and the church.

                  While I see a man resentful of life, arrogantly boasting of his morality and manners of the small red-faced times of the political parties. Your hypocrisy is noticeable even with the naked eye. You use the emblem of communist Tajikistan as an avatar, but at the same time you consider communism guilty of all mortal sins. You talk about your morality, but at the same time you spit on the ideology of the state to which you swore allegiance as a military man. Do you even imagine that you violated the oath which was given not only to the people but also to the party and instead of modestly keeping silent about the simpletons of the communist system, so as not to attract your own, you decided to continue to show your "morality". And about the upbringing of morality: morality is instilled from childhood, and not brought up already by a mature person, neither the church nor experience helps there! If you weren’t given morality during the “commies,” when you walked under the table, then when you already started to spoil the girls, no one will teach you morality. It is easier for immoralities to live - the soul does not hurt for bad deeds.
                  Quote: nizhegorodec
                  Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                  Did you buy an education too?

                  He paid the second higher with his earned ones; retraining courses took place under the so-called "liberal democrats," and I can give Comrade Comrade the first diploma. Sue, although military education under all modes is free. And here you are a finger in the sky, I shouldn’t commies anything

                  And for some reason, the last sentence reminded Novodvorskaya (let neither firewood nor oil end in hell!), How soon do you get to her phrase “Russians must be killed”? Yes, and Zyu is not a full-fledged communist, he is more likely a grave digger of the very idea of ​​communism, which is why he was left even under EBN.
                  PS The monopoly of any ideology is just as harmful to society as its absence. The communists were ruined by their cosmopolitanism and constant sacrifice by their adherents. Monarchy, oddly enough, was ruined by the same thing. Apparently our fate is to protect the ungrateful orphans and the wretched, to give them the last shirt and try to make this world a better place, forgetting about ourselves.
                  1. nizhegorodec
                    nizhegorodec 8 July 2017 08: 02
                    0
                    yes, a lot of words ...
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    While I see a person offended by life
                    why did you suddenly decide that I am offended by life? Everything that I dreamed about from childhood happened, even what I did not dream of happened (in the USSR we did not even dream about it)
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    You use the emblem of communist Tajikistan as an avatar, but at the same time you consider communism guilty of all mortal sins.

                    I use the coat of arms not as a communist symbol, but for a different reason (as I already explained why), so your connection is inappropriate. You are wrong again about mortal sins, the communist path was a big mistake of our country, and a lot of our compatriots died and as a result a whole country collapsed (empire, power, whatever you like). Personally, I believe (and far from alone) that Russia would go the other way, everything would be much better for my people.
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    You talk about your morality, but at the same time you spit on the ideology of the state to which you swore allegiance as a military man. Do you even imagine that you violated the oath which was given not only to the people but also to the party and instead of modestly keeping silent about the misconduct of the communist system
                    again your lie
                    I swear to conscientiously study military affairs, to protect military and national property in every possible way and to be loyal to my People, my Soviet Homeland and the Soviet Government until the last breath.
                    about the communists there is not a word, but what
                    Soviet government
                    the CPSU turned out to be crushed, so these are the costs of the totalitarian system, if we had a multi-party system, the Communists would hardly have held out for long. (The 91st year proved it). I didn’t break my oath smile
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    And about the upbringing of morality: morality is instilled from childhood, and not brought up already by a mature person, neither the church nor experience helps there!
                    here you are only partly right, what was laid down in me is all thanks to my parents, but it developed throughout life (or then the idea of ​​the Communists collapses about the spiritual degeneration of a person (reforging) and the birth of a new community of people) which of you is wrong - you or the Communists decide for yourself.
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    instead of modestly keeping silent about the misconduct of the communist system,
                    that is, you acknowledge the misconduct of the CPSU? It means that not everything is lost for you))) The charter of the CPSU had such a principle of democratic centralism, which means: "... a) the election of all the leading bodies of the party from top to bottom; b) the periodic reporting of party organs to their party organizations and to higher bodies; c) strict party discipline and submission of the minority to the majority; d) unconditional binding decisions of higher bodies for lower ones ”Clause b) provides for accountability of bodies to organizations, which implies criticism from below, however, using clauses d) and c) it was practically ruined, which turned the party meeting into a nod of“ Chinese boobs ”of the speaker head behind the podium and, ultimately, to the stagnation and decay of the CPSU.
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    It is easier for immoralities to live - the soul does not hurt for bad deeds.

                    here you are right, these immoral members of the CPSU contributed to what I wrote in the previous sentence, and since there were an overwhelming majority of them, this happened quite quickly.
                    Well, in conclusion:
                    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
                    The monopoly of any ideology is just as harmful to society as its absence. The communists were ruined by their cosmopolitanism and constant sacrifice by their adherents. Monarchy, oddly enough, was ruined by the same thing.
                    what are you talking about? I’m just criticizing the Communists for this, hence all their mistakes (Monarchism, in the form in which it was, I also don’t welcome), that is, in the end, there should not be totalitarianism, but what remains? Democracy, liberalism, anarchy? But this is not for our mentality.
                    1. Shadow of darkness
                      Shadow of darkness 14 July 2017 20: 42
                      0
                      It is necessary to criticize everyone and the Communists, too, but criticism must also have an understanding of that time and recognition of their achievements. Now, if Hitler attacked us, we would have purged the war, for some reason we now have not only ideology, but also an understanding of our place in the future. We are similar to the Greeks now - we can do little, we can imagine little, but there is still something to remember, and if we also begin to arrogantly spit on our past, our fate, as a great people in the past, will become unenviable. We will simply dissolve, and in a hundred years, the Russian Plain will be divided into a bunch of small sub-states, with a population of poorly speaking Russian. About the rest of the territory, it’s not even worth talking about. hi
  2. Fast_mutant
    Fast_mutant 7 July 2017 07: 58
    +3
    Every hundred years they were released from someone's yoke. And later they again, with pleasure, lie under the others. Slaves do not need freedom. © A slave who does not fight for his liberation deserves the fate of a slave!
    But our fame does not fade over the centuries!
  3. Sergey-svs
    Sergey-svs 7 July 2017 08: 00
    +2
    [/ Quote]
    After that, firewalls entered the bay, but two of them were disabled by the Ottoman fire. [Quote]

    As far as I remember from the history course, of the four firewalls prepared for the attack, only three were able to enter the bay. One of them left the team too early and therefore it was blown by the stream, but the remaining two reached the Turkish fleet! yes And Count Orlov was always considered only a nominal fleet commander, they actually commanded and developed a battle plan for Elphinston, Spiridonov and Greig.
    1. Sergey-svs
      Sergey-svs 7 July 2017 13: 53
      +1
      At 17:00, the bombardment ship “Thunder” started shelling Turkish positions, rising right in front of the bay entrance. At 0:30, the battleship "Europe" joined the shelling, a little later - the battleship "Rostislav".


      Again, complete nonsense is written! request The bombing ship Thunder and Africa crushed one of the two coastal batteries! And in the bombing of the Turkish fleet participated the ships “Do not touch me”, “Europe” and “Rostislav”, under the command of S. Greig!

      The author, and the concept of "battleship" appeared only in the 20th century! And Rostislav (68 guns) is just a battleship, the flagship of the fleet in Arkhangelsk. yes
      1. Shadow of darkness
        Shadow of darkness 7 July 2017 15: 18
        +2
        The author, and the concept of "battleship" appeared only in the 20th century!

        But nothing that the word "battleship" is formed of two words: "linear" and "ship"? wink
        1. Sergey-svs
          Sergey-svs 7 July 2017 17: 28
          +1
          It is not correct to apply the word “battleship” to wooden sailing ships of the eighteenth century! yes This is the same as to call the pointed helmet of a Russian combatant of the XNUMXth century an iron budenovka! laughing
          1. Shadow of darkness
            Shadow of darkness 7 July 2017 22: 33
            0
            It is not correct to compare round with soft. The name "ships of the line" appeared back in the days of wooden sailing ships, and their steel descendants migrated based on their intended combat mission.
            Line ship (English ship-of-the-line, French navire de ligne) - a class of sailing warships. Sailing battleships were characterized by the following features: total displacement from 500 to 5500 tons, armament, including from 30 [1] -50 to 135 guns in airborne ports (in 2-4 decks), the crew ranged from 300 to 800 people with full staffing . Sailing ships of the line were built and used from the 1860th century until the early XNUMXs for naval battles using linear tactics.
            In 1907, linear ships (abbreviated as battleships) named a new class of armored artillery ships with a displacement of 20 thousand to 64 thousand tons. Sailing ships of the line were not called battleships

            That is, since 1907, sailing ships were no longer called so, but at the time of the Chesmensky battle they were called so: battleships, abbreviated battleships.
            1. Sergey-svs
              Sergey-svs 8 July 2017 00: 35
              0
              But it does not seem that I wrote about the same thing:
              The author, and the concept of "battleship" appeared only in the 20th century! And Rostislav (68 guns) is just a battleship, the flagship of the fleet in Arkhangelsk.

              If you tell your friends about the Chesme battle under beer, it’s perfectly acceptable to call Rostislav a battleship, and if you print a historical article, Rostislav can only be called a battleship! yes
            2. Alex
              Alex 16 September 2017 13: 55
              +1
              Quote: Shadow of Darkness
              That is, from the 1907 of the year, sailing ships were no longer called so

              In 1907, not sailing ships, which by that time were already in sight at all, but armadillos, were re-qualified as battleships.

              At the time being described, abbreviations were rarely used in the Russian language, this is the property of later times, when more complex mechanisms appeared and more complex definitions were required (steamboat, telegraph, steam locomotive). The language has become more informative, rich and, as a result, more concise.
          2. Freeman
            Freeman 7 July 2017 22: 46
            0
            Quote: Sergey-svs
            It is not correct to apply the word “battleship” to wooden sailing ships of the eighteenth century!
            ... and the concept of "battleship" appeared only in the 20th century!

            You seem to have confused the concepts of battleship and dreadnought.
            Quote: Sergey-svs
            This is the same as to call the pointed helmet of a Russian combatant of the XNUMXth century an iron budenovka! laughing

            The initial version of the headdress, which later became known as Budenovka, developed for the tsar’s army, was called the “hero”. The design was based on the helmet uniforms of Russian combatants. hi
            1. Sergey-svs
              Sergey-svs 8 July 2017 01: 21
              0
              Well, what did I write incorrectly? smile Or do you think that the same design still gives the right to call the pointed helmet of a Russian combatant of the XNUMXth century a Budenovka ?!
              1. Freeman
                Freeman 8 July 2017 12: 48
                0
                Quote: Sergey-svs
                Well, what did I write incorrectly? smile Or do you think that the same design still gives the right to call the pointed helmet of a Russian combatant of the XNUMXth century a Budenovka ?!

                So after all, no one called.
  4. Mantykora
    Mantykora 7 July 2017 08: 32
    +8
    Quote: nizhegorodec
    Now it’s doubly disappointing that in the Balkans we have almost no allies, and those that still exist are moving away more and more. The legacy of communism .... when will we get rid of it?

    What is wrong with the “legacy of communism”? All post-Soviet republics live / lived on this inheritance ... The nuclear weapons protecting Russia from the great war are also made by commies. Not the bad heritage, but the heirs so-so ... They stopped developing the ideology of communism after the death of Stalin - and now they are persecuting the whole ideology. I read somewhere - it’s well said: communism is not a goal, not a freebie (as was stated under Khrushchev — communism by the 1980 year), but a process, a process of moral and moral improvement of a person. Yes, this process is eternal, as well as the achievement of an ideal, but not useless. Were not Soviet people generally more moral than us today? And can it be argued that communism is bad if the process of moral improvement of a person lasted less than 70 years, what is 70 years in the framework of history? Yes, almost nothing ... but the USSR has achieved more than a multi-century empire.
    1. nizhegorodec
      nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 10: 20
      +2
      Quote: Mantykora
      Yes, this process is eternal, as well as the achievement of an ideal, but not useless.

      It's like a donkey for a carrot, forever and not useless (for someone who holds a carrot)
      Quote: Mantykora
      Were not Soviet people generally more moral than us today?

      It’s hard to say at all, I personally have become more moral, but this is not the merit of communism, life experience and the church. And how life brought us up then (not school), morality was so far away.
      1. Diana Ilyina
        Diana Ilyina 7 July 2017 11: 59
        12
        nizhegorodec Today, 10:20 ↑
        It’s hard to say at all, I personally have become more moral,
        Do not flatter yourself, you and morality are not compatible concepts. negative
        but this is not the merit of communism, life experience and the church.
        About morality in the Russian Orthodox Church, this is generally a song ... laughing laughing laughing Whatever pop is an example of "morality." The larger and heavier the cross on the belly, the more moral. And the Russian Orthodox Church is very fond of measuring morality for hours, yachts, expensive cars and other attributes of today's "morality" lol wassat tongue ...
        And how life brought us then
        Then, when is this? What did they say to you at school, but was told the opposite to you outside the school? You have a break in the pattern, or rather a break in the brain. Although what am I talking about, what kind of brain is there ...?! fool
        1. nizhegorodec
          nizhegorodec 7 July 2017 12: 44
          +1
          Quote: Diana Ilyina
          or rather a brain rupture. Although what am I talking about, what kind of brain is there ...?!

          Here is an example of morality))))
          It inspired life, and not just me, otherwise where is it, the new formation of Soviet man? In the 90s, it all surfaced that brought up. And now it’s saying the same thing about the brain, although nothing has been done for this state itself. Faded ...
          1. Mantykora
            Mantykora 7 July 2017 22: 35
            +1
            Quote: nizhegorodec
            It inspired life, and not just me, otherwise where is it, the new formation of Soviet man? In 90's, it all surfaced that brought up.

            In the 90, what UNDER REVEALED after the death of Stalin surfaced. On the contrary, the safety margin of education for 30 years (20-50 years) was enough for the following 40 (50-90е)
            1. nizhegorodec
              nizhegorodec 8 July 2017 07: 05
              0
              Quote: Mantykora
              after the death of Stalin.

              after the death of Stalin were no longer commies? Judging by the slogans, all the same Leninist ideals promoted.
  5. Altona
    Altona 7 July 2017 10: 00
    +1
    Quote: Fast_mutant
    A slave who does not fight for his liberation deserves the fate of a slave!

    ----------------------------------------
    You said that correctly. We have a lot of people on the planet with slavish philistine psychology, that you don’t have to resist, you have to adapt. And when they are already beginning to be slaughtered like cattle, they squeak "Russia help!"
  6. Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 7 July 2017 12: 14
    0
    The Chesme battle (including the battle in the Strait of Chios) has not been studied as well as it seems. His description is most often superficial and is based on the magazine of Samuel Greig. Only recently Turkish sources began to be taken into account.
    The Turkish fleet, for example, consisted of only 10 battleships: two three-deck ships (the 84-gun Burc-u Zafer, the flag of Jazairli Ghazi Hasan Pasha, and the 96-gun Hısn-i Bahri, the flag of Ali Bey), as well as 8 two-deck ships. (66-guns “Ziver-i Bahri”, flag of Jafer Bey, and “Sebk-i Bahri”, 60-guns “Peleng-i Bahri” and “Mukaddeme-i Şeref”, 54-guns “Semend-i Bahri”, “Mesken-i Gazi” and “Tılsım-i Bahri”, 52-gun “Ukab-ı Bahri”) + 6 or 8 armed merchant ships with 36 to 44 light guns (our sailors mistook them for frigates and “caravels” ) and 11 galleys.
    It should be noted that the captured "Rhodes" from the Turks was listed as a large frigate, up to 50 guns, in our rank of battleships of the 2nd rank, up to 58 guns.
    The Turks themselves critically assess the state of their fleet: a significant shortage of crews, low naval practice, and a large number of lightly armed ships for "quantity." Actually, therefore, a passive defensive position + a bet on boarding.
    One of the main intrigues is the fight between Eustache and Burg-i Zafer (which we call Real Mustafa). There are serious discrepancies in who won the boarding battle after all. Yes, and whether it was deliberate.
    1. Shadow of darkness
      Shadow of darkness 7 July 2017 15: 39
      +1
      If we study our history from Western sources, then we have not left much of the inhabitants of Africa in civilization, but neither the Bolshoi, nor Tolstoy, nor space exploration fit in with these sources! Everyone always turns history as it is beneficial to the political elite. If you delve a little at different sources, you can find those where this battle did not happen at all, there was just an ordinary “arrow” between two fishing longboats for the fish market. lol
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 7 July 2017 15: 56
        +2
        To cover and understand any major historical event, an analysis of all available sources, on both sides, is necessary. I am interested in specific events, rather than emotional generalizations of "cosmic scale and cosmic stupidity."
        In relation to Chesme, there is a corps of Russian sources - magazines, reports, memoirs, financial and economic documentation (yes, sailors are paid a salary, ships are being repaired, food is being purchased). There is exactly such a case from the Turkish side. Ignoring him is a sign of ordinary ignorance. In addition, the Turks recently conducted a complex of underwater archaeological research on the battlefield. It is interesting.
        Based on the above materials, historical works are written. Unfortunately, according to Chesme, in Russia the last 200 years have been diligently rewriting several primary domestic sources without critical analysis. Meanwhile, people can make mistakes, forget and embellish.
        R.S. if you have anything to say about Chesma - write. If about the "damned west", the Bolshoi Theater and Fomenkovism - fire.
        1. Shadow of darkness
          Shadow of darkness 7 July 2017 16: 30
          0
          Meanwhile, people can forget and embellish.

          That is exactly what I mean. They embellished us a little (and maybe a lot), belittled them a bit and eventually got “300 athletes versus 100000 army. Even a detailed study of all the sources may not guarantee the conclusions are correct, therefore we basically have to take history for granted. drinks
          If about the "damned west", the Bolshoi Theater and Fomenkovism - fire.

          I didn’t call the West that way, these are not my words, even according to my observations, they are also much to lie! hi
    2. Alex
      Alex 16 September 2017 14: 05
      +1
      Quote: Ryazanets87
      The Turks themselves critically assess the state of their fleet: a significant shortage of crews, low naval practice, and a large number of lightly armed ships for "quantity."

      It is strange that nothing about frost, dirt, field mice ... What else do the battered military leaders have left to justify their own stupidity?
      There are serious discrepancies in who nevertheless won the boarding battle.
      What difference does it make if both ships take off? That's just for us it did not become a factor in defeat, but for the Turks - just the opposite.
      Quote: Ryazanets87
      Yes, and whether it was intentional.
      Does that also matter? Or should everything go according to plan? The Germans also thought so ...
  7. nivander
    nivander 7 July 2017 13: 34
    +1
    from the report ".. everything that was found in Chesmenskaya Bay we burned and broke. The heat from the burning ships was such that the water boiled and the Turks boiled in it like fish in a taganka. It was unbearable to hear their cries"
    1. reservist
      reservist 10 July 2017 13: 17
      0
      Monument to the Turks who died in the Chesme battle.
  8. KLV
    KLV 7 July 2017 21: 17
    +1
    Several years ago I was in Cesme for three days, I lived in a hotel, right on the shore of the bay, about 30 meters from the water. And walking along the embankment of the bay was also very interesting, imagining that it was almost 250 years ago ... So, this bay is actually so small that it is not surprising that the battle was more like beating the Turks. The accumulation of Turkish ships in a small area did not allow them to maneuver, which predetermined their defeat.
  9. fantomran
    fantomran 8 July 2017 01: 40
    0
    Yes there were people !!!
  10. Olaf Uksimae
    Olaf Uksimae 9 July 2017 07: 55
    0
    Quote: Shadow of Darkness
    Quote: nizhegorodec
    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
    Having spat in the past, do not forget to open the umbrella so as not to get wet from the spits from the future!

    Murziki, Diana and others spit in the past, until the year 17, so hiding from the waterfall at the time

    So you decided what is better than those "Murziks and Dianas" and just as well decided to continue their tradition of spitting in the past? And where is it here:
    It's hard to say at all I personally became more moralbut this is not the merit of communism, life experience and the church.

    While I see a man resentful of life, arrogantly boasting of his morality and manners of the small red-faced times of the political parties. Your hypocrisy is noticeable even with the naked eye. You use the emblem of communist Tajikistan as an avatar, but at the same time you consider communism guilty of all mortal sins. You talk about your morality, but at the same time you spit on the ideology of the state to which you swore allegiance as a military man. Do you even imagine that you violated the oath which was given not only to the people but also to the party and instead of modestly keeping silent about the simpletons of the communist system, so as not to attract your own, you decided to continue to show your "morality". And about the upbringing of morality: morality is instilled from childhood, and not brought up already by a mature person, neither the church nor experience helps there! If you weren’t given morality during the “commies,” when you walked under the table, then when you already started to spoil the girls, no one will teach you morality. It is easier for immoralities to live - the soul does not hurt for bad deeds.
    Quote: nizhegorodec
    Quote: Shadow of the Dark
    Did you buy an education too?

    He paid the second higher with his earned ones; retraining courses took place under the so-called "liberal democrats," and I can give Comrade Comrade the first diploma. Sue, although military education under all modes is free. And here you are a finger in the sky, I shouldn’t commies anything

    And for some reason, the last sentence reminded Novodvorskaya (let neither firewood nor oil end in hell!), How soon do you get to her phrase “Russians must be killed”? Yes, and Zyu is not a full-fledged communist, he is more likely a grave digger of the very idea of ​​communism, which is why he was left even under EBN.
    PS The monopoly of any ideology is just as harmful to society as its absence. The communists were ruined by their cosmopolitanism and constant sacrifice by their adherents. Monarchy, oddly enough, was ruined by the same thing. Apparently our fate is to protect the ungrateful orphans and the wretched, to give them the last shirt and try to make this world a better place, forgetting about ourselves.

    Well said, thank you, we are standing on that, but they themselves mentioned all the dew of God, well, or God forbid a biting cock.