Military Review

Dardanelles and Gallipoli. Riddle of the resistance of the Turkish soldier. Part of 2

8) In May 1915, the Allied fleet was waiting for new major losses. On the night of May 13, at 1 hours and 17 minutes in the Morto Bay, the Turkish destroyer Muavenet-i-Millet hit the Goliath battleship with a 3-torpedo salvo: there was an explosion in the cellars and the Goliath sank immediately. Of the 750 crew, 180 were saved. The consequences immediately came: fearing for his fate, the British Admiralty recalled the operation veteran and the most powerful ship to only the Dardanelles squadron, but also all English fleet “Queen Elizabeth.” The departure of the dreadnought - a symbol of the expedition, caused despondency in the ranks of the allies. On May 25, at Gaba-Tepe, a German U-21 submarine destroyed the British battleship Triemph (73 sailors died). On May 27, the same submarine sank the battleship Majestic at Cape Helles, 7 ​​sailors died.

From the shore, the Turkish soldiers saw and enthusiastically welcomed the death of the enemy’s heavy heavy ships, daily, who beat them up: this raised the morale of the fighters of the Liman von Sanders army. We saw the death of their battleships and thousands of Allied soldiers. Thus, for the month, the Allied fleet lost 3 large combat units.

Il 8. British battleship "Triamf", sunk 25 in May 1915 U-21

9) The operation is indicative of the active actions of the destroyers and submarines. So, the destroyer “Timur Hissar” of 1 on March at Smyrna attacked and inflicted damage to the British air transport “Ann Rickmers”, and on April 16 of the same destroyer attacked the British transport “Manitou” from Syros. The Turkish torpedo passed by, but during the descent of the boats because of the panic that had risen on the transport, 51 drowned. German submarines were rampant. For example, 4 July U-21 sank the French transport Carthage (5600 tons by displacement), August 13 UB-14 sank the British transport King Edward (11117 tons) from the 1366 soldiers and officers he carried killed 866. On September 2, the same submarine attacked the Saussland transport (although it did not sink, 40 people died). On August 19, the English ship Arabik was sunk, and on September 8 Indian military transport Ramazan (3477 tons), on which 306 people died. 13 Germanic submarines operating in the Aegean Sea, only for the period from September 28 to the end of October 1915 drowned 23 vehicles with troops, weapons and equipment.

Operated and allied submarines.
17 April E-15 ran aground, being under the guns of Fort Dardanos, which immediately opened fire on it. The commander tried to lift the submarine, but to no avail. Almost immediately he was killed, and soon the boat was damaged. A total of 7 crewmembers died and the rest were captured.

On April 29, the E-14 floated Turkish transport to the bottom, and on May 1 the gunboat Nur-ul-Bahir (36 dead). AE-2 was killed on April 30 after a fierce artillery battle was sunk by the destroyer Sultan Hissar. 1-th May French submarine "Jules", having blown up on a mine, was killed with the whole crew. The 10 of May E-14, which was near Constantinople, was hit by a torpedo by Turkish transport “Gul Jemal” (rushed ashore). Vehicles carried a field battery and 6 thous. Soldiers.

Of all the British submarines, the E-11 achieved the most success, sinking several small ships first, and on May X, the torpedo gunboat Pelengi-Derya at the Bosporus. On May 23, E-24 destroyed the Nagara 11-ton steamer (carrying the 300-mm cannon and 150 shells to it were killed) and transport, and the next day the German steamer Istanbul sank to the torpedo (the incident caused panic) resonance). On May 600, the submarine launched the ship Panderma to the bottom (it killed up to 28 people and 250 thousand shells), and June 7 transported from Nagara. On August 7, a submarine torpedoed the gunboat “Payk-e-Shevket” (she was able to return to the base). At dawn 6 August, E-8 attacked the Hayreddin Barbarossa battleship. Dodrednaught rolled over and sank, 11 people died. E-580 also seriously damaged Turkish transport, forcing the latter to run ashore.

On June 29, a French boat, the Marriott, hit the net and was taken prisoner with the crew. 30 June E-7 destroyed the steamer and 2 sailboat, and another 3 sailboat rushed to the shore. The same boat 4 July sank the 2 sailboat, and 10 July - 3000-ton ship. But on September 4, the E-7 got entangled in the Turkish anti-submarine networks, and the submariners were captured. The E-2 drowns the 14 of August by the minelayer Samsun. On October 30, the French submarine Turkuaz, operating in the Sea of ​​Marmara, ran aground and was captured by the Turks. The data on the rendezvous with the British submarine E-20 was found on it. As a result, the UB-14 submarine attacked the E-20 and sank the "British" with the entire crew (except for the commander and 8-mi sailors). The submarine E-11 during November-December 1915 increased its combat scores for the destroyer (the Yar Hissar sunk by December 3 - killed 8 Germans and 28 Turks from the crew), 35 sailboats and 11 steamers. In a number of cases, English submarines used their deck artillery against coastal targets — this had a moral effect. Thus, the boats E-7 and E-12, operating at Constantinople, fired at the mills and moving trains. The E-7 bombarded the gunpowder factory in Zeytun, while the E-11 on December 5 sank the German 5000-ton steamer Bosporus with artillery fire.

The losses of the Allied submarines for eleven months of the Dardanelles-Gallipoli operation - battleship, destroyer, 2 gunboats, 25 steamers, 11 transports and over 100 sailboats. The result is sensitive for the German-Turkish, but not decisive.

Il 9. British submarine E-15, captured in April 1915.

10) During the August battles of 1915, the Australian and New Zealand units again distinguished themselves. Fierce fights, often turning into hand-to-hand fighting, led to great losses (for example, the 1-I Australian brigade from 2900 fighters lost 1700, and the 3-I light-weight brigade lost 600 people (that is, half of the personnel) in the first 15 minutes of combat). During the battle for Lonepine, the Australians have earned 7 Victoria Crosses. On the night of 9 August the Turks lost the Chunuk-Bair plateau: in this battle, the New Zealanders and the Gurkha shooters distinguished themselves. On this day the Turkish counter attacks began in the morning. The British units, under the repeated attacks of the Turks, fell back. Gradually, the British lost the ridges of heights and hollows. By evening, they were driven back to the foot of Sari-Bair - in fact, in the starting position. Only the extreme fatigue of the advancing Turks and the British artillery fire delayed the further development of the Turkish offensive. In the morning of August 10, the British tried to launch an offensive, but this attack was repelled by the Turks. The Anzac fighters approached the Anafarta mountain, which dominates the Turkish positions - the key of the operation, but could not master it, despite the support of more 100 guns. L. von Sanders believed that the loss of this key position meant the fall of Constantinople. But the intense bloody battles bloody ANZAC - only the battles in the 6 period - on August 10 cost allies to the 20000 people, and some units were left without officers. Turkish troops also suffered heavy losses: only 10 of August - 5000 people.

Il 10. ANZAC infantrymen in a captured Turkish trench.

11) During the operation, the Russian cruiser “Askold” was active, entering the 6 squadron of the Allied fleet, commanded by the French rear admiral Heprat. On April 25, the 1915 cruisers' boats actively participated in the landing at Kum-Kale, while the ship itself supported the landing with fire. For the 25 on April, the cruiser used up 748 152-mm and 1503 75-mm shells. Accuracy of the fire of the Russian cruiser caused the admiration and surprise of the allies. The 26 of April resulted in the fire of the “Askold” and the auxiliary cruiser “Savoy” that interacted with him and the capture of an enemy soldier before the 500. "Askold" operated by the Dardanelles until the end of April, losing 4 people killed and 9 wounded. In May, "Askold" acted sporadically in the Dardanelles - during this period the commander of the German U-21 submarine, who noticed "Askold", reported about him - but he preferred more tasty prey to light cruisers: the targets, the battleships Triumph and Madzhestik.

Il 11. Askold "in the Allied squadron in the Dardanelles, April-May 1915.

12) The Dardanelles-Gallipoli operation is one of the most bloody (total losses of the troops of the parties are up to 50% of the number of troops that went through this operation) and at the same time unsuccessful combat operations of the world war.

A total of up to a million people passed through the Dardanelles-Gallipoli front, and more than half of them died, went missing, were injured or fell ill. Total losses on land: Turkish troops - 250000, Entente troops - more than 266000 people. Although the Turkish casualties (87000) are almost twice as high as the corresponding losses of the Allies (46400 - 36400 British (including 1700 Indians and 9700 Australians and New Zealanders) and 10000 French), but the latter have a higher percentage of wounded and (especially) sick - which illustrates both the level of command and the degree of his concern for his troops, and the specifics of the hostilities of the badly supplied troops on the unaccustomed terrain (wounded and sick - 163000 Turks, 173300 British and 46500 French). In the naval sphere, primarily due to the death of large surface ships, the losses of the Allies significantly exceeded the Turkish ones. The Turks lost a battleship, a squadron destroyer, a destroyer, two gunboats and a minelayer - all of them killed the 652 sailor. The British and French lost 6 battleships, destroyer, 7 submarines, small ships and ships - and 1540 sailors.

Il 12. General Bridge, killed by a Turkish sniper 15 in May 1915

13) The operation was of great military and political importance.
The evacuation of the Anglo-French troops from Gallipoli was received in Constantinople and Berlin with great triumph, and festive events were held in the capital of Turkey. Lyman von Sanders received the honorary nickname "Hindenburg of the East", became a full general (cavalry general). Sultan Mehmed V called his name “Gazi” (that is, “Invincible”), and his war minister, Enver Pasha, was given the nickname “Napoleon”. Russia remained isolated from the Allies, which had very adverse consequences for it.

Il 13. Estuary von Sanders in Turkish uniform.

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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 July 2017 06: 55
    Provap of the English and French fleets is especially impressive amid the brilliant actions of the Russian Black Sea Fleet ..

    It is interesting that England officially participated in ..... the 100th anniversary of the triumph of the Turks in this operation lol
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 14 July 2017 07: 06
      What, the Black Sea Fleet drowned armadillos and battleships? not a single major operation, what brilliant action?
      1. DimanC
        DimanC 14 July 2017 07: 25
        In fact, it negated the activity of the Turkish fleet in the Black Sea, while ensuring the actions of its troops
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 14 July 2017 07: 44
          those. about the landing of half a million landings at distant lands is out of the question? Mouse fuss, yes, was brilliant - but these are accomplishments and not even boldness. Nothing to talk about
          1. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 14 July 2017 10: 23
            Quote: Tlauicol
            What, the Black Sea Fleet drowned armadillos and battleships? not a single major operation, what brilliant action?

            Quote: Tlauicol
            those. about the landing of half a million landings at distant lands is out of the question? Mouse fuss, yes, was brilliant - but these are accomplishments and not even boldness. Nothing to talk about

            Of course, I apologize for the harshness, but either a troll or a person who does not know the history of WWI can say so.
            1. The Black Sea Fleet did not drown battleships and battleships simply because the newest German geben twice received Lyuley from the old Russian battleships no longer had any fate, and then it exploded on our mines near the Bosphorus and stood for a long time, and Turkey did not use its battleships against the Black Sea Fleet - it knew that will die immediately.
            2. The complete blockade of the Black Sea coast of Turkey and the cessation of coal supplies to Istanbul with the destruction of almost all of Turkish transport.
            3. The amphibious assault forces of the Caucasian army are a complete success, unlike the "sea nation", plus the construction of special ships "Elpidiforov" which no fleet of the world had at that time - especially to capture Istanbul. And not captured thanks to the then liberals
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 14 July 2017 10: 38
              another description of mouse fuss in colors? At that time, for example, how did British submarines operate in the Sea of ​​Marmara (anyway, the Black Sea Fleet submariners would sink German ships somewhere in the Gulf of Guinea) and in the Baltic? Do you think every hit from the Civil Code and dream of the Bosphorus? What achievements are we talking about?
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 July 2017 07: 32
        Quote: Tlauicol
        none major operationwhat brilliant actions

        Learn the history of your country!
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 14 July 2017 08: 34
          Quote: Olgovich Provap of the English and French fleets is especially impressive amid the brilliant actions of the Russian Black Sea Fleet ..

          Learn the history of your country!

          The balance of forces: the Russian Black Sea Fleet and the German-Turkish Fleet:
          The Black Sea Fleet included: 6 battleships of the old type (the so-called armadillos, or pre-dreadnought ships) - the flagship of the fleet, Eustace, John Chrysostom (1904-1911 built), Panteleimon (formerly notorious Prince Potemkin - Tauride, 1898-1905 years of construction), “Rostislav” (1894-1900 years of construction), “Three Saints” (built in 1891-1895 years), “Sinop” (1883-1889 years of construction); 2 destroyers of the Bogatyr type, 17 destroyers, 12 destroyers, 4 submarines. The main base was Sevastopol, the fleet had its own shipyards in Sevastopol and Nikolaev. More 4 powerful linear ships of a modern type were built (dreadnoughts): “Empress Maria” (1911-July 1915), “Empress Catherine the Great” (1911-October 1915), “Emperor Alexander III” (1911-June 1917 .), "Emperor Nicholas I" (since 1914, incomplete due to a sharp deterioration in the political, financial and economic situation after the February revolution of 1917). Also during the war, the Black Sea Fleet received - 9 destroyers, 2 air transport (prototypes of aircraft carriers), 10 submarines.
          German-Turkish fleet: 2 armored cruiser Medzhidie (built in the USA 1903) and Hamidie (England 1904), 2 squadron battleship “Torgut Reis” and “Hayreddin Barbarossa” (armadillos of the Brandenburg type, bought in Germany in 1910), 4 of destroyer-built squadrons in France (1907 of the Durendal type), 4 of a German destroyer (purchased in Germany in 1910, of the type "S 165"). A distinctive feature of the Turkish naval forces was the almost complete absence of combat training.
          Only the arrival from the Mediterranean on 10 on August 1914 of the year two of the newest German cruisers: the heavy Gebena (called the Sultan Selim) and the lightweight Breslau (Midilly), they joined the Turkish fleet along with the crews, allowed Turkey to lead fighting in the Black Sea basin.
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 14 July 2017 08: 47
            In September of the 1915, when the 2 of the new Dreadnought-type battleships entered the Black Sea Fleet, 3 brigades of ships were created, each superior in strength to the Goeben. 1-th structure: dreadnought "Empress Maria" and the cruiser "Cahul". 2-I in the composition: dreadnought "Empress Catherine the Great" and the cruiser "Memory of Mercury". 3-I in the composition: armadillos "Eustache", "John Chrysostom" and "Panteleimon". The battleships Three Saints and Rostislav made up a combat ready reserve. Organizational dreadnoughts "Empress Maria", "Empress Catherine the Great" and cruisers of the type "Cahul" were reduced to the 1th brigade of the fleet, and battleships "Eustache", "John Chrysostom" and "Panteleimon" - to the 2th brigade link fleet.
        2. tlauicol
          tlauicol 14 July 2017 08: 37
          well, teach a lesson: tell about brilliant actions and teach capture of the Straits
      3. 89067359490
        89067359490 18 July 2017 01: 29
        I didn’t drown, but the Germans only fled from the Black Sea Fleet.

        “Meanwhile, it was 10 in the morning, here the observation posts right in the north notice something that could roughly correspond to a sailboat. The geben immediately turns in that direction. The next moment there is general amazement. As soon as we made a U-turn, here in the distant Something ominously flashes ominously in an undecided subject, without smoke. Brilliant, sparkling sun glares dancing on the water hinder visibility a little. The horizon line, a clear, clear line, seems skewed, the distance is foggy. A moment after a strange flash above the water thunder rumbles. Damn it! He shoots, what's the matter?
        The bells of a loud battle over the Gebena deck sound sharply. All run to their combat posts. Then everyone at the post expects further developments. Meanwhile, after the outbreak, 20, 30, 40 seconds, 50, 60 seconds pass - here, at once, at a distance of about 500 meters from the Goeben, something strikes with colossal force into the water! Powerful fountains rise instantly, as if raised by a mysterious hand, and then fall again.
        Here’s the answer! There’s a warship! In the sparkling sunlight it seemed like a sailboat. Now everything is clear! It flared up again - and now the newest battleship, the superdreadnought “Empress Maria” is clearly visible! Damn! About 24 km separate us from this colossus, and he is already shooting! Completely unarmed, we are standing in front of the most modern ship of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.
        An evil surprise for us! We did not suppose that the monster was already ready and was scurrying along the Black Sea. Of course, we should have counted on this, but so far the “Empress Maria” has not shown up. Now that the battleship is ready, we are now hopelessly abandoned to its long-range guns. The situation is becoming increasingly threatening. Empress Maria shoots damn fast. The second volley of a giant ship falls with a noise at a distance of 200 meters from us.
        Will we get out of the zone of fire in time before the heavy shells reach us? This is the only question that worries us. At such a gigantic distance, we and our guns are helpless. It flares up again! We are looking intensely at the distant silhouette of a Russian battleship.
        Again, tense seconds pass, they stretch like a clock. Now, blows must follow! And here they are! Very close, not reaching even 50 meters from us, heavy "suitcases" hit the water. Now get out of the reach of his fire! Not very good maneuverable qualities of "Goeben" nevertheless occur this time, by the way. With fast running, zigzags, we are retreating.
        Full of excitement, everyone on the bridge looks at the formidable colossus, from whose pipes thick clouds of smoke are now bursting out. He seems to want to attack us! In full swing he is following us. The situation is really quite threatening. We know that the superdreadnought has a speed of 25 knots, so that he can catch up with us. Of course, the Russians are also gaining momentum and following us at maximum speed. Through the binoculars, the powerful nasal waves that the colossus pushes apart are clearly visible. What now?
        True, the Goeben could, thanks to its speed, venture into a surprise attack in order to approach a dangerous enemy at a distance of a shot. We want to maintain captured dominance in the Black Sea. But to fulfill our plan, we need a bomber aircraft, which we now call from the Bosphorus by radio. Aircraft over a warship always mean alarm. While the “Empress Maria” will have to think about her defense, we will be able to fall on the enemy and come to a distance sufficient to open fire. That is our plan. At first, since we are alone, there is nothing left to do but stay at a safe distance from the enemy.
        Wild hunt continues. For three hours now, the superdreadnought has been sitting on our tail and is not far behind. Despite this, we are pleased to note that the distance between us, although slowly but gradually, is increasing.
        On the battle cruiser Geben Georg Kopp
    2. DimanC
      DimanC 14 July 2017 07: 29
      Well, so England and sought the entry of Turkey against Russia. Let us recall how the Edginkort battleship, being built for the Turkish fleet, was requisitioned in a very timely manner, and before that they carefully missed the Goeben and Breslau. Turkey is a project state, one of the main tasks of which was constant pressure on Russia, which resulted in a centuries-old series of wars.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 14 July 2017 08: 20
        Yeah, they designed it in the 13th century
      2. Two handed
        Two handed 14 July 2017 09: 00
        At the time of the emergence of the state, there was no Ottoman Russia; there were separate principalities that were under the political control of the Golden Horde, so you froze some rubbish.
  2. Molot1979
    Molot1979 14 July 2017 07: 52
    They did not capture the straits - and good. All the same, they would not have been given to Russia. And they were the only real purpose of the war for us.
  3. Barcid
    Barcid 14 July 2017 08: 22
    The Turks, this operation was the only achievement in the WWI, as I understand it.
    1. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 14 July 2017 10: 12
      Not the only one. The Turks still fought well with the British on the Mesopotamian front, at El Kut, for example, they repeatedly successfully repelled British attempts to unblock the city and, as a result, managed to capture it.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 14 July 2017 08: 32
    Russia remained isolated from the allies, which had very adverse consequences for it.
    ..Mda..the main goal of the Allies to help Russia, though almost without it, and in 1915 when RI had no straits at the front, there were problems ...
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 14 July 2017 15: 32
      So Russia did everything so that the operation would fail, for they wanted to take the straits as a whole, and if the British occupied the Dardanelles, it would be clear that they would not have left.
  5. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 14 July 2017 10: 08
    Article plus. An interesting overview of the fighting in the Dardanelles. The resilience of the Turks in these battles is really surprising, especially against the background of the devastating defeats that they suffered from the Russian Caucasian front. The author - my sincere gratitude for the work done!
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 14 July 2017 17: 25
      Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
      The stamina of the Turks in these battles is really surprising, especially against the background of the devastating defeats that they suffered from the Russian Caucasian Front

      The Turks in the Caucasus and the Dardanelles were the same, but their opponents were different. Therefore, the results are different.
      1. ukoft
        ukoft 14 July 2017 18: 01
        Turks froze in the Caucasus. with supplies and equipment there was a complete failure there. the bulk of the Turks went down due to illness. Yes, the generality was not the most talented, more bureaucrats and sneaks.
        700 year old empire banished from within death was near
        1. Karen
          Karen 15 July 2017 21: 12
          The empire was at the peak of its internal mobilization potential - Dönme Jews came to power with knowledge of the matter and their capabilities. Russian troops defeated the Turkish with German specialists thoroughly. Only the Bolshevik revolution changed the course of history.
          There is a book of the Venezuelan volunteer in their army - "Four years under the crescent" - I recommend for reading.
          Then Ataturk bequeathed - not to get involved in wars with an uncertain outcome.
      2. protoss
        protoss 16 July 2017 01: 43
        The Turks in the Caucasus and the Dardanelles were the same

        in the Dardanelles, mainly Turkish in composition, in the Caucasus - largely recruited from Kurds and Arabs, is still a secondary front.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 16 July 2017 08: 12
          Quote: protoss
          The Turks in the Caucasus and the Dardanelles were the same

          in the Dardanelles, mainly Turkish in composition, in the Caucasus - largely recruited from Kurds and Arabs, is still a secondary front.

          Dardanelles is 1 (one) year. The Caucasian Front is 4 years old. The Turks have not fought for three years?
        2. Karen
          Karen 16 July 2017 08: 26
          Nats..the composition of their army on the Caucasian front was the same. The victories of the Russians were simply overwhelming. I can remind you: the German fortress defense managers, with a clear conscience, went to their homes on Christmas day, and the Russian troops went on the assault instead of the holidays. There are motion pictures of those glorious Acts. And they used Kurds against our civilian population, and from the 18th, when the Russian army was already in Russia.
          The book I mentioned describes how the British, with equal numbers, surrendered to the Turks without a fight, in thousands. You can recall the battles for the defense of Baku in the 18th, when the Armenian units sent their guns to the English ships, forcing the soldiers in shorts to return to the battlefield. Still, drapanuli, after a few days.
          And the fact that Kemal then fought against the British so much was the merit of Lenin-Trotsky, and the frogmen who supplied him with weapons against his recent ally, so that the Turks would oppose Bolshevik Russia.
          1. protoss
            protoss 17 July 2017 01: 23
            Nats..the composition of their army on the Caucasian front was the same.

            well, I do not. we are talking about the First World War - the beginning of the 20th century, with logistics and transport, everything is not very good, so it was not very successful to drag recruits from one edge of the empire to another. hence the composition of the 3rd Turkish army — of 9 infantry and 4 horse divisions — 4 Kurdish and 2 Arab, just driven from Iraq and Yemen. and on the western front a set of the Turkish population, plus a certain number of Albanians.
            1. soldier
              soldier 17 July 2017 06: 47
              10 divisions from the Straits in the summer of 1916 were transferred to the Caucasus Front and were defeated there in the Ognot operation. These are the Dardanelles winners, and as I understand it, purebred Turks)
              1. protoss
                protoss 18 July 2017 00: 15
                by this time, the initiative had already passed over to the Russian army for a year and a half and the result of the Ognot operation was in fact the stabilization of the front, with a half times the losses the Turks repulsed only the Beatlis - it is rather a victory for the Russian army, albeit implicit (for example, with the same loss ratio not in our favor and without any territorial acquisitions in the battle of Borodino, we consider ourselves rather victors, well, at least we agree to a draw).
                1. soldier
                  soldier 18 July 2017 09: 56
                  I agree with this.
                  That's just it, having concentrated 2 armies on the Caucasus front instead of one (the 2nd of which from the divisions — the winners of the English-French), the Turks were able to stabilize the front only for a short time in the summer of 16. The command of the future Ataturk did not help either.
                  I think that if in the year 14 there were more ethnic Turks in the 3rd Army, this would not have fundamentally changed anything.
                  The Caucasian army has traditionally been a winner
                  1. protoss
                    protoss 18 July 2017 12: 40
                    Quote: soldier
                    I think that if in the year 14 there were more ethnic Turks in the 3rd Army, this would not have fundamentally changed anything.

                    maybe this is not a test.
                    but the “quality” of the Kurdish and Arab parts of the Ottoman army was noted by experts before the war, which the Kurds with the Arabs during the war proved.
                    in fact, my first post was about the fact that the Turks were the same in the Dardanelles and the Caucasus, I explained that this is not so.
                    the Turkish command was largely to blame for the initial failures, namely, the enver, who performed Suvorov in the Alps - sent the army through the mountains in frost and snow, which brought it into an unworkable state.
  6. soldier
    soldier 16 July 2017 13: 37
    And we can recall how in 16 year, the Turks, after winning the Dardannel operation, transferred 10 divisions from the Gallipoli winners to the Caucasus Front - veterans arrived from the Straits area, who had just defeated the Allies, with fighting experience and high fighting spirit.
    And besides the 3rd Army, the 2nd appeared on the Caucasian Front.
    But this did not help the Turks - the 2nd Army, the army of the victors in Gallipoli, was defeated by the Russian army - in the Ognot operation. The progressive command in the person of Mustafa Kemal did not help either
  7. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 24 July 2017 22: 30
    Otto Lyman von Sanders, otherwise it turns out as Vladimirovich Petrov